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COSEWIC Annual Report 2004

Appendix VII

 

COSEWIC Status Assessments (November 2003 and May 2004).

Results are grouped by taxon and then by status category. A reason for designation is given for each species. A short history of status designations follows. The range of occurrence in Canada for each species (by province, territory or ocean) is provided.

 

Mammals

Beluga WhaleDelphinapterus leucasEndangered
Eastern Hudson Bay population 
Assessment Criteria   A2d; C1; E 
Reason for Designation  
The population was reduced by at least 50% and continues to decline. Overhunting continues throughout its summer and migratory range. Mathematical models predict that it will likely disappear under present hunting levels in less than 10 to 15 years. Concerns have been expressed about habitat degradation of estuaries by hydroelectric projects, and by small vessel traffic disturbance.
Occurrence   NU QC Arctic Ocean Atlantic Ocean 
Status History  
Designated Threatened in April 1988. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Beluga WhaleDelphinapterus leucasEndangered
Ungava Bay population 
Assessment Criteria   A2a; D1 
Reason for Designation  
All signs indicate that the population residing in Ungava Bay is very low and may be extirpated. However, it is difficult to definitively conclude that they have been extirpated because beluga from other populations may visit Ungava Bay. Hunting caused the population decline and continues in Ungava Bay, posing a threat to any remaining beluga.
Occurrence   QC Arctic Ocean Atlantic Ocean 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in April 1988. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Peary CaribouRangifer tarandus pearyiEndangered
Assessment Criteria   A2a 
Reason for Designation  
This caribou is a Canadian endemic subspecies. Numbers have declined by about 72% over the last three generations, mostly because of catastrophic die-off likely related to severe icing episodes. The ice covers the vegetation and caribou starve. Voluntary restrictions on hunting by local people are in place, but have not stopped population declines. Because of the continuing decline and expected changes in long-term weather patterns, this subspecies is at imminent risk of extinction.
Occurrence   NT NU  
Status History  
The original designation considered a single unit that included Peary Caribou, Rangifer tarandus pearyi, and what is now known as the Dolphin and Union population of the Barren-ground Caribou, Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus. It was assigned a status of Threatened in April 1979. Split to allow designation of three separate populations in 1991: Banks Island (Endangered), High Arctic (Endangered) and Low Arctic (Threatened) populations. In May 2004 all three population designations were de-activated, and the Peary Caribou, Rangifer tarandus pearyi, was assessed separately from the Barren-ground Caribou (Dolphin and Union population),  Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus. The subspecies pearyi is comprised of a portion of the former "Low Arctic population", and all of the former "High Arctic" and "Banks Island" populations, and it was designated Endangered in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Beluga WhaleDelphinapterus leucasThreatened
St. Lawrence Estuary population 
Assessment Criteria   D1 
Reason for Designation  
The population was severely reduced by hunting, which continued until 1979. High contaminant loads may have also contributed to the population decline. Aerial surveys since 1973 suggest that the decline has ceased, but do not provide clear evidence of a significant increase in numbers. Levels of many contaminants remain high in beluga tissues. The whales and their habitat are threatened by contaminants, vessel traffic, and industrialization of the St. Lawrence watershed.
Occurrence   QC Atlantic Ocean 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in April 1983. Status re-examined and confirmed in April 1997. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Beluga WhaleDelphinapterus leucasThreatened
Cumberland Sound population 
Assessment Criteria   D1 
Reason for Designation  
Numbers of belugas using Cumberland Sound have declined by about 1500 individuals between the 1920s and present. The population decline is believed to have been caused by hunting by the Hudson Bay Company into the 1940s and by the Inuit until 1979. Hunting has been regulated since the 1980s. Current quotas (41 in 2003) appear to be sustainable. Concerns have been raised about increased small vessel traffic and the associated noise of outboard motors, as well as fishery removals of Greenland halibut, a food of belugas.
OccurrenceNU Arctic Ocean 
Status History  
The Southeast Baffin Island-Cumberland Sound population was designated Endangered in April 1990. In May 2004, the structure of the population was redefined and named "Cumberland Sound population", and the Southeast Baffin Island animals were included as part of the Western Hudson Bay population. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Plains BisonBison bison bisonThreatened
Assessment Criteria   D1+2 
Reason for Designation  
There are currently about 700 mature bison of this subspecies in three free-ranging herds and about 250 semi-captive mature bison in Elk Island National Park. The largest free-ranging herd, in the Pink Mountain area of BC, is outside the historical range of this subspecies. The population in Prince Albert National Park is increasing by about 10% a year. The greatest problem facing these bison in Canada is the lack of habitat, due to conversion to agriculture and urbanization. Additional threats include domestic cattle disease and the risk of genetic pollution from escaped ranched bison, including some that may carry cattle genes. The total number of free-ranging and semi-captive mature bison of this subspecies is just under 1000, and there are fewer than 5 populations.
Occurrence   BC AB SK MB 
Status History  
Designated Threatened in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Barren-ground CaribouRangifer tarandus groenlandicusSpecial Concern
Dolphin and Union population 
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
This population of caribou is endemic to Canada. Once thought to be extinct, numbers have recovered to perhaps a quarter of the population historic size. They have not been censused since 1997 and are subject to a high rate of harvest, whose sustainability is questioned by some. They migrate between the mainland and Victoria Island and climate warming or increased shipping may make the ice crossing more dangerous. The population, however, increased substantially over the last three generations and was estimated at about 28000 in 1997.
Occurrence NT NU 
Status History  
The original designation considered a single unit that included Peary Caribou, Rangifer tarandus pearyi, and what is now known as the Dolphin and Union population of the Barren-ground Caribou, Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus. It was assigned a status of Threatened in April 1979. Split to allow designation of three separate populations in 1991: Banks Island (Endangered), High Arctic (Endangered) and Low Arctic (Threatened) populations. In May 2004 all three population designations were de-activated, and the Peary Caribou, Rangifer tarandus pearyi, was assessed separately from the Barren-ground Caribou (Dolphin and Union population), Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus. The Dolphin and Union population is comprised of a portion of the former "Low Arctic population", and it was designated Special Concern in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Beluga WhaleDelphinapterus leucasSpecial Concern
   Western Hudson Bay population 
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
The population appears to be relatively abundant, although it has not been surveyed for 15 years and may consist of more than one population. The population is subject to substantial removals by hunting in parts of its range, and is potentially threatened by shipping and hydroelectric dams.
Occurrence MB NU ON Arctic Ocean Atlantic Ocean
Status History  
Designated Not at Risk in April 1993. The population was redefined in May 2004 to include those Southeast Baffin Island animals outside Cumberland Sound, previously considered part of the "Southeast Baffin Island-Cumberland Sound population" which is now called "Cumberland Sound population". Status re-examined and designated Special Concern in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Beluga WhaleDelphinapterus leucasSpecial Concern
Eastern High Arctic - Baffin Bay population 
Assessment Criteria Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
The population overwinters in Baffin Bay and west Greenland and may consist of two distinct populations. It is heavily hunted in west Greenland. However, most of the population winters in Baffin Bay and the high Arctic where it is not hunted. Hunting pressure in Canadian waters is low in summer.
Occurrence NU Arctic Ocean 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1992. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Grey WhaleEschrichtius robustusSpecial Concern
Eastern North Pacific population 
   Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
Grey whales migrate each year from their winter calving grounds in Mexico to their summer feeding areas in northern Alaska, Russia and Canada. Most of the population passes along the BC coastline, and some individuals repeatedly spend the entire summer feeding in BC (about 80). The population increased by 2.5% per year following the cessation of whaling, and peaked, within the range of pre-exploitation estimates, at about 27,000 animals in 1998. The extent of recovery of the summer resident group is unknown. However, over one-third of the population died from 1998 to 2002 (possibly due to a lack of food in Alaska). Birth rates, survival rates and other indicators suggest that the decline has ceased and that the population is stable or increasing since 2002. The whales are susceptible to human activities in their 4 breeding lagoons in Mexico, as well as to entanglement in fishing gear and collisions with boats throughout their range. Underwater noise associated with proposed oil development in BC could alter migration patterns. The small group of summer-resident whales could also be threatened by subsistence whaling in the USA.
OccurrencePacific Ocean Arctic Ocean 
Status History  
