Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.

Skip booklet index and go to page content

Recovery Strategy for the Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) in Canada [Proposed]

3. References

Arendt, W.J. 1992. Status of North American migrant landbirds in the Caribbean region: A summary. Pp. 143–171 in J.M. Hagan and D.W. Johnston (Eds.). Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Migrant Landbirds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Bent, A.C. 1953. Life Histories of North American Wood Warblers. U.S. National Museums Bulletin 203.

Best, D. and A. Fondrk. 1995. Feathered flames on the Cuyahoga River. Ohio Cardinal 18:117–120.

Blem, C.R. and L.B. Blem. 1991. Nest-box selection by Prothonotary Warblers. J. Field Ornithol. 62:299–307.

Blem, C.R. and L.B. Blem. 1992. Prothonotary Warblers nesting in nest boxes: clutch size and timing in Virginia. Raven 63:15–20.

Blem, C.R., L.B. Blem, and L.S. Berlinghoff. 1999. Old nests in Prothonotary Warbler nest boxes: effects on reproductive performance. J. Field Ornithol. 70:95–100.

Curson, J. 1994. New World Warblers. Helm Identification Guides. Christopher Helm, London.

Dickson, J.G., F.R. Thompson, R.N. Conner, and K.E. Franzreb. 1995. Silviculture in central and southeastern oak–pine forests. Pp. 245–266 in T.E. Martin and D.M. Finch (Eds.). Ecology and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.

Faaborg, J. and W.J. Arendt. 1984. Population sizes and philopatry of winter resident warblers in Puerto Rico. J. Field Ornithol. 55:376–378.

Flaspohler, D.J. 1996. Nesting success of the Prothonotary Warbler in the Upper Mississippi River bottomlands. Wilson Bull. 108:457–466.

Flaxman, M. and K. Lindsay. 2004. Habitat Identification and Mapping for the Acadian Flycatcher, Hooded Warbler and Prothonotary Warbler in Southern Ontario, Canada. Interdepartmental Recovery Fund Project No. 31, FY 2002–03. National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Guillory, H.D. 1987. Cavity competition and suspected predation on Prothonotary Warblers by Peromyscus spp. J. Field Ornithol. 58:425–427.

Hefner, J.M., B.O. Wilen, T.E. Dahl, and W.E. Frayer. 1994. Southeast Wetlands: Status and Trends, Mid-1970’s to Mid-1980’s. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Atlanta, Georgia.

Hodges, M.F., Jr. and D.G. Krementz. 1996. Neotropical migratory breeding bird communities in riparian forests of different widths along the Altamaha River, Georgia. Wilson Bull. 108:496–506.

Holmes, R.T. and T.W. Sherry. 1992. Site fidelity of migratory warblers in temperate breeding and Neotropical wintering areas: implications for population dynamics, habitat selection and conservation. Pp. 563–575 in J.M. Hagan and D.W. Johnston (Eds.). Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Migrant Landbirds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Hoover, J.P. and M.C. Brittingham. 1993. Regional variation in cowbird parasitism of Wood Thrushes. Wilson Bull. 105:228–238.

Keller, C.M.E., C.S. Robbins, and J.S. Hatfield. 1993. Avian communities in riparian forests of different widths in Maryland and Delaware. Wetlands 13:137–144.

Kilgo, J.C., R.A. Sargent, B.R. Chapman, and K.V. Miller. 1998. Effect of stand width and adjacent habitat on breeding bird communities in bottomland hardwoods. J. Wildl. Manage. 62:72–83.

Knutson, M.G. and E.E. Klaas. 1997. Declines in abundance and species richness of birds following a major flood on the Upper Mississippi River. Auk 114:367–380.

Lefebvre, G. and B. Poulin. 1996. Seasonal abundance of migrant birds and food resources in Panamanian mangrove forests. Wilson Bull. 108:748–759.

Lefebvre, G., B. Poulin, and R. McNeil. 1992. Abundance, feeding behaviour, and body condition of Nearctic warblers wintering in Venezuelan mangroves. Wilson Bull. 104:400–412.

Lefebvre, G., B. Poulin, and R. McNeil. 1994. Spatial and social behaviour of Nearctic warblers wintering in Venezuelan mangroves. Can. J. Zool. 72:757–764.

McCracken, J.D. 1981. Status Report on the Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

McCracken, J.D. 1998. Status of the Prothonotary Warbler’s Critical Wintering Habitat in Latin America: A Focus on Mangrove Ecosystems. Unpublished report to World Wildlife Fund Canada from Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, Ontario. 44 pp.

McCracken, J.D. 2004. The 2003 Prothonotary Warbler Recovery Program in Canada. Unpublished report to Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario Region from Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, Ontario. 42 pp.

McCracken, J.D. and J.S. Dobbyn. 1997. The 1997 Prothonotary Warbler Nest Box and Census Program. Unpublished report, Long Point Bird Observatory. 88 pp.

McCracken, J.D. and S.A. Mackenzie. 2003. The 2002 Prothonotary Warbler Recovery Program in Canada. Unpublished report, Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, Ontario. 94 pp.

McCracken, J.D. and R.W. Wood. 2005. The 2004 Prothonotary Warbler Recovery Program in Canada: Population Surveys, Nest Box Monitoring, and Colour Banding. Unpublished report to Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario Region from Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, Ontario. 50 pp.

McCracken, J.D., R. Wood, and P. Patel. 2006. The 2005 Prothonotary Warbler Recovery Program in Canada: Population Surveys, Nest Box Monitoring, and Colour Banding. Unpublished report to Environment Canada and Nature Canada from Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, Ontario. 52 pp.

McNeil, R. 1982. Winter resident repeats and returns of austral and boreal migrant birds banded in Venezuela. J. Field Ornithol. 53:125–132.

Mitrus, C. 2003. A comparison of the breeding ecology of Collared Flycatchers nesting in boxes and natural cavities. J. Field Ornithol. 74:293–299.

Moller, A.P. 1989. Parasites, predators and nest boxes: facts and artifacts in nest box studies of birds? Oikos 56:421–423.

NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 4.7. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia (www.natureserve.org/explorer; accessed April 6, 2006).

Nice, M.M. 1957. Nesting success in altricial birds. Auk 74:305–321.

Nilsson, S.G. 1986. Evolution of hole nesting in birds: on balancing selection pressures. Auk 103:432–435.

Olson, D.M., E. Dinerstein, G. Cintron, and P. Iolster. 1996. A Conservation Assessment of Mangrove Ecosystems of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Wildlife Fund U.S., Washington, D.C. 44 pp. + appendices.

Peck, G.K. and R.D. James. 1998. Breeding birds of Ontario: nidiology and distribution. Vol. 2: Passerines (First revision – Part B: Thrushes to warblers). Ont. Birds 16:11–25.

Petit, L.J. 1989. Breeding biology of Prothonotary Warblers in riverine habitat in Tennessee. Wilson Bull. 101:51–61.

Petit, L.J. 1991. Adaptive tolerance of cowbird parasitism by Prothonotary Warblers: a consequence of nest-site limitation? Anim. Behav. 41:425–432.

Petit, L.J. 1999. Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea). In A. Poole and F. Gill (Eds.). The Birds of North America, No. 408. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Petit, L.J. and D.R. Petit. 1996. Factors governing habitat selection by Prothonotary Warblers: field tests of the Fretwell-Lucas models. Ecol. Monogr. 66:367–387.

Petit, L., W.J. Fleming, K.E. Petit, and D.R. Petit. 1987. Nest-box use by Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in riverine habitat. Wilson Bull. 99:485–487.

Petit, D.R., J.F. Lynch, R.L. Hutto, J.C. Blake, and R.B. Waide. 1995. Habitat use and conservation in the Neotropics. Pp. 145–197 in T.E. Martin and D.M. Finch (Eds.). Ecology and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.

Rich, T.D., C.J. Beardmore, H. Berlanga, P.J. Blancher, M.S.W. Bradstreet, G.S. Butcher, D. Demarest, E.H. Dunn, W.C. Hunter, E. Inigo-Elias, J.A. Kennedy, A.M. Martell, A.O. Panjabi, D.N. Pashley, K.V. Rosenberg, C.M. Rustay, J.S. Wendt, and T.C. Will. 2004. Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, N.Y. 84 pp.

Robbins, C.S., D.K. Dawson, and B.A. Dowell. 1989. Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the middle Atlantic states. Wildl. Monogr. 103:1–34.

Sauer, J.R., J.E. Hines, and J. Fallon. 2005. The North American Breeding Bird Survey: Results and Analysis 1966–2004. Version 2005.2. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Laurel, Maryland (www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/bbs.html).

Snell, E.A. 1987. Wetland Distribution and Conversion in Southern Ontario. Canada Land Use Monitoring Program. Working Paper No. 48. Inland Waters and Lands Directorate, Environment Canada. 53 pp.

Terborgh, J. 1989. Where have all the birds gone? Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Thompson, F.R., S.J. Lewis, J. Green, and D. Ewert. 1993. Status of Neotropical migrant landbirds in the Midwest: identifying species of management concern. Pp. 145–158 in D.M. Finch and P.W. Stangel (Eds.). Status and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds. General Technical Report RM-229. U.S. Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Tischendorf, L. 2003. The Prothonotary Warbler: Population Viability and Critical Habitat in Southern Ontario, Canada. Interdepartmental Recovery Fund Project. National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 17 pp.

Twedt, D.J. and J.L. Henne-Kerr. 2001. Artificial cavities enhance breeding bird densities in managed cottonwood forests. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 29:680–687.

U.S. Department of the Interior. 1994. The Impact of Federal Programs on Wetlands. Vol. 2. A report to Congress by the Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

Walkinshaw, L.H. 1938. Nesting studies of the Prothonotary Warbler. Bird Banding 9:32–46.

Walkinshaw, L.H. 1941. The Prothonotary Warbler, a comparison of nesting conditions in Tennessee and Michigan. Wilson Bull. 53:3–21.

Walkinshaw, L.H. 1953. Life-history of the Prothonotary Warbler. Wilson Bull. 65:152–168.

Walkinshaw, L.H. 1991. Prothonotary Warbler. Pp. 430–431 in R. Brewer, G.A. McPeek, and R.A. Adams, Jr. (Eds.). The Atlas of Breeding Birds of Michigan. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, Michigan.

Warkentin, I.G. and D. Hernandez. 1996. The conservation implications of site fidelity: a case study involving Nearctic–Neotropical migrant songbirds wintering in a Costa Rican mangrove. Biol. Conserv. 77:143–150.

Winger, P.V. 1986. Forested Wetlands of the Southeast: Review of Major Characteristics and Role in Maintaining Water Quality. Resource Publication 163. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Woodcock, J., M. Woodcock, and J.D. McCracken. 2004.A Preliminary Investigation of Prothonotary Warblers on their Wintering Grounds on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. Unpublished report to Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario Region from Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, Ontario. 23 pp.