COSEWIC assessment and status report on the coho salmon (Interior Fraser population) in Canada
- Assessment Summary
- Executive Summary
- COSEWIC Mandate, Membership and Definitions
- Lists of Figures and Tables
- Species Information
- Population Sizes and Trends
- Limiting Factors and Threats
- Special Significance
- Existing Protection
- Summary of Status Report
- Technical Summary
- Acknowledgements, Literature Cited, and The Author
Much of the information contained in this status report has been published in a series of reports published by the Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat. I sincerely acknowledge my co-authors of these reports (see Literature Cited) for their contributions. I am grateful for constructive comments provided on the manuscript by Dr. M. Bradford and a thorough review by Dr. M. Gross. I am indebted to C. Wood who suggested using a smoothing approach to estimate rates of decline (Table 3), and L. B. Holtby who previously used an approach similar to that presented in Fig. 9 to forecast abundance for coho salmon. I also thank R. Cook who provided data on biological characteristics of enhanced coho salmon as well as estimates of enhanced contributions to various watersheds, and Richard Bailey, Sue Lemke, and Dean Allan and others who generated much of the escapement data used in the report.
Anonymous. 2001. Watershed-based fish sustainability planning: conserving B.C. fish populations and their habitat – a guidebook for participants. Co-published by B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
Beacham, T.D., J.R. Candy, K.J. Supernault, T. Ming, B. Deagle, A. Schulze, D. Tuck, K.H. Kaukinen, J.R. Irvine, K.M. Miller, and R.E. Withler. 2001. Evaluation and application of microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex variation for stock identification of coho salmon in British Columbia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society: 130: 1116-1149.
Beamish, R.J., G.A. McFarlane, and R.E. Thomson. 1999a. Recent declines in the recreational catch of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Strait of Georgia are related to climate. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56: 506-515.
Beamish, R., D.J. Noakes, G.A. McFarlane, L. Kiyashtorin, V.V. Ivanov, and V. Kurashov. 1999b. The regime concept and natural trends in the production of Pacific salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56: 516-526.
Bradford, M.J. 1998. Risk analysis for Thompson coho salmon. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document 98/92. Available from CSAS, 200 Kent St., Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada, or Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat.
Bradford, M.J., and J.R. Irvine. 2000a. The decline of coho salmon of the Thompson River watershed, British Columbia. Society for Conservation Biology Annual Meeting, Missoula, Montana, June 2000. Abstract.
Bradford, M.J. and J.R. Irvine. 2000b. Land use, fishing, climate change and the decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:13-16.
Burt, D.W. and M. Wallis. 1997. Assessment of salmonid habitat in the Salmon River, Salmon Arm, British Columbia. Fraser River Action Plan Report, DFO, Vancouver, B.C.
Chapman, D.W. 1962. Aggressive behavior in juvenile coho salmon as a cause of emigration. Journal Fisheries Research Board Canada 19: 1047-1080.
Chapman, D.W. 1966. Food and space as regulators of salmonid populations in streams. American Naturalist 100: 345-357.
Chen, D.G., J.R. Irvine, and A. J. Cass. 2002. Incorporating Allee effects in fish stock-recruitment models and applications for determining reference points. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: 242-249.
Collie, J.S., and H. Gislason. 2001. Biological reference points for fish stocks in a multispecies context. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 2167-2176.
Coronado, C., and R. Hilborn. 1998. Spatial and temporal factors affecting survival in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 2067-2077.
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). 1998a.Salmon watershed planning profiles for the South Thompson-Shuswap Habitat Management Area. Available from: Fraser River Action Plan, DFO, 555 West Hastings St. Vancouver, B.C., V6B 5G3, Canada.
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). 1998b. Salmon watershed planning profiles for the Thompson Nicola Habitat Management Area. Available from: Fraser River Action Plan, DFO, 555 West Hastings St. Vancouver, B.C., V6B 5G3, Canada.
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). 1998c. Discussion paper: a new direction for Canada’s Pacific salmon fisheries. Available from: http://www-comm.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/english/publications/alloc/st9808e.htm.
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). 2000. Wild salmon policy: a discussion paper (draft). Available from: http://www-comm.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/development/wsp-sep-consult/wsp/wsp1.htm.
Ecotrust. 1999. Salmon nation – people and fish at the edge. Portland, Oregon. 80 pp.
Ford, J., and D. Martinez. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge, ecosystem science, and environmental management. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1249-1250.
Fraser River Action Plan (FRAP). 1998. Wild, threatened, and lost streams of the lower Fraser valley; a summary report. Habitat and Enhancement Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Vancouver.
Fulton, R.J. 1969. Glacial lake history, southern interior Plateau, British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Paper 69-37.
Gribanov, V.I. 1948. The coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) – a biological sketch. Translations Series Fisheries Research Board Canada 370. 83 pp.
Harding, T., L. Jaremovic, and G. Kosakoski. 1994. Strategic Review of Fisheries Resources, North Thompson Habitat Management Area. Available from: Fraser River Action Plan, DFO, 555 West Hastings St. Vancouver, B.C., V6B 5G3, Canada.
Hart, J.L. Pacific fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. Bulletin 180. 740 pp.
Hartman, G.F., C. Groot, and T.G. Northcote. 2000. Science and management in sustainable salmonid fisheries: the ball is not in our court. Pp. 31-50 in E. E. Knudsen et al., (eds.) Sustainable fisheries management: Pacific salmon. CRC Press, New York.
Holtby, L.B. and B. Finnegan. 1997. A biological assessment of the coho salmon of the Skeena River, British Columbia, and recommendations for fisheries in 1998. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document 97/138. Available from CSAS, 200 Kent St., Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada, or Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat.
Irvine, J.R., and M.J. Bradford. 2000. Declines in the abundance of Thompson River coho salmon in the interior of southern British Columbia, and Canada’s coho recovery plan. Pp 95-598 in Darling, M. (editor) Proceedings, Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., 15 - 19 Feb. 1999.
Irvine, J.R., K. Wilson, B. Rosenberger, and R. Cook. 1999a. Stock assessment of Thompson River/Upper Fraser River coho salmon. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document 99/28. Available from CSAS, 200 Kent St., Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada, or Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat.
Irvine, J.R., R.E. Bailey, M.J. Bradford, R.K. Kadowaki, and W.S. Shaw. 1999b. 1999 Assessment of Thompson River/Upper Fraser River Coho Salmon. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document 99/128. Available from CSAS, 200 Kent St., Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada, or Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat
Irvine, J.R., R.E. Withler, M.J. Bradford, R.E. Bailey, S. Lehmann, K. Wilson, J. Candy, and W. Shaw. 2000. Stock status and genetics of interior Fraser coho salmon. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document 2000/125. Available from CSAS, 200 Kent St., Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada, or Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat
Irvine, J.R., C.K. Parken, D.G. Chen, J. Candy, T. Ming, J. Supernault, W. Shaw, and R.E. Bailey. 2001. 2001 assessment of stock status for coho salmon from the interior Fraser River. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document 2001/083. Available from CSAS, 200 Kent St., Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada or Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat
Kurien, J. 1998. Traditional ecological knowledge and ecosystem sustainability: new meaning to Asian proverbs. Ecological Applications 8(1) Supplement: S2-S5.
Lackey, R.T. 2001. Defending reality. Fisheries 26(6): 26-27.
Langer, O.E., F. Hietkamp, and M. Farrell. 2000. Human population growth and the sustainability of urban salmonid streams in the lower Fraser valley. Pp. 349-361 in E.E. Knudsen et al., (eds.) Sustainable fisheries management: Pacific salmon. CRC Press, New York.
Levings, C.D. 2000. An overview assessment of compensation and mitigation techniques used to assist fish habitat management in British Columbia estuaries. Pp. 341-347 in E.E. Knudsen et al. (eds.) Sustainable fisheries management: Pacific salmon. CRC Press, New York.
Mathews, W.H. 1944. Glacial lakes and ice retreat in south-central British Columbia. Transactions Royal Society of Canada 3(38/4): 39-54.
McPhail, J.D., and C.C. Lindsey. 1986. Zoogeography of the freshwater fishes of Cascadia (the Columbia system and rivers north to the Stikine). Pp. 615-638 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, (eds.) The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Nehlsen, W. 1997. Pacific salmon status and trends – a coastwide perspective. Pp. 41-52 in D.J. Stouder, P.A. Bisson, and R.J. Naiman, (eds.) Pacific Salmon & their Ecosystems. Chapman & Hall, New York.
Noakes, D.J., R.J. Beamish, R. Sweeting, and J. King. 2000. Changing the balance: interactions between hatchery and wild Pacific coho salmon in the presence of regime shifts. North Pacific Anadromous Fisheries Commission Bulletin 2: 155‑163.
Northcote, T.G., and D.Y. Atagi. 1997. Pacific salmon abundance trends in the Fraser River watershed compared with other British Columbia systems. Pp. 199-219 in D.J. Stouder, P.A. Bisson, and R.J. Naiman, (eds.) Pacific Salmon & their Ecosystems. Chapman & Hall, New York.
Northcote, T.G., and M.D. Burwash. 1991. Fish and fish habitats of the Fraser River basin. Pp. 117-141 in A.H.J. Dorcey and J.R. Griggs, (eds.) Water in sustainable development: exploring our common future in the Fraser River basin. Westwater Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2.
Northcote, T.G., and P.A. Larkin. 1989. The Fraser River: A major salmonine productive system. Pp. 174-204 in D. Dodge, (ed.) Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium. Canadian Special Publications Fisheries Aquatic Science 106.
NRC. 1996. Upstream: salmon and society in the Pacific Northwest. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.
Pearcy, W.G. 1992. Ocean Ecology of North Pacific Salmonids. Seattle, WA: Univ. Washington Press.
Perry, E.A. 1995. Salmon stock restoration and enhancement: strategies and experiences in British Columbia. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15:152-160.
Pitre, K.R., and C.L. Cross. 1993. Impact of coho enhancement on three Thompson River tributaries. Pp. 140-150 in L. Berg and P.W. Delaney, (eds.) Proceedings of the 1992 Coho Workshop, Nanaimo, B.C., May 26-28, 1992. (available from Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 555 W.. Hastings, Vancouver, BC V6B 5B3).
Pollard, W.R., G.F. Hartman, C. Groot, and P. Edgell. 1997. Field identification of coastal juvenile salmonids. Harbour Publishing, Madeira Park, BC, Canada.
Roed, M.A. 1995. Geology of the Kelowna area and the origin of the Okanagan valley British Columbia. Kelowna Geology Committee, Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia.
Rood, K.M., and R.E. Hamilton. 1995. Hydrological and water use for salmon streams in the Thompson River watershed, British Columbia. Canadian Manuscript Report Fisheries Aquatic Science 2297.
Routledge, R.D., and J.R. Irvine. 1999. Chance fluctuations and the survival of small salmon stocks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and aquatic Science 56: 1512-1519.
Sandercock, F.K. 1991. Life history of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Pp. 397-445 in C. Groot and L. Margolis, (eds.) Pacific Salmon Life Histories. UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada.
Scott, W.B., and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. Bulletin 184. 966 pp.
Shaklee, J.B., T.D. Beacham, L. Seeb, and B.A. White. 1999. Managing fisheries using genetic data: case studies from four species of Pacific salmon. Fisheries Research 43: 45-78.
Simpson, K.,R. Semple, D. Dobson, J. Irvine, S. Lehmann, and S. Baillie. 2000. Status in 1999 of coho stocks adjacent to the Strait of Georgia. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document 2000/158. Available from CSAS, 200 Kent St., Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada, or Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat.
Simpson, K., D. Dobson, J.R. Irvine, L.B. Holtby, and R.W. Tanasichuk. 2001. Forecast for southern British Columbia coho salmon in 2001. Pacific Scientific Advice Review Committee Salmon Subcommittee Working Paper S01-04.
Slaney, T.L., K.D. Hyatt, T.G. Northcote, and R.J. Fielden 1996. Status of anadromous salmon and trout in British Columbia and Yukon. Fisheries 21 (10):20-35.
Small, M.P., T.D. Beacham, R.E. Withler and R.J. Nelson. 1998a. Discriminating coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations within the Fraser River, British Columbia using microsatellite DNA markers. Molecular Ecology 7: 141-155.
Small, M.P., R.E. Withler, and T.D. Beacham. 1998b. Population structure and stock identification of British Columbia coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) based on microsatellite DNA variation. Fishery Bulletin: 96: 843-858.
Stocker, M., and D. Peacock, eds. 1998. Report PSARC Salmon Subcommittee Meeting 27 April – 1 May 1998 and the Steering Committee Meeting 4 May 1998. Canadian Stock Assessment Proceedings Series 98/08. Available from CSAS, 200 Kent St., Ontario, K1A 0E6, Canada, or Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat
Teel, D.J., G.B. Milner, G.A. Winans and W.S. Grant. 2000. Genetic population structure and origin of life-history types in chinook salmon in British Columbia, Canada. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129: 194-209.
Turner, N.J., M.B. Ignace, and R. Ignace. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge and wisdom of aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1275-1287.
Waples, R.S. 1991. Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp. and the definition of “species” under the Endangered Species Act. Marine Fisheries Review 53: 11-22.
Weitkamp, L.A., T.C. Wainwright, G.J. Bryaant, G.B. Milner, D.J. Teel, R.G. Kope, and R.S. Waples. 1995. Status review of coho salmon from Washington, Oregon, and California. U.S. Department Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-24, 258 p.
Withler, R.E., K.D. Le, R.J. Nelson, K.M. Miller, and T.D. Beacham. 2000. Intact genetic structure and high levels of genetic diversity in bottlenecked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 1985-1998.
Dr. Irvine received his B.Sc. (Honours) and M.Sc. from the University of BC (Vancouver) in 1973 and 1978 respectively, and his Ph.D. from the University of Otago (New Zealand) in 1984. He has been employed as a research scientist with Fisheries and Oceans Canada since 1984 except for a six-month stint as a visiting researcher with the Fisheries Department of Hokkaido, Japan. Dr. Irvine was Chairman of the Pacific Scientific Advice Review Committee (PSARC) during 1991 and 1992, Head of the Data and Systems Section at the Pacific Biological Station during 1993 and 1994, and was responsible for the assessment of coho and chinook salmon in the Fraser River Division from 1994-2000. He is currently a member of the recently established Conservation Biology Section in Nanaimo. Dr. Irvine has authored 30 primary publications in the scientific literature and more than 65 secondary publications.
- Date Modified: