Non-living factors in the environment (e.g. water, air, rocks).
The reduced likelihood of finding a mate when population numbers are low.
Caused or produced by humans.
The process by which (toxic) substances from prey and the environment crease over time in concentration in living organisms.
Living components of the environment (e.g. fish, plankton).
Toxin produced by a living organism.
A body of information and behavioural traits that are transmitted within and between generations by social learning.
A unit for measuring the relative intensity of a sound. In this document the sources of sounds are consistently referenced to 1 µPa at 1 m. The sounds that marine mammals hear (received level) depend on their distance from the source of the sound.
When a decline in population numbers leads to reduced survival (due to increased mortality) or reduced reproduction (due to the Allee effect).
A population that is genetically different from other populations of the same species.
A substance that dissolves more easily in lipids (fats) than water. Chemicals that are lipophilic tend to bioaccumulate.
Comprises all surviving members of a female lineage. A typical matriline comprises an adult female, her offspring, and the offspring of her daughters.
Part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea and thymus.
Toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises.
Fungal infection that affects the whole body.
µPa (micro Pascal):
A unit of acoustic pressure.
Closely related populations or ecotypes that overlap in their range but do not interbreed.
Persistent aromatic hydrocarbons
Dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
Persistent organic pollutants