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COSEWIC Assessment and Update Status Report on the American Ginseng in Canada


We would like to thank Don Cuddy, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Kemptville, Daniel Gagnon, Université du Québec à Montréal, and George Argus, Burritts Rapids, for their generous help and support. The Natural Heritage Information Centre, Peterborough, provided access to ginseng records. Guy Jolicoeur, Centre de données du patrimoine naturel du Québec, provided us with the occurrences list of ginseng in Quebec. Thanks to Léopold Gaudreau and Line Couillard from the Direction de la conservation et du patrimoine écologique du ministère de l’Environnement et de la Faune du Québec. Their continuous financial support since 1994 allowed major advances in our knowledge, leading to concrete protection of ginseng in Quebec.

Literature Cited

Charron, D. 1989. La dynamique des populations de ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) dans le sud du Québec. M.Sc. Thesis, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal. 110 pp.

Charron, D. and D. Gagnon. 1991. The demography of northern populations of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng). Journal of Ecology 79: 431-445.

Clark, H. and J. Kort. 1996. Ginseng update. Saskatchewan Irrigation Development Centre, Market News 4(2): 1-9.

Coote, L. 1998. Ginseng Conservation Issues, meeting held by the WWF, September, 14th, Toronto.

Gagnon, D. and D. Charron. 1987. Report on the status of Panax quinquefolium in Quebec. Unpublished report prepared for World Wildlife Fund, Canada. 8 pp. + Appendices.

Lewis, W.H. and V.E. Zenger.  1982.  Population dynamics of the American ginseng Panax quinquefolium (Araliaceae).  American Journal of Botany 69: 1483-1490.

Menges, E. 1992. Stochastic modeling of extinction in plant populations. In Conservation biology: the theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation and management, ed. P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain, p. 253-275. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Nantel, P., D. Gagnon and A. Nault. 1996. Population viability analysis of American ginseng and wild leek harvested in stochastic environments. Conservation Biology 10: 608-620.

Nault, A. 1998. La culture du ginseng au Québec : une menace pour les populations indigènes? Naturaliste canadien été 1998: 8-12.

Nault, A. 1997. La situation du ginseng à cinq folioles (Panax quinquefolius L.) au Québec. Gouvernement du Québec, ministère de l’Environnement et de la Faune, Direction de la conservation et du patrimoine écologique, Québec. 43 pp.

Nault, A., D. Gagnon, D. White, and G. Argus. 1998. Conservation of ginseng in Ontario. Report 1997/1998. Ministry of Natural Resources, Science and Technology - East Science Unit. Unpublished report. 89 pp.

Nault, A., S. Laliberté and C. Leclerc-Potvin. 1997. Conservation et restauration de l’ail des bois et du ginseng - Final report. Gouvernement du Québec, ministère de l’Environnement et de la Faune, Direction de la recherche, Québec. Unpublished report. 79 pp.

Robbins, C. S. 1998. American ginseng: the root of North America’s medicinal herb trade. TRAFFIC North America, Washington, U.S.A. 94 pp.

Sutter, R. D. 1982. The ginseng monitoring program in North Carolina. In Proceedings of the 4th national ginseng conference, p. 117-122, Lexington, Kentucky.

White, D. J. 1988. Ecological study and status report on American Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L.  A threatened species in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa. Unpublished report. 170 pp.

White, D.J.  1988.  COSEWIC status report on American ginseng Panax quinquefolium in Canada.  Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.  Ottawa.  170 p.

Wilkins, H. 1998. A report on the harvest and availability of Ontario wild ginseng. WWF, Toronto. Unpublished report. 13 pp.

The Authors

Andrée Nault holds a B.Sc. and a M.Sc. in Biology (Univ. du Québec à Montréal). She pursued her studies on demography and reproductive strategies of Allium in Japan, and obtained her Ph.D. in Botany from Kyoto University in 1991. She conducted a post- doctoral study on the reproductive ecophysiology and genetics of clonal plants (McGill Univ.). Since May 1994, A. Nault is a research associate at the Montreal Biodome. She is leading the project for the conservation and restoration of American ginseng and Wild leek in Quebec. She is collaborating in other projects on endangered species: Somatic embryogenesis of Panax quinquefolius (S. Laliberté, UQAM and A. Olivier, Laval Univ.); Recovery of green dragon in Quebec (D. Gagnon, UQAM).

David J. White has a B.Sc. in biology and has been conducting natural area inventories and evaluating the status and significance of rare plants for more than 25 years. He began doing field surveys in 1972 for the International Biological Program. From 1973 to 1983, David was employed by the Canadian Museum of Nature as a research technician. During that period he co-authored a number of publications on rare plants, including the Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario. From 1984 to the present, David has worked as a self-employed life science consultant. He has completed projects ranging from natural area inventories and evaluations to reports on invasive species. David has previously written COSEWIC status reports on three species and authored or co-authored Update status reports on ten other species.


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