Designated Not at Risk in April 1987. Status re-examined and designated Special Concern in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Harbour PorpoisePhocoena phocoenaSpecial Concern
   Pacific Ocean population 
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
They appear to be particularly sensitive to human activities, and are prone to becoming entrapped and killed in fishing nets. They are a short lived shy species that are now rarely seen at the highly developed areas of Victoria and Haro Strait. Continued development and use of its prime habitat by humans are some of the main threats. They are displaced by underwater noise, and could be affected by contaminants in their food chain.
Occurrence Pacific Ocean 
Status History  
Species considered in April 1991 and placed in the Data Deficient category. Re-examined in November 2003 and designated Special Concern. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Spotted BatEuderma maculatumSpecial Concern
Assessment Criteria   The estimated Canadian population (< 1000 adults) met criterion for Threatened D1, but it was designated Special Concern because there is a possibility of rescue effect from neighbouring populations in the United States. Foraging and roosting habitats appear to be secure in Canada.
Reason for Designation  
In Canada, this species occurs in the intermontane grasslands and ponderosa pine woodlands of southern British Columbia. It is a distinctively coloured bat that is unmistakable to identify. Unlike any other Canadian species of bat, its echolocation calls are within the range of human hearing. It roosts in crevices in large cliff faces. It is considered the easiest to count and best censused species of bat in Canada. Population estimates, based on relatively good census effort, suggests that there are fewer than 1000 adults. At this time, numbers appear to be stable, and there are relatively few threats to populations or habitats. Perhaps the biggest threat to this species is its small population size. Use of pesticides on its insect prey, loss of foraging habitat, and disturbance at roosting sites by rock climbers are potential threats. Rescue may be possible from neighbouring populations in the United States, however, movements of individuals between Canadian and US populations are not documented.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1988. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
StellerSeaLionEumetopias jubatusSpecial Concern
Assessment Criteria   Met criteria for Threatened, D2, but was designated Special Concern because the population is increasing and there is a possible rescue effect.
Reason for Designation  
There are only three breeding locations in British Columbia. Although the population is increasing, they are sensitive to human disturbance while on land. Threats include the possibility of acute oil spills. There are unexplained declines in other populations to the north and west of British Columbia.
OccurrenceBC Pacific Ocean 
Status History  
Designated Not at Risk in April 1987. Status re-examined and designated Special Concern in November 2003. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Beluga WhaleDelphinapterus leucasNot at Risk
   Eastern Beaufort Sea population 
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation 
This population is currently large and hunted at sustainable levels under an international agreement.
OccurrenceNT Arctic Ocean 
Status History  
Designated Not at Risk in April 1985 and in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Fringed BatMyotis thysanodesData Deficient
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
This species is rarely reported in its Canadian range. There are, however, a few sites in the Okanagan Valley where they regularly can be captured during the summer. There is a lack of data about the extent of its Canadian range and the habitat that is important for foraging and roosting. We also do not know the population size or trends, nor any key demographic characteristics, such as population structure, reproduction or survival rates. It is not known if this species overwinters in Canada or migrates south for the winter; however, there are maternity colonies recorded in Canada.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1988. Species considered in May 2004 and moved to the Data Deficient category. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Keen's Long-eared BatMyotis keeniiData Deficient
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
The situation for this species is generally similar to that for any species of bats that occur in Canada. There are no data about populations sizes, populations trends, patterns of reproduction (it is not known if females bear young annually; age at sexual maturity is unknown), and there are only scattered records documenting occurrence and patterns of distribution. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about patterns of habitat use (roosting, foraging) or data about migration. Uncertainty about the taxonomic status of this species further complicates the matter. It is unknown if it is a distinct taxon. It is unknown if this is a distinct population.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1988. Species considered in November 2003 and moved to the Data Deficient category. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 

Birds

 
Horned Lark strigata subspeciesEremophila alpestris strigataEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); D1
Reason for Designation  
Although this species has always been rare in Canada, it has declined steadily throughout its range over the last 50 years and is now nearly extirpated from Canada.
OccurrenceBC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Northern BobwhiteColinus virginianusEndangered
Assessment Criteria   A2b; C1+2a(i) 
Reason for Designation  
This species depends on native prairie and old meadow habitats that have largely disappeared from its southern Ontario range. Its population has declined drastically over the last 30 years and shows no sign of significant recovery. There is perhaps only one viable population in Canada, on Walpole Island, Ontario. The status of this species is complicated by the presence of many introduced populations which typically do not persist and whose genetic composition may pose a threat to native populations.
OccurrenceON 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in April 1994. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2003. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Red Crossbill percna subspeciesLoxia curvirostra percnaEndangered
Assessment Criteria   C1 
Reason for Designation  
The percna subspecies of the red crossbill is considered a distinctive taxonomic group, with breeding likely restricted to the island of Newfoundland. Various population estimates suggest that it is has declined markedly and steadily over the last 50 years, along with declines in the extent and quality of its habitat. A few records of the percna subspecies exist for Nova Scotia and other locations, but there is not enough information to determine its status there.
OccurrenceNL 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Loggerhead ShrikeLanius ludovicianus excubitoridesThreatened
excubitorides subspecies  
Assessment Criteria   A2bc 
Reason for Designation  
This raptorial songbird has suffered significant (more than 80 %) population declines over the past 35 years. These declines have been linked to loss of native prairie and pastureland habitats and pesticide residues.
Occurrence AB SK MB 
Status History  
The species was considered a single unit and designated Threatened in April 1986. Split according to subspecies in April 1991. The excubitorides subspecies retained the original Threatened designation from April 1986. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Pink-footed ShearwaterPuffinus creatopusThreatened
Assessment Criteria   D2 
Reason for Designation  
This seabird breeds on only three islands off the coast of Chile, where it has suffered significant but unmeasured declines due to nest predation by introduced predators, exploitation by humans and habitat degradation. It likely incurs mortality due to incidental take by fisheries off the coast of British Columbia during the non-breeding season and would be sensitive to any offshore oil spills there.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Threatened in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Short-tailed AlbatrossPhoebastria albatrusThreatened
Assessment Criteria   D1+2 
Reason for Designation  
This species was once an abundant seabird along the coast of British Columbia but its numbers declined to near extinction in early 20th Century. Numbers are now slowly increasing. Albatross populations in general are very sensitive to incidental catch by commercial fisheries and oil spills: while these impacts have not been documented for this species in Canadian waters, they pose a significant potential threat.
OccurrenceBC 
Status History  
Designated Threatened in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 

Reptiles

 
Prairie SkinkEumeces septentrionalisEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) 
Reason for Designation  
This lizard is confined to a small region (less than 1700 km2) in Manitoba. It requires sandy soils and mixed grass prairie. Prairie habitat is being fragmented and lost to cultivation, Aspen succession and invasion by exotic leafy spurge. The Manitoba population is isolated from the rest of the species in the USA by over 100 km.
Occurrence MB 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1989. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Spotted TurtleClemmys guttataEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1+2a(i) 
Reason for Designation  
This species occurs at low density, has an unusually low reproductive potential, combined with a long-lived life history, and occurs in small numbers in bogs and marshes that are fragmented and disappearing. Although some populations are in protected areas, they may have a low probability of persistence, especially because small numbers and isolation reduce population viability. The low frequency of juveniles in most studied populations suggests these populations are composed largely of remnant, aged cohorts with low reproductive success. Another clear threat is from collection for the pet trade. There is no rescue effect.
OccurrenceON QC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1991. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Western RattlesnakeCrotalus oreganosThreatened
Assessment Criteria   Met criteria for Endangered, B2ab(i,ii,iii,v), but designated as Threatened,  B2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C1+2a(i); D2, because the population is still widespread  although sparse.
Reason for Designation  
This species is threatened by rapid expansion of human activities including urbanization, agriculture, forestry and range management in south-central dry valleys of British Columbia. This snake is particularly vulnerable to roads both from direct mortality and from habitat fragmentation. Rattlesnakes are subject to direct persecution and to destruction of critical habitat (hibernacula). The adult rattlesnake population is small, likely fewer than 5,000, and dispersed among only four valleys, probably with little interchange of snakes between valleys. Threats to the species are increased in effect because this snake has late maturity (~8 years), small litters and only breeds about once every 3-4 years.
Occurrence  BC 
Status History  
Designated Threatened in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 

Amphibians

 
Small-mouthed SalamanderAmbystoma texanumEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ab(ii,iii,iv)+2ab(ii,iii,iv) 
Reason for Designation  
This salamander is restricted solely to Pelee Island in Canada. The extent of occurrence is only 40 Km2 (effectively the total area of Pelee Island). It occupies only three extant breeding sites and surrounding remnant forested habitat with total area of occupancy equalling not more than 5 Km2. It has exhibited declines in area, extent and quality of habitat, and in the number of locations on the island where it may be found. Threats to its continued existence include loss of wetland breeding sites and modified drainage patterns.
Occurrence   ON 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1991. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 

Fishes

 
Porbeagle SharkLamna nasusEndangered
Assessment Criteria   A2bd 
Reason for Designation  
This wide-ranging oceanic shark is the only representative of its genus in the North Atlantic. The abundance has declined greatly since Canada entered the fishery in the 1990s after an earlier collapse and partial recovery. Fishery quotas have been greatly reduced, and the fishery has been closed in some areas where mature sharks occur. The landings now are comprised mostly of juveniles. Its life history characteristics, including late maturity and low fecundity, render this species particularly vulnerable to overexploitation.
OccurrenceAtlantic Ocean 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
White SturgeonAcipenser transmontanusEndangered
Assessment Criteria   A2cde +4bcde 
Reason for Designation  
A long-lived species with a 30-40 year generation time and late maturity, that has suffered over a 50% decline in the last three generations. Three of six populations are in imminent threat of extirpation. Extant populations are subject to threats of habitat degradation and loss through dams, impoundments, channelization, dyking and pollution. Illegal fishing (poaching) and incidental catches are also limiting. In addition, a developing commercial aquaculture industry may also impose additional genetic, health and ecological risks to wild populations.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1990. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in November 2003. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Bigmouth ShinerNotropis dorsalisNot at Risk
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
There are no demonstrable or potential threats and the species is not particularly sensitive to habitat disturbances. It has been found in five new locations since 1985. It may also be present in unsurveyed areas of suitable habitat in western Manitoba and possibly eastern Saskatchewan.
Occurrence MB 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1985. Status re-examined and designated Not at Risk in November 2003. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Fourhorn SculpinMyoxocephalus quadricornisData Deficient
Freshwater form  
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
There is a lack of necessary data to evaluate the status of this species, combined with uncertainty regarding taxonomic status.
OccurrenceNL NT NU 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1989. Species considered in November 2003 and moved to the Data Deficient category. Last assessment based on an update status report.
   

Arthropods

  
 
Sand-verbena MothCopablepharon fuscumEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) 
Reason for Designation  
The global population of this moth is very small and occurs in a very restricted range. The Canadian population, occurring at only three small sites, is even smaller and more restricted. The moth and its hostplant are habitat specialists dependent on coastal dunes, a rare habitat along the West Coast. This habitat has undergone extensive losses to stabilization of open dunes (including the introduction of invasive plant species), development, and recreational use. The hostplant and therefore the moth are facing the threat of continuing declines due to the loss and degradation of coastal dunes.
OccurrenceBC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Dakota SkipperHesperia dacotaeThreatened
Assessment Criteria   Met criteria for Endangered, B2ab(iii), but was designated Threatened,  because it is not at imminent risk of extirpation.
Reason for Designation  
This butterfly is dependent on native tall-grass and mixed-grass prairie, a habitat that has suffered enormous historic losses, and the butterfly's populations have likely undergone similar declines. Current remnants of native prairie are generally not highly threatened as they are mostly unsuitable for agriculture but some habitat loss and fragmentation continue. The butterfly is very sensitive to conversion of prairie remnants to cropland, spring and summer haying, heavy grazing, controlled burns and increased pressures to drain natural sites. Although the current population of this butterfly numbers 28,500 - 40,500 individuals, these occur in only three or four disjunct populations. The long-term persistence of the butterfly is dependent on appropriate management of its habitat, most of which is privately owned.
OccurrenceMB SK 
Status History  
Designated Threatened in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Poweshiek SkipperlingOarisma poweshiekThreatened
Assessment Criteria   D2 
Reason for Designation  
This species occurs in Canada in a very small restricted area at 15 locations in a single metapopulation which is an isolated disjunct, with the closest population in the United Stated being about 100 km to the south. In Canada, the species is dependent on native tall-grass prairie, a habitat that has suffered enormous losses in the past, and its populations have likely undergone similar declines. Although remnant prairie habitat that supports the butterfly is unsuitable for agriculture and most of it is protected in a prairie reserve, past fire management to maintain prairie vegetation has been detrimental to the butterfly. Most of the occupied habitat is protected, but even with appropriate management, its range is so small that the butterfly is vulnerable to catastrophe.
OccurrenceMB 
Status History  
Designated Threatened in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 

Molluscs

 
Round PigtoePleurobema sintoxiaEndangered
Assessment Criteria   A2ace; B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv) 
Reason for Designation  
Species limited to a small area of occupancy in the Lake St.Clair and three watersheds in southern Ontario with continuing declines in habitat area, extent and quality. Threats include urban, industrial and agricultural development and irreversible impacts from zebra mussels in Lake St. Clair, with potential threats from introduction of zebra mussels in impoundments in the Sydenham River.
Occurrence ON 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Rocky Mountain Ridged MusselGonidea angulataSpecial Concern
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
The distribution of this species is limited to southern British Columbia in the Okanagan and Kootenay River systems. This species has likely been impacted by the damming of the Kootenay, Columbia and Okanagan Rivers and the channelization of the Okanagan River and resulted in loss or alteration of the mussel's habitat quality and extent.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Yellow LampmusselLampsilis cariosaSpecial Concern
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
Populations quite large and apparently stable in Canada but found only in Sydney River, Nova Scotia and Saint John River watershed, New Brunswick. Threats are currently very limited but there are long-term concerns related to the potential for introduction of Zebra mussels into the Saint John River, and maintaining habitat quality of the sole population in the Sydney River.
OccurrenceNB NS 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Spike-lip CraterAppalachina sayanaNot at Risk
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
This species is common and widespread in Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, although apparently declining in Nova Scotia. Three records exist for Nova Scotia and it may be rare there; however there is not enough information to confirm its status.
OccurrenceNB NS ON QC 
Status History  
Designated Not at Risk in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Evening FieldslugDeroceras hesperiumData Deficient
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
The species was last found at a single site in Comox, British Columbia in 1887 but the site has not been sampled since. Identification is difficult and is based on internal anatomy, hence requiring killing and dissection. Very recent studies suggest that taxonomy and eligibility of the species need to be re-examined.
OccurrenceBC 
Status History  
Species considered in November 2003 and placed in the Data Deficient category. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Squat DuskysnailLyogyrus granumData Deficient
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
This species has been reported from 2 sites in New Brunswick and 11 in Nova Scotia, however, some surveys have been conducted and available information is insufficient to determine the current distribution and abundance of the species in either province.
OccurrenceNB NS 
Status History  
Species considered in November 2003 and placed in the Data Deficient category. Assessment based on a new status report.
 

Vascular Plants

 
 
Bog Bird's-foot TrefoilLotus pinnatusEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); C1 
Reason for Designation  
Few small fragmented populations that are geographically restricted and found within wetland meadows of limited occurrence and considerably disjunct from the main range of the species in the Northwestern United States. Populations are at risk from continued habitat loss and encroachment of invasive species and from recreational off-road vehicular activities with the likelihood of significant losses due to planned commercial development of habitat supporting the only sizeable remaining population.
OccurrenceBC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
ButternutJuglans cinereaEndangered
Assessment Criteria   A3e+4e 
Reason for Designation  
A widespread tree found as single trees or small groups in deciduous and mixed forests of southern Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Butternut canker, which has caused high rates of infection and mortality in the United States, has been detected in all three provinces. High rates of infection and mortality have been observed in parts of Ontario and are predicted for the rest of the Canadian population.
Occurrence NB ON QC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Dwarf SandwortMinuartia pusillaEndangered
Assessment Criteria   D1 
Reason for Designation  
   
An annual ephemeral herb present at a single very small vernal seepage site along a rocky maritime headland in southern Vancouver Island highly disjunct from the nearest populations in southern Washington State. The maximum population size documented totals 20 plants with numbers likely fluctuating depending on precipitation patterns. Risks to the plants arise from the susceptibility of the single small population to stochastic events and on-going disturbance of the habitat by gulls, trampling by boaters and potentially from encroaching invasive plants.
Occurrence   BC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Dwarf Woolly-headsPsilocarphus brevissimusEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ac(iv)+2ac(iv) 
Reason for Designation  
An annual herb present at only three sites at the northern edge of its range within very small vernal pool habitats of restricted occurrence. It is subject to extreme population fluctuations as a result of seasonal variance in precipitation. The species occurs on private lands potentially subject to human disturbances from ATV recreational use, roadside weed control and other forms of land use allowed on Agricultural Land Reserve properties.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Pink Sand-verbenaAbronia umbellateEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii); C2a(i,ii); D1 
Reason for Designation  
An herb of maritime beach habitats last seen at a single site along the west coast of Vancouver Island with losses of two historic populations. The site of the last documented population is greatly disjunct from other small populations in Oregon. The species is found, characteristically, in low numbers and tends to persist in the seed-bed of its beach and foredune habitats, sporadically producing flowering plants. The species was last recorded in 2001 with only several plants present. It is assumed that the species may still persist as dormant seeds and may produce reproductive plants at some future date. The expansion of exotic beach grasses has reduced the quality and availability of its upper beach and foredune habitats at a number of sites within its historic range.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Rosy Owl-cloverOrthocarpus bracteosusEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii); C2a(i,ii); D1 
Reason for Designation  
An annual herb of vernal pools and damp depressions present at a single remaining location where population size fluctuates widely with low numbers that may be fewer than 100 plants a year. Expansion is limited due to lack of suitable habitats and apparent low dispersal abilities. The population is at risk from spread of nearby invasive exotic plants, from trampling due to hiker traffic and local maintenance activities related to the nearby communications site and consequences of possible oil spills occurring in the busy shipping lanes surrounding the island site.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Slender CollomiaCollomia tenellaEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ac(iv)+2ac(iv); D1 
Reason for Designation  
An annual herb present at a single sandy site near Princeton, British Columbia. The population fluctuates widely from year to year. At risk to stochastic events, roadside development, sand removal, and invasion by alien species.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Small-flowered TonellaTonella tenellaEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii); C2a(i,ii) 
Reason for Designation  
A small annual herb known from a single site in the Gulf Islands, British Columbia. At risk to potential development, alien species and fire management.
OccurrenceBC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Stoloniferous PussytoesAntennaria flagellarisEndangered
Assessment Criteria   B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v) 
Reason for Designation  
A short-lived perennial plant present at only three geographically restricted localities occupying very small areas of specialized habitat of ephemerally moist seepage sites on private lands. It is at greatest risk from ATV use that currently is evident in close proximity to the populations. It may also be impacted by changes in ground water hydrology and surface impacts from increased development activities in the area such as the proposed production of coalbed methane.
Occurrence  BC 
Status History  
Designated Endangered in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Branched BartoniaBartonia paniculata ssp. PaniculataThreatened
Assessment Criteria   Met criteria for Endangered, B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii), but was designated as  Threatened, B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii); C2a(i), because it is not at imminent risk of extirpation.
Reason for Designation  
A cryptic wetland annual species of Atlantic Coastal Plain affinity, highly restricted both geographically and ecologically and present at only six of seven documented sites. Ontario populations are disjunct by about 600 km from the main range of the species with little potential for a rescue effect. The greatest potential risk is from the invasive shrub, glossy buckthorn, at two localities.
Occurrence ON 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1992. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in November 2003. Last assessment based on an update status report
 
Dwarf HackberryCeltis tenuifoliaThreatened
Assessment Criteria     
Met criteria for Endangered, B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v), but was designated  Threatened, B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i); D1+2, because it is not at imminent risk of extirpation.
Reason for Designation  
A shrub of dry sandy or calcareous alvar woodlands habitats found at only six disjunct and fragmented sites adjacent to the Great Lakes. Fewer than 1000 plants have been documented. Threats include potential loss of habitat due to quarrying operations and sand pit expansion in eastern Ontario sites and significant losses in some years due to beetle infestations.
OccurrenceON 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1985. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in November 2003. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Gulf of St. LawrenceAsterSymphyotrichum laurentiaThreatened
Assessment Criteria   D2 
Reason for Designation  
An annual halophyte of maritime littoral habitats endemic to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It is found at nearly 30 extant sites with some very large populations, especially on the Magdalen Islands, but has a very small total area of occupancy of much less than five square kilometres. Many of the populations are subject to natural fluctuations in size and at times suffer important losses due to severe storm events. On-going impacts also exist from human recreational activities and losses of habitat due to development activities.
OccurrenceQC NB PE 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1989. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report
 
Victorin's GentianGentianopsis procera ssp. macounii var. victoriniiThreatened
Assessment Criteria   D2 
Reason for Designation  
A geographically highly restricted and short-lived annual or biennial that is endemic to the freshwater or slightly brackish shoreline areas of the St. Lawrence River estuary in Quebec. It is present at 28 extant sites but in very small localized habitats where it is at risk from a wide range of impacts. These include habitat disruption by ATVs, shoreline in-filling, mowing of vegetation, picking of flowers and potentially from oil spills.
Occurrence QC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1987. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Eastern LilaeopsisLilaeopsis chinensisSpecial Concern
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
Small perennial herb reproducing both by seed and extensively by vegetative spread. It is geographically highly restricted and present in Canada at only three estuaries in Nova Scotia. The area of occupancy is very small but the population is large. No declines of significance have been documented over the last 15 years. It does not appear to have any imminent threats, however, future shoreline development or degradation could destroy extant populations.
Occurrence   NS 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1987 and in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
New Jersey RushJuncus caesariensisSpecial Concern
Assessment Criteria   Met criteria for Threatened, D2, but designated as Special Concern because there are about 25 extant occurrences and likely more to be found; the species is not likely to become highly endangered since there are limited risks and the species shows some adaptability to habitat disturbance.
Reason for Designation  
The species is a globally rare plant found along the periphery of 25 bogs and fens in a geographically restricted area of southeastern Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The Canadian population is estimated at 5000 -10,000 plants that comprise a large proportion of the global population. The Canadian plants are widely disjunct from sites along the U.S. Atlantic seaboard where the species is also quite rare. It is sensitive to activities that alter the hydrological regime of its habitat such as logging, road construction and in-filling.
OccurrenceNS 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1992. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Victorin's Water-hemlockCicuta maculata var. victoriniiSpecial Concern
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  
A geographically highly restricted perennial that is endemic to the freshwater or slightly brackish shoreline areas of the St. Lawrence River estuary in Quebec. It is present at about 33 localities but in very small localized habitats where it is at risk from a wide range of impacts. These impacts include: actual destruction of plants due to ATV traffic and human trampling, and mowing of shoreline vegetation; losses of suitable potential shoreline habitat also occurs through shoreline in-filling and development and potential loss of plants may occur due to confusion with the common variant of the species that is considered a noxious weed. Oil spills may also pose a potential risk.
Occurrence QC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in April 1987. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 

Mosses

 
Porsild's BryumMielichhoferia macrocarpaThreatened
Assessment Criteria   Met criteria for Endangered, C2a(i), but was designated Threatened, B2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i); D1+2, because the species is not at imminent risk of    extirpation.
Reason for Designation  
A rare moss with a severely fragmented distribution of 10 confirmed locations in Canada restricted to 5 general areas. The species grows in mainly mountainous areas on wet calcareous cliffs, presence of constant seepage and winter desiccation. Direct threats to populations include natural and human-caused events that destabilize the rock cliff habitat. There has been a recent a decline in habitat quality at the two most abundant locations and substantial loss of mature individual plants at one of these. Only one locality is protected. There is uncertainty in status of northern Canadian populations.
OccurrenceAB BC NL NU 
Status History  
Designated Threatened in November 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Columbian Carpet MossBryoerythrophyllum columbianumSpecial Concern
Assessment Criteria   Not applicable 
Reason for Designation  

This is a western North American endemic species. It is a small perennial species and in Canada has a restricted distribution in the shrub-steppe in semi-arid regions of British Columbia where recent surveys have confirmed its presence from 11 sites. The species is never abundant in sites where it is found and extensive surveys have provided few new locations. At least one population is believed to have been lost to cultivation (vineyard) or to stochastic events. Threats include agriculture (especially vineyards), impact by grazing animals, urban development, road improvements, and human recreational impacts. Based on known occurrences, the species appears to have a very restricted distribution. However the species is patchily distributed at low densities in large habitats not all of which have been censused.
Occurrence BC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Twisted Oak MossSyntrichia laevipilaSpecial Concern
Assessment Criteria   Met criteria for Threatened, D2, but designated as Special Concern because of the high potential numbers of Garry Oak host.
Reason for Designation  
This moss is a small species that occurs from British Columbia and Washington southward to California. The Canadian populations are at the northern limits of their range in western North America, and in Canada the species has a restricted distribution where it occurs in the area of south-eastern Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands. The species is known from 25 sites where it restricted to the bark of trees, in particular Garry oaks. This species is never dominant where it grows, nor is it frequent in large oak stands. Many of the known populations are in protected areas. The major threat to the species is the disappearance of mature Garry oaks, which would result in the extirpation of most populations of this species.
Occurrence  BC 
Status History  
Designated Special Concern in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
 

Lichens

 
Flooded JellyskinLeptogium rivulareThreatened
Assessment Criteria   D2 
Reason for Designation  
This is a globally rare species currently known in Canada from only 4 locations, all in Ontario and Manitoba. The species has very restricted habitat requirements, found primarily at the margins of seasonal (vernal) pools, where it grows on rocks and at the base of living deciduous trees between the seasonal high and low water marks. It is vulnerable to changes in normal patterns of annual flooding, as well as to death of host trees. Major threats to the largest populations include urban development and recreational activity.
Occurrence MB ON 
Status History  
Designated Threatened in May 2004. Assessment based on a new status report.
   
Deferred Reports 
November 2003  
Following discussion by COSEWIC, the report on Stoloniferous Pussytoes, Antennaria flagellaris, and the update report on Bathurst Aster, Symphyotrichum subulatum, (Bathurst population) were withdrawn to allow incorporation of additional information.
May 2004  
The reports on Hill's Thistle (Cirsium hillii), Rusty Cord-moss (Entosthodon rubiginosus), Alkaline Wing-nerved Moss (Pterygoneurum kozlovii) and Provancher's Fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus ssp. provancheri) were deferred to allow incorporation of additional information.