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Red Crossbill, percna subspecies

References Cited

Adkisson, C.S. 1996. Red Crossbill. In A. Poole and F. Gill (eds.), The Birds of North America, No. 256. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Benkman, C.W. 1989. On the evolution and ecology of island populations of crossbills. Evolution 43: 1324–1330.

Benkman, C.W. 1993a. Adaptation to single resources and the evolution of crossbill (Loxia) diversity. Ecological Monographs 63: 305–325.

Benkman, C.W. 1993b. Logging, conifers, and the conservation of crossbills. Conservation Biology 7: 473–479.

Benkman, C.W. 1993c. The evolution, ecology, and decline of the Red Crossbill of Newfoundland. American Birds 47: 225–229.

Bijlsma, R.G. 2004. Ornithology from the tree tops. Ardea 92: 1–2.

Burns, R.M. and B.K. Honkala (tech. coords.). 1990. Silvics of North America. Volume 1: Conifers; Volume 2: Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 877 pp.

COSEWIC. 2004. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Red Crossbill, percna subspecies, Loxia curvirostra percna in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. vii + 46 pp. Available at:


Courchamp, F., T. Clutton-Brock, and B. Grenfell. 1999. Inverse density dependence and the Allee effect. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 405–410.

Dickerman, R.W. 1987. The “Old Northeastern” subspecies of Red Crossbill. American Birds 41: 189–194.

Edelaar, P. and K. Terpstra. 2004. Is the nominate subspecies of the Common Crossbill Loxia c. curvirostra polytypic? I. Morphological differences among years at a single site. Ardea 92: 93–101.

Erskine, A.J. 1992. Atlas of breeding birds of the Maritime provinces. Nimbus Publishing Ltd. and the Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Fowells, H.A. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of North America. Agriculture Handbook No. 271. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 762 pp.

Godfrey, W.E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Rev. ed. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario.

Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. 2003. Provincial sustainable forest management strategy. 77 pp. + appendices.

Groth, J.G. 1993. Evolutionary differentiation in morphology, vocalizations, and allozymes among nomadic sibling species in the North American Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) complex. University of California Publications in Zoology 127: 1–143.

Helle, P. 1985. Effects of forest fragmentation on bird densities in northern boreal forests. Ornis Fennica 62: 35-41

Marquiss, M. and R. Rae. 1994. Seasonal trends in abundance, diet and breeding of Common Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) in an area of mixed species conifer plantation following the 1990 crossbill “irruption.” Forestry 67: 32–45.

Marquiss, M. and R. Rae. 2002. Ecological differentiation in relation to bill size amongst sympatric, genetically undifferentiated crossbills Loxia spp. Ibis 144: 494–508.

Parchman, T.L. and C.W. Benkman. 2002. Diversifying coevolution between crossbills and black spruce on Newfoundland. Evolution 56: 1663–1672.

Payne, R.B. 1972. Nuts, bones, and a nesting of Red Crossbills in the Panamint Mountains, California. Condor 74: 485–486.

Peters, H.S. and T.D. Burleigh. 1951. The birds of Newfoundland. Newfoundland Department of Natural Resources, St. John’s, Newfoundland.

Smith, J.W., C.W. Benkman, and K. Coffey. 1999. The use and misuse of public information by foraging Red Crossbills. Behavioral Ecology 10: 54–62.

Summers, R.W. and R. Proctor. 1999. Tree and cone selection by crossbills Loxia sp. and Red Squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) at Abernethy forest Strathspey. For. Ecol. Manage. 118: 173-182

Summers, R.W., D.C. Jardine, M. Marquiss, and R. Rae. 2002. The distribution and habitats of crossbills Loxia spp. in Britain, with special reference to the Scottish Crossbill Loxia scotica. Ibis 144: 393 - 410

Thompson, I.D., H.A. Hogan, and W.A. Montevecchi. 1999. Avian communities of mature Balsam Fir forests in Newfoundland: age-dependence and implications for timber harvesting. Condor 101: 311 - 323

Thompson, I.D., D.J. Larson, and W.A. Montevecchi. 2003. Characterization of old “wet boreal” forests, with an example from balsam fir forests of western Newfoundland. Environmental Reviews 11: S23 – S46

Todd, W.E.C. 1963. Birds of the Labrador peninsula and adjacent areas. Carnegie Museum and the University of Toronto Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Wren, L.S. 2001. Continental and regional distribution and abundance patterns of boreal cardueline finches: Influences of conifer seed availability. M.Sc. thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador.