Skip booklet index and go to page content

COSEWIC Assessment and Update Status Report on the Ancient Murrelet in Canada

Assessment and Update Status Report
on the
Ancient Murrelet
Synthliboramphus antiquus
in Canada

Ancient Murrelet

Special concern

Committee on the Status
of Endangered Wildlife
in Canada


Comité sur la situation
des espèces en péril
au Canada

COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species suspected of being at risk. This report may be cited as follows:

COSEWIC 2004. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 31 pp.
(Species at Risk Status Reports)

Previous reports:

Gaston, A.J. 1993. COSEWIC Status report on the Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus in Canada. Committee on the status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 46 pp.

Production note:

COSEWIC would like to acknowledge Christianne Wilhelmson for writing the status report on the Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus prepared under contract with Environment Canada, overseen and edited by Richard Cannings, the COSEWIC Birds Specialist Subcommittee Co-chair.

For additional copies contact:

COSEWIC Secretariat
c/o Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Ottawa ON
K1A 0H3

Tel.: 819–953–3215
Fax: 819–994–3684
E-mail: COSEWIC/

Également disponible en français sous le titre Évaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur la situation du Guillemot à cou blanc (Synthliboramphus antiquus) au Canada – Mise à jour

Cover illustration:
Ancient Murrelet -- Dan Tallman.

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2004
Catalogue No.: CW69-14/424-2005E-PDF
ISBN: 0-662-39856-4
HTML: CW69-14/424-2005E-HTML


Return to Table of Contents


Assessment Summary

Assessment Summary – November 2004

Common name:
Ancient Murrelet

Scientific name:
Synthliboramphus Antiquus

Special Concern

Reason for designation:
This burrow-nesting seabird is impacted by mammalian predators that have been introduced to its breeding islands. Predators have been removed from some islands but populations have not increased as a result. About half of the world population nests in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia; the Canadian population is thought to be declining.

British Columbia

Status history:
Designated Special Concern in April 1993. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2004. Last assessment based on an update status report.


Return to Table of Contents


Executive Summary

Ancient Murrelet
Synthliboramphus Antiquus

Species Information

The Ancient Murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus, is a seabird in the Alcidae, or auk family. It is most closely related to the Japanese Murrelet, S. wumizusume, but also to two other birds in North America: Xantus’s Murrelet, S. hypoleucus and Craveri’s Murrelet, S. craveri. Ancient Murrelets are about 25 cm long and are grey-bodied with a white throat and cheek, black chin and crown, and a yellow-tipped bill. In breeding plumage they have a distinctive line of white feathers extending back from the eye and fine black-and-white lines on the sides of the nape.



The Ancient Murrelet breeds from the Sea of Japan to the Queen Charlotte Islands of British Columbia. There are potentially still birds in China, Korea and Japan, but their numbers are unknown, as the colonies are not surveyed on a regular basis. There are two large colonies in the northern Sea of Okhotsk in Russia. In Alaska, Ancient Murrelets breed on the Aleutian chain, the Alaskan Peninsula and the Gulf of Alaska. In Canada, they breed exclusively on small islands in the Queen Charlotte Archipelago.



Ancient Murrelets breed on islands in areas that are at least 300 to 400 m from shore. They prefer to nest in forested areas, but will use treeless islands if forested ones are not available. They dig their burrows wherever there is sufficient soil depth, generally near trees or other objects for protection.



The Ancient Murrelet is a diving seabird that eats zooplankton and fish. They breed at 3 or 4 years of age, laying 2 eggs in April at a colonial breeding site. Chicks leave the nest with their parents when they are a few days old without ever having been fed. They spend the next month at sea, where their parents feed them until they are full-grown. Birds spend most of the year away from the Queen Charlotte Islands. They do not always return to the same colony where they were born.


Population Sizes and Trends

There are an estimated 256 000 pairs (about half the world population) of Ancient Murrelets nesting on 31 colonies in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Only eleven colonies have been surveyed between 1993 and 2004: Reef, Frederick and George showed an increase in number of birds, Lihou and Saunders appear stable, while the numbers on Limestone, Helgesen and Kunghit have decreased, with the population on Kunghit now believed to be extirpated. Populations on Langara and Rankine showed no statistical trend, with Langara showing no signs of recovery after rat extermination. Populations on predator-free islands are increasing by 0.2 – 9.5% annually; populations on islands with introduced mammalian predators are decreasing dramatically (up to 23% annually). Overall, the total population is likely decreasing; data from colonies with censuses in both the 1980s and 1990s show an approximate 18% decline between those decades.


Limiting Factors and Threats

The main factor threatening Ancient Murrelet populations around the world is introduced mammals: rats in Asia, foxes in Alaska, and rats and raccoons in British Columbia. Other risks to the Ancient Murrelet include disturbance, oil exploration, oceanographic changes and commercial fisheries.


Special Significance of the Species

The Queen Charlotte Islands are home to 50% of the world’s population of Ancient Murrelets. The Ancient Murrelet is the most numerous member of its genus. Its closest relative, the Japanese Murrelet, is severely endangered.


Existing Protection or Other Status Designations

The Ancient Murrelet, including its eggs and nest, is protected in Canada under the Migratory Birds Convention Act (1994), the Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act(2002) and the BC Wildlife Act. Globally it is considered secure. In the United States, it has a National Heritage Status rank of ‘apparently secure’. In Canada, the Ancient Murrelet is Blue-listed (of special concern) by the British Columbia government and designated a species of Special Concern by COSEWIC.

Return to Table of Contents

COSEWIC History, Mandate, Membership and Definitions



The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. In 1978, COSEWIC designated its first species and produced its first list of Canadian species at risk. Species designated at meetings of the full committee are added to the list.  On June 5th 2003, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) was proclaimed. SARA establishes COSEWIC as an advisory body ensuring that species will continue to be assessed under a rigorous and independent scientific process.


The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assesses the national status of wild species, subspecies, varieties, or other designatable units that are considered to be at risk in Canada. Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens.

COSEWIC Membership

COSEWIC comprises members from each provincial and territorial government wildlife agency, four federal agencies (Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Federal Biodiversity Information Partnership, chaired by the Canadian Museum of Nature), three non-government members and the co-chairs of the species specialist and the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge subcommittees. The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. 

(November 2004)

Wildlife Species
A species, subspecies, variety, or geographically or genetically distinct population of animal, plant or other organism, other than a bacterium or virus, that is wild by nature and it is either native to Canada or has extended its range into Canada without human intervention and has been present in Canada for atleast 50 years.

Extinct (X)
A wildlife species that no longer exists.

Extirpated (XT)
A wildlife species no longer existing in the wild in Canada, but occurring elsewhere.

Endangered (E)
A wildlife species facing imminent extirpation or extinction.

Threatened (T)
A wildlife species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed.

Special Concern (SC)*
A wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats.

Not at Risk (NAR)**
A wildlife species that has been evaluated and found to be not at risk of extinction given the current circumstances.

Data Deficient (DD)***
A wildlife species for which there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction.

Formerly described as “Vulnerable” from 1990 to 1999, or “Rare” prior to 1990.

Formerly described as “Not In Any Category”, or “No Designation Required.”

Formerly described as “Indeterminate” from 1994 to 1999 or “ISIBD” (insufficient scientific information on which to base a designation) prior to 1994.


The Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, provides full administrative and financial support to the COSEWIC Secretariat.


Return to Table of Contents

Return to Table of Contents

COSEWIC Status Report
on the
Ancient Murrelet
Synthliboramphus antiquus
in Canada

Species Information

Name and Classification

The Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus) belongs to the family Alcidae or the auks. The Ancient Murrelet is also known as ‘Guillemot à cou blanc’ in French and as ‘skinkana’ by the Haida of the Queen Charlotte Islands (Gaston 1992).

There are four species in the genus Synthliboramphus. The Ancient Murrelet’s closest relative is the Japanese Murrelet, S. wumizusume. The two other species are the Xantus’s Murrelet (S. hypoleucus) and Craveri’s Murrelet (S. craveri), both of which breed in the Baja California region (Gaston and Jones 1998). Of these four species, only the Ancient Murrelet breeds in Canada (Gaston 1994a).


The Ancient Murrelet is a small auk, about 25 cm long and weighing from 200 to 250 g (Gaston 1994a). The males and females look very similar, both having a yellow-tipped bill, black head, chin, nape and throat, with fine black-and-white lines where the black of the head meets the gray of the body. They have a white underbelly and their flight feathers are dark slate.

During the breeding season, the back, upper wing and upper tail coverts are dove gray; the head, throat, and sides are black, with the rest of the underparts white, except a sooty brown line dividing belly from underwing. A fringe of long, filamentous, white feathers, forming a slight crest (Gaston 1994a) rings the crown.

In the fall, Ancient Murrelets undergo a full moult into non-breeding plumage, similar to breeding plumage except that the throat is white with sooty smudges on the chin, the tonsure of white feathers is reduced and the mantle is greyer (Gaston 1992). This plumage does not last long; as early as December the birds have moulted back to their breeding plumage (Gaston and Jones 1998).

In the summer, the Ancient Murrelet can be distinguished from Cassin’s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) by its black head and throat (Gaston 1994a). Immatures are similar to non-breeding adults (Gaston 1994a) except that they have no head streaks and have a white throat (National Geographic Society 1987; Gaston 1994).


Return to Table of Contents


Global Range

Ancient Murrelets breed in a thin arc about 9000 km in length around the northern rim of the Pacific Ocean (Fig. 1). The species becomes progressively more abundant from China to British Columbia. Udvardy (1963) defined their distribution as “subboreal, pan-Pacific”, similar to the Rhinoceros Auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata, and the Tufted Puffin, Fratercula cirrhata, which breed south to California in the eastern Pacific. In winter, the species spreads south as far as California and Taiwan (Gaston 1992).

Figure 1: Global Distribution of the Ancient Murrelet

Figure 1: Global distribution of the Ancient Murrelet

In Asia, information about distribution and numbers of Ancient Murrelets is limited by the absence of survey work. Based on previous data collected, populations in China, Korea and Japan may be in danger of extirpation (Springer et al. 1993; Gaston 1994). There are probably no more than a few hundred pairs of Ancient Murrelets breeding in China, a few thousand on the Korean Peninsula, and a similar number around the coasts of the Sea of Japan. Approximately, 25 000 - 35 000 individuals breed in the Northern Sea of Okhotsk (Kondratyev et al. 2000), 13 000 individuals in Kamchatka (Kondratyev et al. 2000) and less than 2 000 in the Commander Islands (Kondratyev et al. 2000). 

Ancient Murrelets also breed on several islands in Peter the Great Bay off Vladivostok, in discrete nesting areas. Shibaev (1987) estimated 500 pairs on Verkhovskii Island and in the same area, the species has been recorded breeding on Russkii, Karamzin (100 pairs in the 1960s) and Klykov islands, with an estimated the total population of 1200 pairs (Litvinenko and Shibaev 1991).

The largest estimated Ancient Murrelet colony in the Asian part of the North Pacific is on Talan Island in Tauyskaya Bay where there are approximately 22 000 individuals (USFWS 2003). There is also an estimated population of 13 000 birds on Starichkov Island (USFWS 2003).

In Alaska, the species is common in the Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska and the Alaskan Peninsula, though population estimates are incomplete. The population of this entire region is estimated at around 200 000 (USFWS 2003). The largest colony is at Forrester Island, SE Alaska, with approximately 60 000 individuals present in 1976. Other large colonies include Castle Rock in the Shumagins with 30 000 individuals in 1976. Several other islands in this vicinity are estimated to have over approximately 500 individuals. Hunt Island (1978), Koniuji Island (1982) and Buldir Island (1976) all have approximately 10 000 individuals (USFWS 2003). Chagaluk and Egg Island each had approximately 5000 individuals in 1982 and 1980, respectively. The only other colony of any size is on St. Lazaria Island (1,500 birds in 1981) (USFWS 2003). During the winter, Ancient Murrelets disperse as far as California, arriving in late October (Ainley 1976).

Outside the Queen Charlotte Islands, there are only two definite records of Ancient Murrelets breeding in North America south of Alaska. Hoffman (1924) found a nest with eggs on Carroll Island, Washington, and a nest was reported in 1970 on an island in the Moore Group off the mainland coast of Hecate Strait, BC (Campbell et al. 1990). There have been no subsequent records from Washington, but small numbers are seen offshore and a fledgling was recorded in 1978. A very small breeding population may still exist there (Speich and Wahl 1989).

Canadian Range

An estimated 256,000 pairs of Ancient Murrelets, about half the world breeding population, occur on 31 islands in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Rodway 1991; Gaston 1992; Vermeer et al. 1997, Fig. 2). Canada remains the only part of the species breeding range where population estimates are accurate to within orders of magnitude (Gaston 1994b). They are concentrated in two areas: off the west coast of Graham Island in the north, and off the east coast of Moresby Island in the south. The four colonies off Graham Island support approximately 49% of the breeding population, while the 17 colonies along the east coast of Moresby Island, mostly within Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, support about 44% of the breeding population (Lemon and Gaston 1999). There are also 10 colonies on the remote and rugged west coast of Moresby Island, which account for the remaining 7% (Rodway 1991).

The colonies off Graham Island have been known since the early 1900s, but no attempt was made to census them until 1981, although Spencer Sealy made a retrospective estimate of the size of the Langara Island colony for 1970-1971. Before that, only general statements such as “astronomical” (Beebe 1960), “immense numbers” or “thousands” (Drent and Guiguet 1961) were available. We have an even shorter record of the South Moresby colonies, which were unknown to outsiders until the 1960s, although familiar to the local Haida. For most Ancient Murrelet colonies in the archipelago, even orders of magnitude were uncertain until the 1980s.

Figure 2: Locations and Relative Sizes of Breeding Colonies of Ancient Murrelets in the Queen Charlotte Islands

Figure 2: Locations and relative sizes of breeding colonies of Ancient Murrelets in the Queen Charlotte Islands.

From Harfenist et al. 2002; data from Rodway 1988; Rodway et al. 1988, 1990; Harfenist 1994; Lemon 1997; Gaston and Masselink 1997; Gray 1999; Lemon and Gaston 1999.

Small numbers are also seen off the northern part of the west coast of Vancouver Island in summer and breeding may occur but remains unconfirmed. Family groups, including small chicks, are also sometimes seen in the southern part of the Queen Charlotte Islands (Smith and French 2000), because dispersal away from the breeding sites is very rapid (Duncan and Gaston 1990).

On Boulder and Sea-Pigeon Islands, in the inner part of the Skincuttle Inlet, Bristol Foster reported eggshells and the remains of dead adults in 1960 (Drent and Guiguet 1961), but by 1971 there was no sign of breeding (Summers 1974). Introduced raccoons are sometimes present on Boulder and Sea-Pigeon Islands (Rodway et al. 1988) and may have been responsible for the disappearance of Ancient Murrelets.

In 1971, Summers (1974) found abundant burrowing on Arichika Island and the Bischof Islands, and estimated 500 pairs were present at each location. This estimate was based on a combination of field records of abundance of burrows and proportions of islands covered by burrows, and sometimes by the amount of nocturnal activity. In 1985, Rodway et al. (1988) found no trace of these colonies.


Return to Table of Contents


Habitat Requirements

Ancient Murrelets live mainly in subarctic waters where mean annual surface water temperatures are between 5 and 15 °C (Kitano 1981). They breed on islands between 20 and 2000 ha in area (Gaston 1994b). Breeding sites are situated inland from the sea up to 300 m, rarely to 400 m (Rodway et al. 1988; Rodway 1990; Rodway 1994). This species does not coexist naturally with any terrestrial mammalian predators except river otters, Lutra canadensis (Gaston 1992). 

In the Queen Charlotte Islands, SE Alaska, the Peter the Great Bay, and probably also in the Kuril Islands, Ancient Murrelets nest under forest canopy. Burrows are tunneled under the base of trees, stumps, or fallen logs (Gaston 1992) and may penetrate fissures in the underlying rocks (Drent and Guiguet 1961). On Frederick Island 79% of the burrows are under western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) (Vermeer et al. 1984). However, from Kamchatka through the Commander and Aleutian islands, and as far east as the Gulf of Alaska, Ancient Murrelet colonies are found on treeless islands (Gaston 1992). Where forest is available, it appears to be the species’ preferred breeding habitat (Vermeer et al. 1984). Where it is absent, Ancient Murrelets usually pick the most densely vegetated area available. There may be many reasons for the choice of this habitat type, including stability of the soil for digging and this may be more significant than vegetative cover (Nettleship 2004 pers. comm.). On Buldir Island, in the Aleutian Islands they occupy the lowland tall-plant complex that grows to about 1 m high (Byrd and Day 1986). In the eastern Aleutians, the birds are found in Elymus/ Calamagrostis grassland and mixed Elymus and Umbelliferae. Burrows are also found in the foundations of abandoned native houses (Nysewander et al. 1982). Tussock grasslands are probably the birds main breeding habitat through much of their Alaskan range (Bendire 1895; Nysewander et al. 1982), but they also breed on small islands practically devoid of vegetation, and where they occupy rock crevices; the use of scree on islands off the Alaska Peninsula is common (Gaston 1994b).


There is no evidence that the Ancient Murrelet population is limited by the availability of breeding habitat, except at a few colonies where burrow density is high and all suitable habitat is occupied. In the Queen Charlotte Islands, they inhabit all but the largest islands of the archipelago because all but a few very small and exposed islets support coastal rainforest, their preferred habitat. Burrow density at colonies varies from high to low with some areas vacant that appear suitable for nesting (Rodway et al. 1988; Gaston, pers. obs.). Burrowing density decreases from south to north along the islands of southeast Moresby. Almost half the plots from colonies in the Queen Charlotte Islands had burrow densities below 0.33/m2 (G.W. Kaiser, unpublished data, in Harfenist 2003). Expansion of the colony on Langara after the removal of rats indicates that predators may limit population size at certain colonies (Drever 2002). Competition with Cassin’s Auklets may occur in a few places where the species breeding habitats overlap (Vermeer et al. 1984) but is probably not an important limiting factor (A. Gaston, pers. comm.).

Habitat loss is a continual threat for most Ancient Murrelet colonies despite existing federal and provincial protection, including the recently created Wildlife Habitat Areas (see next section). The extent of the negative impact that human disturbance can have is seen in the case of a colony on southern Langara Island that appeared to be displaced when a fishing lodge was built (Vermeer et al. 1997). Though an extreme example, these birds are at risk from any visitor activity that damages burrows or destroys their habitat (Harfenist et al. 2002).

Habitat Protection/Ownership

Sixteen of 31 Ancient Murrelet nesting colonies are protected under the Canada National Park Act in the Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, the southern part of the Queen Charlotte Islands (Fig. 3). One large colony off the west coast of Graham Island, Hippa Island, is a Provincial Ecological Reserve. Two other colonies, Reef Island and the Limestone islands, are protected as Wildlife Management Areas under the BC Wildlife Act. Two colonies (Lucy and Cox islands), where rats eradicated Ancient Murrelets, are on provincial crown land (Harfenist et al. 2002).

Under the Identified Wildlife Management Strategy (IWMS) of the BC Forest and Range Practice Act (formerly the BC Forest Practices Code), 11 Wildlife Habitat Areas have been approved for the protection Ancient Murrelet breeding colonies. These include Frederick, Helgesen, Marble, Luxmoore, Rogers, Sauders, Instructor, Lihou and Willie Islands (A. Hetherington, 2003, pers. comm.; info available Wildlife Habitat Areas designate important habitats in which activities are managed to limit their impact on the Identified Wildlife element for which the area was established.

Presently, there are no plans under the Canada Wildlife Act to create National Wildlife Areas in the Queen Charlotte Islands. However, there are 14 proposed ‘Haida Protected Areas” of which the largest is Duu Guusd (Langara Island) (Harfenist et al. 2002).

Figure 3: Location of Haida and Federal Protected Terrestrial Areas as Well as Provincial Parks, Ecological Reserves and Wildlife Management Areas in Queen Charlotte Islands

Figure 3: Location of Haida and federal protected terrestrial areas as well as provincial parks, ecological reserves and wildlife management areas in Queen Charlotte Islands

Harfenist et al. 2002.


Return to Table of Contents



The Ancient Murrelet is a small marine bird and is fairly generalized physically for an auk, having a bill that is neither specialized for fish nor plankton, and a functional morphology intermediate between specialized wing-propelled divers such as murres and the less specialized auklets (Gaston 1994a). It is unique in being the only seabird that has fully precocial chicks that go to sea without ever having been fed on the nest (Gaston 1994b). It also has a unique vocal repertoire that allows it to communicate effectively during its nocturnal colonial visits (Gaston 1994a).

Reproduction and Survival

In Canada, Ancient Murrelets breed only in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Timing of breeding varies across its range, with an observed 6-day delay in egg laying for every 1ºC decrease in mean April sea-surface temperature near colonies (Gaston 1992). Generally, birds arrive at the colony in March with median clutch completion dates being between mid-April and early May (Gaston and Jones 1998). Timing of breeding varies between colonies and may be dependent on when the risks to adults from predation are least, and the availability of food for chicks is highest (Gaston 1997). Each breeding pair produces one clutch per year of 2 eggs each, 6 – 10 days apart, with no replacements (Gaston 1994a).

Ancient Murrelet parents share incubation duties equally (Gaston 1992) but do not feed their chicks before leaving the burrow. The chicks leave the burrow at night, 1‑4 days after hatching (Sealy 1976; Shibaev 1978; Jones et al. 1990) and are raised entirely at sea (Litvinenko and Shibaev 1987). Parents feed the young for about 1 month, by which time they are fully grown and feathered (Litvinenko and Shibaev 1987).

Ancient Murrelets first breed at 3-4 years of age (Gaston and Jones 1998). Where there are no introduced predators, breeding pairs rear an average of 1.5 young per year to the stage of colony departure (Vermeer and Lemon 1986; Gaston 1992). Most family groups seen at sea after departure from their colonies are made up of two adults and two chicks. So, despite the precocial departure, survival of young during the first few days after deserting the nest site appears to be high (Gaston 1992). However, body condition and date of chick departure influences survival. Based on rates of recapture, chicks that leave the colony at 26 g or less (at any time) survive less well than heavier birds; birds leaving after the median date of departure survive best (Gaston 1997). Mean annual survival rate of adult Ancient Murrelets is 77%, relatively low for an alcid (Gaston 1990), but breeding success is high. Based on data from Reef Island, adult birds breed for an average of 4.5 years (Gaston 1994a).


There is limited information on the physiology of Ancient Murrelets. However, there are traits common to alcids that provide some information. Auks store fat in a thin subcutaneous layer over much of the body, rather than in pockets as is the case in most other birds (Gaston 1992). Auks also have heat exchange mechanisms in their legs (rete mirabile) to limit heat loss (Gaston 1992) and for their size, have high basal metabolic rates; an adaptation for keeping their bodies warm in colder climates. In order for auks to store oxygen while diving, they have a high blood volume and high levels of myoglobin (Gaston 1992).

Chicks are born at a mean weight larger than in other auks (15% of adult body weight versus 11%), with legs that are almost adult size. They also have very large fat stores at hatching (Duncan and Gaston 1988) used for energy reserves and possibly insulation. At hatching, chicks contain 13 g fat, but lose 40% of this before leaving the burrow (losing 2 g per day while in burrow). The remaining reserves are essential for the long, steady swim that they will have to undertake once they reach the water. What also helps the bird once they reach the water is their ability to thermoregulate immediately (Gaston and Jones 1998).


Ancient Murrelets in Canada breed exclusively in the Queen Charlotte Islands off the British Columbia coast from April to June. Once breeding is complete, they leave the vicinity of their breeding colonies. Family groups from colonies in Hecate Strait remain in the Strait for several weeks (Duncan and Gaston 1990) while some appear off the Goose Islands in Queen Charlotte Sound during the same period (Guiguet 1953). By August, Ancient Murrelets are uncommon in Hecate Strait and in September they virtually disappear from British Columbia waters (Gaston 1992). Their movements during this season are unknown (Campbell et al. 1990; Gaston 1994). Large numbers of Ancient Murrelets appear in inshore waters off Vancouver Island by late October, where they remain until mid-February (Wahl et al. 1981; Campbell et al. 1990). A small number of birds move into the Bering Sea to winter, while others are known to remain within the Canadian breeding range (Gaston 1994a). Smaller numbers occur during the same season in waters out to the edge of the continental shelf off Washington, Oregon and California (Ainley 1976; Balz and Morejohn 1977; Briggs et al. 1987). By March, they appear in large numbers in Hecate Strait and begin visiting their colonies prior to egg laying.

Sightings of Ancient Murrelets have been recorded in Hecate Strait and the Queen Charlotte Sound in January and April through July, but not in September (Morgan 1997). They are present in Dixon Entrance in April and May; they have been reported in July, but are absent by October (Morgan 1997). Though it appears at times that most birds disperse south of the Queen Charlotte Island (Sealy 1976), some remain close to their colonies (Morgan 1997). Bird densities are highest during breeding season. The highest summer densities occur at the outer edge of the continental shelf, between Langara and Frederick islands. In the fall, sightings are restricted to the edge of the Shelf, west of Cartwright Sound, while winter sightings have been restricted to Hecate Strait, between Skidegate Inlet and Cape St. James (Morgan 1997). Ancient Murrelets are regularly sighted on Christmas Bird Counts in Masset and Rose Spit (Morgan 1997).

Visits by birds to other colonies do occur when colonies are close. Birds visiting non-natal colonies were found at Reef and East Limestone islands, located 6 km apart. However there was no evidence that these birds were breeding on their non-natal island. Whether birds were also visiting Lyell Island, located 15 km from Reef Island and 20 km from East Limestone Island, could not be determined but it may be possible (Gaston and Adkins 1998).

Only one banding recovery of a Canadian Ancient Murrelet has been away from the Queen Charlotte Islands: a sub-adult/immature found dead on a beach in Washington State (Gaston 1994b). The origin of the birds that occur off southern British Columbia in winter is not known, but the large numbers involved suggest they are from the Queen Charlotte Islands.

Of all the alcids, the Ancient Murrelet is one of the species most prone to vagrancy (Gaston and Jones 1998). There have been sightings on lakes in the British Columbia interior and eight records from the Canadian Prairie provinces (Sealy et al. 2001). Several records also exist for the Ancient Murrelet in Mexico (Erickson et al. 1995) and Great Britain (Waldon 1994).

Nutrition and Interspecific Interactions

The diet of the adult Ancient Murrelet is made up primarily of large zooplankton and fish. Composition of the diets varies by season, age, location and availability (Sealy 1975; Vermeer et al. 1985; Gaston 1994). Before breeding in late March and early April, the birds are known to eat Euphausia pacifica, while Thysanoessa spinifera becomes a dominant part of their diet after breeding begins (Sealy 1975). Fish (including larval and juvenile fish) dominated the diet of the birds in June. Later in the season, they also feed on fish, primarily Pacific sand lance, (Ammodytes hexapterus) and rockfish (Sebastes spp.) but also flatfish (Pleuronectidae), juvenile shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata) and greenlings (Hexagrammos spp.) (Sealy 1975).

Information on winter diet is scarce. Gaston et al. (1993) found that the entire winter diet of Ancient Murrelets off southeastern Vancouver Island consisted of Euphausia pacifica (Harfenist 2003). In November, juvenile herring (Clupea harengus) dominated their diet.

There is also very little information on Ancient Murrelet chick diet. The stomach contents of 8 young collected at sea contained only sand lance (Gaston 1992). Results of an earlier study from Langara Island showed that the stomachs of subadults contained sand lance and euphausiids (Sealy 1975).


While Ancient Murrelets can be found breeding in all types of forest, potential recolonization following forest destruction may take a long time (Gaston 1994b). At Limestone Island, a large area cleared by a wildfire was still not being used by murrelets 20 years later, although alder had regenerated strongly.

The reduction in area occupied by Ancient Murrelets at colonies on Langara and Lyell islands seems to be a response to heavy predation pressure by rats (Gaston 1994b). Recovery from such declines may require a critical number and density of active burrows to attract recruits. If that is the case, then recovery of extirpated colonies is unlikely, especially when population declines through the entire breeding range are common.

Pre-breeding birds have been trapped on islands other than their natal site, which suggests that some birds disperse away from their natal colony to breed (Gaston 1990). For instance, only 3% of pre-breeders trapped at East Limestone Island were banded as chicks, although about 50% of departing chicks were banded (Gaston 1990; Gaston and Adkins 1998). Subsequent DNA analysis at George and East Limestone Islands also suggests that birds move between colonies (Pearce et al. 2002). This ability to move between colonies may provide it with a mechanism to adjust to increasing pressure from human disturbance or predators, if appropriate habitat is nearby.

Finally, Ancient Murrelets are highly sensitive to disturbance at nest sites, causing pairs to abandon their burrow and eggs (Gaston et al. 1988). As pairs do not lay replacement eggs, the impact of abandonment is high and is considered the greatest cause of reproductive failure for these birds (Gaston and Jones 1998).


Return to Table of Contents

Population Sizes and Trends

Population declines have been observed at six colonies and eleven have been abandoned. Decreases have been observed on Langara, Lyell and Kunghit Islands because of introduced rats (Harfenist 1994; Bertram and Nagorsen 1995). Declines on Helgesen, Saunders and Limestone Islands have been attributed to raccoons, Procyon lotor (Gaston and Masselink 1997). Population increases of between 2.6% and 9.5% annually have been recorded on Reef, George, Ramsay and Lihou (Lemon and Gaston 1999, Table 1). Using data from colonies with surveys in both the 1980s and 1990s, an overall decline rate of approximately 18 percent over 10 years can be calculated.

Several small colonies in the southeast Moresby area have disappeared since the early 1970s. Murrelets were present on Low Island and the Skedans Islands in 1970, but were gone by 1983 (Summers 1974; Rodway et al. 1988). It is unlikely that either of these sites would have supported large populations because the islands are very small. Other colonies that have disappeared include Lucy, Cox, Instructor, Boulder, Sea Pigeon, Arichika, Bischof, Tar and High Islands (Rodway 1991). 

Population Estimates

There are an estimated 256 000 pairs of Ancient Murrelets nesting on 31 colonies in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Rodway 1991; Gaston 1992; Vermeer et al. 1997). The largest colonies are found on Frederick, George and Langara islands. Since the time that surveying began in the early 1970s, 6 colonies have decreased in size, 4 have increased, while 11 have been abandoned (Table 1, and section on Canadian range).

Table 1 (Colony census): Census and Monitoring of Ancient Murrelet Populations in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Lemon and Gaston 1999)
Colony census1980198119821983198419851986198819891991
Reef I.*     7 845    
East Limestone I.*   2 376    2 850 
Dodge Pt., Lyell I.  10 656       
George I.     11 614    
Langara I.* 82 650     63 150  
Frederick I.68 407         
Helgesen I.      6 804   
Lihou I.      6 452   
Kunghit I.+      44.2   


Table 1 (Colony census) continued: Census and Monitoring of Ancient Murrelet Populations in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Lemon and Gaston 1999)
Colony census19921993199519961998Annual change (%)References
Reef I.*  10 465  2.90Gaston and Lemon 1996
East Limestone I.*  2 122  -1.00Gaston and Lemon 1996
Dodge Pt., Lyell I.8 332    -2.25Lemon 1993a
George I.   17 384 3.70Lemon 1997
Langara I.* 41 220   -6.60Harfenist 1994
Frederick I.    70 3210.20Lemon, unpub.
Helgesen I. 1 139   -23Gaston and Masselink 1997
Lihou I. 12 140   9.50Gaston and Masselink 1997
Kunghit I.+ 11.1   -18Harfenist 1994


Table 1 (Monitoring plots): Census and Monitoring of Ancient Murrelet Populations in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Lemon and Gaston 1999)
Monitoring plots1980198119821983198419851986198819891991
Ramsay I.*    206     
George I.*     258   327


Table 1 (Monitoring plots) continued: Census and Monitoring of Ancient Murrelet Populations in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Lemon and Gaston 1999)
Monitoring plots19921993199519961998Annual change (%)References
Ramsay I.*252    2.60Lemon 1993b
George I.*   367 3.30Lemon 1997

* Counts or estimates of burrows: other figures are breeding population estimates in pairs of birds, except (+), colony area in ha.
Numbers for Frederick Island in 1998 are provisional, pending reanalysis of colony area.
Data from 1980 - 1988 for whole colony censuses are from Rodway et al. 1988, 1990 and 1994.
All estimates suggest increases ranging from 0,2 - 9,5% annually except where there are/were rats (Langara, Lyell, Kunghit), or raccoons (East Limestone, Helgesen).

Though there is evidence that birds can move between colonies that are close together, there is no evidence that individuals in abandoned colonies moved to another location.

Changes in population size of colonies recently surveyed in the Queen Charlotte Islands are summarized below. Many islands have not been surveyed in nearly 20 years and therefore that information has not been included as it offers no additional insight into population trends. Estimates made on Reef, East Limestone, Langara, Ramsay and George islands are based on counts or estimates of burrow numbers; Lyell, George, Helgesen and Lihou islands are estimates of breeding pairs of birds. Data from Frederick Island are provisional, pending re-analysis of the colony area. Overall, recent increases of between 0.2 and 9.5% have occurred on all islands except on those where rats or raccoons are found (Lemon and Gaston 1999). All colonies with alien predators decline, often dramatically.

Langara Island

Based on early surveys, historic levels of the Langara Island population were estimated at approximately 200 000 birds (Gaston 1994b). In 1971, initial estimates indicated a population of between 80 000 and 90 000 breeding pairs. Subsequent studies found that the population had declined to 25 700 pairs by 1981 (Rodway et al. 1983) and 24 100 pairs in 1988 (Bertram 1989). The area occupied by Ancient Murrelets had also contracted between 1981 and 1988. These data indicate a dramatic reduction in population size of what was probably the largest colony in the Queen Charlotte Islands and perhaps in the world (Nelson 1990).

Earlier studies showed that the colony on Langara Island was not only declining, but also becoming more dense, from a density of 840 burrows/ha in 1981 (Rodway et al. 1983) to 1358 burrows/ha in 1988 (Bertram 1989). Estimates of average density are obviously affected by the choice of colony boundary. For example, if some unoccupied areas are included, the density will be lower, but compensated for in the population size estimate by the increased area of the colony. However, a difference in where the colony boundary was does not explain the difference in density, because the mean density found by Bertram (1989) was greater than the maximum density found by Rodway et al. (1983). One reason for this increase in density may have been the presence of rats on the island.

Since the main rat eradication program was initiated on Langara Island in 1995, the population has not increased in size, though the colony area has expanded. By 1999, the breeding population had decreased from 14 630± 2 060 pairs in 1993, to 10 365 ± 2 011 pairs, but the difference was not statistically significant (Drever 2002). Preliminary analysis of 2004 data continues to show no statistically significant recovery for this population (Hipfner 2004, pers. comm.). However, in 1999, there was a significant decrease in burrow density (1800 ± 160 burrows/ha to 765 ± 104 burrows/ha). There was also an increase in overall colony size from 22.9 ha in 1993 to 35.6 ha in 1999, with colony expansion towards the shoreline where the rats used to be (Drever 2002). This supports the suggestion that the presence of the rats was influencing the burrow density in the colony. There may be other factors (e.g. changes in zooplankton production, mortality from commercial fishery) limiting the population on the island. (Drever 2002)

East Limestone Island and Reef Island

Studies of the Limestone Islands reveal that between 1974 and 1989, the population fell from an estimated 5000 pairs (Summers 1974), to approximately 1500 pairs (Rodway et al. 1988; Gaston et al. 1989). Only a small number of birds remained on the west island, occupying a small portion of the northeast corner. The population on East Limestone has either remained stable or decreased slightly (1% annual decrease) since the removal of the raccoons between 1985 and 1995, and presently (1999) is relatively stable (Gaston and Lemon 1996; Gray 2001). Reef Island, only 6 km away, experienced a population increase of 30% (annual increase of 2.9%) during that same time (1974-1989), based on census and chick-trapping results (Gaston and Lemon 1996). The presence of raccoons on East Limestone may explain the difference between colonies and may also explain the recruitment of Limestone birds to Reef Island (Gaston and Lemon 1996).

Rankine Islands

No discernable change in population has been noted on Rankine Island. The colony was surveyed in 2000, revisiting burrow density plots that had been set up in 1984. An analysis comparing the numbers of burrows in the plots in 1984 and 2000 revealed no change in numbers (M.J.F. Lemon, unpubl. data).

Frederick Island

Frederick Island was re-surveyed in 1998. There was a slight increase in population size, from 68 407 pairs in 1982 to 70 321 in 1998, an annual increase of 0.20% (M.J.F. Lemon, unpubl. data). There are no introduced predators on Frederick Island.

Other Islands

Introduced predators have caused reduction in populations on several islands, including Langara (rats), Helgesen (raccoons; annual decrease of 23% (Gaston and Masselink 1997), and may have caused the extirpation on others. The presence of rats has caused populations on other islands, such as Kunghit and Lyell, to decrease dramatically or disappear altogether, Kunghit Island experienced a decrease in colony size from 44.2 ha to 11.1 ha between 1986 and 1993 (annual decrease of 18%, Harfenist 1994, Bertram and Nagorsen 1995), and it now appears that the population was extirpated by 2004, (Hipfner 2004, pers. comm.). On Lyell Island, the population decreased from 10 656 burrows in 1982 to 8 332 in 1992 (25% decrease, or 2.5% per annum) with a 30% decline in colony area (Lemon 1993a). The impacts of predators appears to be long-lasting, as the populations on Helgesen, Little Helgesen and Saunders have shown no signs of recovery since raccoons were exterminated in the mid 1990’s (Hipfner 2004, pers. comm.).

On islands with no introduced predators, there has been an annual increase in population of between 0% and 9.5% (Lemon and Gaston 1999). Annual increases of 9.5% were seen on Lihou Island between 1986 and 1993 (Gaston and Masselink 1997), an island with no introduced predators, and this population continues to remain stable today (Hipfner 2004, pers. comm.)Some of these population increases may represent a shift in the distribution of birds away from islands with alien predators (Harfenist et al. 2002).

Monitoring Plots

In 1985 and 1986, Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) field crews set up permanent monitoring plots on several Ancient Murrelet colonies in the Queen Charlotte Islands, including George and Ramsay Island. The plots were mapped and clearly marked on the ground and the numbers of burrows counted:

George Island - Number of burrows in 8 monitoring plots increased from 258 burrows in 1985 to 327 in 1991, an increase of 27%. In 1996, a total of 367 burrows were present, a further 12% increase (Lemon 1997). Overall, the population is estimated to have increased from 11 614 pairs in 1985 to 17 384 in 1996, an annual increase of 3.7% (Lemon and Gaston 1999).

Ramsay Island - A 1992 survey of the 1985 plots showed that burrow numbers on 11 monitoring plots had also increased (Lemon 1993b). A survey in 2002 showed an overall increase of 58% between 1984 and 2002 (M. Hipfner unpubl. data). These data indicate that the numbers of Ancient Murrelets are increasing in the Gwaii Haanas area. Both George and Ramsay Islands have no introduced predators.


Return to Table of Contents

Limiting Factors and Threats

The populations of Ancient Murrelets in Canada continue to be under pressure for many reasons. Major factors responsible are outlined below.

Introduced Predators

The main factor limiting populations in the past century has been the introduction of mammalian predators to island colonies including rats and raccoons in British Columbia. In Canada, rats are considered an important predator of Ancient Murrelets (Drever and Harestad 1998). They have been recorded on 18 islands in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Bertram and Nagorsen 1995) including four with breeding populations of Ancient Murrelets: Kunghit, Lyell, Langara, and Murchison islands (Bertram and Nagorsen 1995). Rats are responsible for declines or extirpation of colonies on Kunghit, Lyell, Langara, Cox, Lucy, Murchison and Bischof islands (Harfenist and Kaiser 1997). For example, in 1992, 50% of occupied burrows on Lyell showed evidence of rat predation (Lemon 1993a) and the 90% decline in the murrelet population on Langara is thought to be the result of rat predation (Bertram 1995). Although rats have now been eradicated on Langara, with none detected since 1996 (Taylor et al. 2000), recolonisation could occur through commercial and pleasure boats (Bertram and Nagorsen 1995).

Another threat to Ancient Murrelets is raccoons. Raccoons have been previously reported from several of the islands with breeding colonies (Helgesen, Limestone, Ramsay, Skincuttle, Saunders and George), but are now found only on Alder islands (Bertram and Nagorsen 1995; Harfenist and Kaiser 1997; Harfenist 2002; Harfenist unpublished data, A. Gaston, pers. comm.; Hipfner 2004, pers.comm.). Raccoons can cause substantial losses to seabird colonies and are likely responsible for declines recorded on Limestone, Saunders and Helgesen islands. For example, in 1991, three adult raccoons on East Limestone Island killed at least 11% of the breeding population of Ancient Murrelets and reduced the number of chicks leaving the colony by 35% (Gaston 1991; Gaston 1992). Following the removal of raccoons during in 1992, the numbers of Ancient Murrelet chicks produced increased by 20%, and adult mortality decreased by nearly 80% (Gaston and Lawrence 1993). Similarly, the population of Ancient Murrelets on Helgesen Island declined by 80% over 7 years when 8-12 raccoons were present (Gaston and Masselink 1997).

Although raccoons have been eradicated from a number of the islands (Helgesen, Little Helgeson, Saunders, E. and W. Limestone) about half of the colonies in the Queen Charlotte Island are vulnerable to invasion (Lemon and Gaston 1999; Hipfner 2004, pers.comm.).

Oceanographic Changes

There is some evidence that oceanographic changes could have long-term impacts on Ancient Murrelet populations. A recent comparison between changes in oceanographic conditions and inter-annual changes in breeding biology of Ancient Murrelets in Hecate Strait between 1983 and 1999 showed that long-term changes in ocean conditions could have an impact on the health of the population (Gaston and Smith 2001). Correlations were found between sea-surface temperature and Southern Oscillations as well as mean number of chicks departing per breeding pair and chick departure mass.

Oil Exploration

The recent decision by the Federal government (initiated by a request from the BC provincial government) to review the moratorium on offshore oil and gas exploration in the Queen Charlotte Basin, specifically in Hecate Strait, is a potential threat to the Ancient Murrelet. If lifted, the exploratory drilling and eventual increase in shipping activity and oil transport (tanker or pipeline) will significantly increase the possibility of catastrophic oil spills in the region. There may also be an increase in nighttime mortalities due to collisions with lines near oil platform lights (Montevecchi et al. 1999). Ancient Murrelets have been heavily impacted by spills in other regions (Harfenist 2003) because oil spills are a particular threat to species that congregate in one area (Harfenist et al. 2002). This might also increase what is a continual threat to these birds--small, low-level spills from ships moving through the region (Harfenist and Kaiser 1997). 

Commercial Fisheries

By-catch of seabirds continues to be a threat to populations in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Estimates suggest that 25,000 seabirds may be killed annually in fishing gear off the British Columbia coast (Morgan et al. 1999). Ancient Murrelets have been caught in gill nets near Langara Island. Fisheries may have been the cause of the large, early decline in this population in the 1950s and 1960s, and may continue to play a part in the health of Ancient Murrelets on Langara (Bertram 1995). Overfishing of Ancient Murrelet prey species may also have a negative impact on this species (Harfenist et al. 2002).


Disturbance of nesting or feeding birds by tourists or other human activity in the region where Ancient Murrelets are found is a continual concern. Recreational boating and camping can damage habitat or injure chicks or adults (Harfenist et al. 2002). Lights around campsites and on boats are known to disorient birds during nights with low overcast and fog (Harfenist et al. 2002, A. Gaston, pers. comm.).


Forestry activities could directly affect Ancient Murrelet breeding activities by reducing habitat quality, both through removal of the forest canopy preferred by the birds and through compaction of soil, making burrowing difficult. Logging has been suggested as a confounding variable in the lack of recovery at the Langara Island colony (M. Chutter, pers. comm. 2004).


Return to Table of Contents

Special Significance of the Species

The Queen Charlotte Islands support about half of the world’s population of Ancient Murrelets (Gaston 1994b). The Haida of the Queen Charlotte Islands harvested Ancient Murrelets at least into the 1960’s (W. Campbell, 1992, pers. comm., in Gaston 1994b) and the birds have some cultural significance (Gaston 1994b).

The Ancient Murrelet has also become the “flagship” of conservation efforts in the Queen Charlotte Islands, especially by the Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, which continues to encourage eradication or control of introduced animals in the archipelago.


Return to Table of Contents

Existing Protection or Other Status

The adult, nests and eggs of Ancient Murrelets, are protected by the Migratory Birds Convention Act (1994). However, members of the Haida can still legally hunt murrelets, as the bird was a traditional food source. Under the Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act (2002), the Ancient Murrelet is protected in its “sea space” and has listed status. It is also protected from killing and wounding, taking and transporting under the BC Wildlife Act.

Eleven breeding colonies are currently protected as Wildlife Habitat Areas under the Forest and Range Practices Act of BC. Also, the Haida Nation is working with Parks Canada on management issues in the Queen Charlotte Islands, including those involving the Ancient Murrelet (G. Goulet, 2003, pers. comm.; Captain Gold, Archipelago Management Board, 2003, pers. comm.).

Globally, the Ancient Murrelet has a Global Heritage Status rank of G4, or ‘globally secure’. It is not listed under CITES, nor is it listed in the IUCN Red book. In the United States, the Ancient Murrelet has a National Heritage Status rank of N4B, N4N (apparently secure). It is ranked in Alaska as S4 (apparently secure and in Washington as S3S.

In Canada, it has a National Heritage Status Rank of N3 or vulnerable. It has a Heritage Status Rank in BC of S2S3B, S4N and is also Blue-listed (of special concern) by the BC Provincial government.


Return to Table of Contents

Technical Summary

Synthliboramphus antiquus

Ancient Murrelet
Guillemot à cou blanc

Range of Occurrence in Canada: BC

Extent and Area Information

extent of occurrence (EO)(km2) in Canada
200 000 km2 nonbreeding
30 000 km2 breeding

specify trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)

are there extreme fluctuations in EO (> 1 order of magnitude)?

area of occupancy (AO) (km2 (adult feeding range = coastline of existing colonies with a buffer of 20 km; estimated coast line of 300 km)
6 000 km2

specify trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)

are there extreme fluctuations in AO (> 1 order magnitude)?

number of extant locations

specify trend in # locations (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)

are there extreme fluctuations in # locations (>1 order of magnitude)?

habitat trend: specify declining, stable, increasing or unknown trend in area, extent or quality of habitat
Number of colonies remains constant; area of colonies declining where predators present

Population Information

generation time (average age of parents in the population) (indicate years, months, days, etc.)
About 7-8 years

number of mature individuals (capable of reproduction) in the Canadian population (or, specify a range of plausible values)
512 000

total population trend: specify declining, stable, increasing or unknown trend in number of mature individuals

if decline, % decline over the last/next 10 years or 3 generations, whichever is greater (or specify if for shorter time period)
About 18% from 1980s to 1990s at censused colonies

are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals (> 1 order of magnitude)?

is the total population severely fragmented (most individuals found within small and relatively isolated (geographically or otherwise) populations between which there is little exchange, i.e., ≤ 1 successful migrant / year)?
No; exchange between colonies in the Queen Charlotte Islands

list each population and the number of mature individuals in each
Not applicable

specify trend in number of populations (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)
Not applicable

are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations (>1 order of magnitude)?
Not applicable

Threats (actual or imminent threats to populations or habitats)

  • Introduced mammalian predators; rats or raccoons (primary threat)
  • Disturbance and habitat destruction
  • Oil exploration
  • Oceanographic changes
  • Competition/impact commercial fisheries

Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source): Moderate

does species exist elsewhere (in Canada or outside)?

status of the outside population(s)?
Uncertain, but likely declining in Alaska and Asia

is immigration known or possible?

would immigrants be adapted to survive here?

is there sufficient habitat for immigrants here?
Yes, but introduced predators may be limiting available breeding sites

Quantitative Analysis

Not done

Current Status

COSEWIC: Special Concern

Recommended Status and Reasons for Designation

Status: Special Concern
Alpha-numeric code:

Reasons for Designation: This is a ground nesting seabird threatened by mammalian predators that have been introduced to its breeding islands. Predators have been removed from some islands but populations have not increased as a result. About half of the world population nests in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia; the Canadian population is thought to be declining.

Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Declining Total Population):
not applicable; current declines poorly measured and unlikely to be large enough

Criterion B (Small Distribution, and Decline or Fluctuation):
not applicable; distribution too large

Criterion C (Small Total Population Size and Decline):
not applicable; population too large

Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
not applicable; population and area of occupancy both too large

Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
not done.


Return to Table of Contents


The report writer, Christianne Wilhelsom would like to thank everyone she contacted for information on the Ancient Murrelet (listed below). Everyone was generous with their time and provided access to most of the information included within. In particular, she would like to thank Moira Lemon, Pam Whitehead and Krista Amey at CWS, Shawn Stephenson at US Fish and Wildlife – Alaska and Norm Sloan at Gwaii Haanas Park. She would also like to thank Tony Gaston, Lucie Metras and Dick Cannings for their help and guidance

Funding for the preparation of this status report provided by the Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada.

Information Sources

Ainley, D.G. 1976. The occurrence of seabirds in the coastal region of California. Western Birds 7:33-68.

Ainley, D.G., and R.J. Boekelheide. 1990. Seabirds of the Farallon Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Austin, O.L. 1948. The birds of Korea. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 101:301.

Balz, D.M., and G.V. Morejohn. 1977. Food habits and niche overlap of seabirds wintering on Monterey Bay California. Auk 94:526-543.

Beebe, F.L. 1960. The marine peregrines of the northwest Pacific coast. Condor 62:145-189.

Bendire, C. 1895. Notes on the Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus), by Chase Littlejohn, with annotations. Auk 12:270-278.

Bertram, D.F. 1989. The status of Ancient Murrelets breeding on Langara Island, British Columbia, in 1988. Technical Report Series No. 59 Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Delta, British Columbia.

Bertram, D.F. 1995. The roles of introduced rats and commercial fishing in the decline of Ancient Murrelets on Langara Island, British Columbia. Conservation Biology 9:865-872.

Bertram, D.F., I.L. Jones, E. Cooch, H. Knechtel, and F. Cooke. 2000. Survival rates of Cassin's and Rhinoceros auklets at Triangle Island, British Columbia. Condor 102:155-162.

Bertram, D.F., and D.W. Nagorsen. 1995. Introduced rats, Rattus spp., on the Queen Charlotte Islands: implications for seabird conservation. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 109:6-10.

Briggs, K.T.,W.B. Tyler, D.B. Lewis, and D.R. Carlson. 1987. Bird communities at sea off California: 1975-1983. Studies in Avian Biology 11.

Byrd, G.V., and R.H. Day. 1986. The avifauna of Buldir Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Arctic 39:109-118.

Campbell, R.W. 1968. Alexandrian rat predation on Ancient Murrelet eggs. Murrelet 49:38.

Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall.. 1990. The birds of British Columbia - volume 2. Royal British Columbia Museum and the Canadian Wildlife Service, Victoria. 636 pp.

Canadian Wildlife Service. 2003. Map - Ancient Murrelet Densities (#/sq. km) for British Columbia from Pelagic Shipboard Surveys BC, 1981 - 2001. Scale 1:5 500 000. in. Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region. Environment Canada. Delta, BC.

Carl, G.C., and C.J. Guiguet. 1972. Alien animals in British Columbia. British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook. 14:1-103.

Collar, N.J., and P. Andrew. 1988. Birds to Watch: the ICBP World Checklist of Threatened Birds. No. 8, International Council for Bird Preservation Technical Publication, Cambridge, England. 77 pp.

Cowan, M.I. 1989. Birds and mammals on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Pages 175-186 in G.G. E. Scudder and N. Gessler, editors. The Outer Shores. Queen Charlotte Islands Museum Press, Skidegate, B.C.

Drent, D.H., and C.J. Guiguet. 1961. A catalogue of British Columbia sea-bird colonies. No. 12, British Columbia Provincial Museum Occasional Paper, Victoria, British Columbia.

Drever, M.C. 2002. Status of Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) and upland birds following eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Langara Island, Haida Gwaii. Technical Report No. 385, Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia, 34 pp.

Drever, M.C., and A.S. Harestad. 1998. Diets of Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, on Langara Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: implications for conservation of breeding seabirds. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112:676-683.

Duncan, D.C. and A.J. Gaston. 1988. The relationship between precocity and body composition in some neonate alcids. Condor. 90:718-7121.

Duncan, D.C., and A.  Gaston. 1990. Movements of Ancient Murrelet broods away from a colony. Studies in Avian Biology 14:109-113.

Elliott, J.E., D.G. Noble, R.J. Norstrom and P.E. Whitehead. 1989. Organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs from the Pacific coast of Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 12:67-82.

Erickson, R.A., R.A. Hamilton, S.N.G. Howell, and P. Pyle. 1995. First record of the Marbled Murrelet and third record of the Ancient Murrelet for Mexico. Western Birds 26:39-45.

Fugimaki, Y. 1986. Seabird colonies on Hokkaido Island. Pages 82-87 in N.M. Litvinenko, editor. Morskie Ptitsy Dalnego Vostoka (Seabirds of the Far East). Far East Science Centre, USSR Academy of Science, Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences, Vladivostok.

Gaston, A.J. 1990. Population parameters of the Ancient Murrelet. Condor 92:998-1011.

Gaston, A.J. 1991. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society: report on scientific activities in 1990. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, Queen Charlotte City, B.C.

Gaston, A.J. 1992. The Ancient Murrelet: a natural history in the Queen Charlotte Islands. T&A D Poyser, London.

Gaston, A.J. 1994a. Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus) in A. Poole and F. Gill, editor. The Birds of North America, No. 132. Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia and The American Ornithologists' Union.

Gaston, A.J. 1994b. Status of the Ancient Murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus, in Canada and the Effects of Introduce Predators. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 108: 212 - 222.

Gaston, A.J. 1996. A nest box for Ancient Murrelets. Colonial Waterbirds 19:116-120.

Gaston, A.J. 1997. Mass and date at departure affect the survival of Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus chicks after leaving the colony. Ibis 139:673-678.

Gaston, A.J., editor. 2001. Laskeek Bay Research 11. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, Queen Charlotte City, B.C.

Gaston, A.J., and I.L. Jones. 1998. The Auks. Oxford University Press, New York.

Gaston, A.J., and A. Lawrence, editors. 1993. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society Report on Scientific Activities #3. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, Queen Charlotte City, BC.

Gaston, A.J., and M.J. Lemon. 1996. A tale of two islands: Comparison of population dynamics of Ancient Murrelets at two colonies in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Pages 29-38 in A.J. Gaston, editor. Laskeek Bay Research 6. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, Queen Charlotte City, B.C.

Gaston, A.J., and M. Masselink. 1997. The Impact of raccoons Procyon lotor on breeding seabirds in Englefield Bay, Haida Gwaii, Canada. Bird Conservation International 7:35-51.

Gaston, A.J., and C. Adkins. 1998. Inter-colony movements of Ancient Murrelets Synthliboramphus antiquus at two adjacent islands. Laskeek Bay Research 8:13‑20.

Gaston, A.J., I.L. Jones, and D.G. Noble. 1988. Monitoring Ancient Murrelet breeding populations. Colonial Waterbirds 11:58-66.

Gaston, A.J., H.R. Carter and S.G. Sealy 1993. Winter ecology and diet of Ancient Murrelets off Victoria, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:64-70.

Gaston, A.J., K. Heise, and A. Lawrence, and M.E. Lemon. 1989. Studies of Ancient Murrelets on the Limestone Islands, May-June 1989. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ms. Report, Hull, Quebec.

Gore, M.E.J., and W. Pyong-Oh. 1971. The Birds of Korea. Royal Asiatic Society, Korea.

Gray, J. 2001. East Limestone Island camp: report on the 1999 field season. Pages 2-8 in A.J. Gaston, editor. Laskeek Bay Research 10. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, Queen Charlotte City, B.C.

Guiguet, C.J. 1953. An ecological study of Goose Island, British Columbia, with special reference to mammals and birds. Occasional Papers of the British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria 10.

Harfenist, A. 1994. Effects of introduced rats of nesting seabirds of Haida Gwaii. Technical Report Series No. 218, Canadian Wildlife Service.

Harfenist, A. February 2003. DRAFT. Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Pages 108-121 in K. Paige, editor. Standards for Managing Identified Wildlife. Biodiversity Branch, Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. Victoria, B.C. Draft.

Harfenist, A., and G.W. Kaiser. 1997. Effects of introduced predators on the nesting seabirds on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Pages 132-136 in K. Vermeer and K.H. Morgan, editors. The ecology, status and conservation of marine and shoreline birds of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.

Harfenist, A., N.A. Sloan and P.M. Bartier. 2002. Living Marine Legacy of Gwaii Haanas. III: Marine Bird Baseline to 2000 and Marine Bird-related Management Issues throughout the Haida Gwaii Region. Technical Reports in Ecosystem Science 036, Parks Canada.

Hartman, L.H., and D.S. Eastman. 1999. Distribution of introduced raccoons Procyon lotor on the Queen Charlotte Islands: implications for burrow-nesting seabirds. Biological Conservation 88:1-13.

Hasegawa, H. 1984. Status and conservation of seabirds in Japan, with special attention to the Short-tailed Albatross. Pages 487-500 in J.P. Croxall, P.G.H. Evans, and R.W. Schreiber, editors. Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. ICBP Technical Publication No. 2, Cambridge.

Hatch, S.A., G.V. Byrd, D.B. Irons, and G.L. Hunt, Jr.  1993. Status and ecology of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla and R. brevirostris) in the North Pacific. Pages 140-153 in K. Vermeer, K.T. Briggs, K.H. Morgan, and D. Siegel-Causey, editors. The Status, Ecology and Conservation Of Marine Birds of the North Pacific Ocean. Canadian Wildlife Service Special Publication, Ottawa.

Hipfner, M. Unpublished data. Surveys of permanent seabird monitoring plots on Ramsay Island, Gwaii Haanas National Park, June 2002.

Hoffman, R. 1924. Breeding of the Ancient Murrelet in Washington. Condor 26:191.

Howald, G.R., P. Mineau, J.E. Elliott and K.M. Cheng. 2000. Brodifacoum poisoning of avian scavengers during rat control on a seabird colony. Ecotoxicology 8:431-447.

Jones, I.L., J.B. Falls and A.J. Gaston. 1990. Colony departure of family groups of Ancient Murrelets. The Condor 89:940-943.

Jones, R.D. and G.V. Byrd. 1979. Interrelationships between seabirds and introduced animals. Pages 221-226 in J.C. Bartonek and D.N. Nettleship, editors. Conservation of Marine Birds of northern North America. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington.

Kitano, K. 1981. Recent development of the studies on the North Pacific Polar frontal zone. Pages 1 - 10 in S. Mishima, editor. Pelagic Animals and Environments around the Subarctic Boundary in North Pacific. Research Institute N. Pacific Fisheries, Hokkaido University.

Kondratyev, A.Y., N.M. Litvinenko, and G.W. Kaiser (editors). 2000. Seabirds of the Russian Far East. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.

Lemon, M.J.F. 1993a. Survey of Ancient Murrelets at Dodge Point, Lyell Island. Pages 38-51 in A.J. Gaston, editor. Laskeek Bay Research 3. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, Queen Charlotte City, B.C.

Lemon, M.J.F. 1993b. Survey of Ancient Murrelets at on Ramsay Island. Pages 52-55 in A.J. Gaston, editor. Laskeek Bay Research 3. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, Queen Charlotte City, B.C.

Lemon, M.J.F. 1997. Seabird colony monitoring on George Island, 1996. Pages 27-48 in A.J. Gaston, editor. Laskeek Bay Research 7. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, Queen Charlotte City, B.C.

Lemon, M.J.F., and A.J. Gaston. 1999. Trends in Ancient Murrelet populations since 1980. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. Bird Trends No. 7:22-25.

Lensink, C.C. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in Alaska. Pages 13-28 in J.P. Croxall, editor. Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. ICBP Technical Publication, No. 2, Cambridge.

Litvinenko, N.M., and Y.V. Shibaev. 1987. The Ancient Murrelet - Synthliboramphus antiquus Gm.: reproductive biology and raising of young. Pages 72-84 in N.M. Litvinenko, editor. Distribution and biology of seabirds of the Far East. Far East Science Centre, USSR Acad. Science. Vladivostok, Russia.

Litvinenko, N.M., and Y.V. Shibaev. 1991. Status and conservation of seabirds nesting in South-east U.S.S.R. Pages 175-204 in J. P. Croxall, editor. Seabird Status and Conservation: a Supplement. ICBP Technical Publication No. 11, Cambridge.

Meyer de Shauensee, R. 1984. The Birds of China. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Montevecchi, W.A., F.K. Wiese, G. Davoren, A.W. Diamond, F. Huettmannn, and J. Linke. 1999. Seabird attraction to offshore platforms and seabird monitoring from offshore support vessels and other ships (Literature review on monitoring designs). Report 138, Environmental Studies Research Funds, Calgary, AB.

Morgan, K.H. 1997. The distribution and seasonality of marine birds of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Pages 78-90 in K. Vermeer and K.H. Morgan, editors. The ecology, status and conservation of marine and shoreline birds of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Canadian Wildlife Service.

Morgan, K.H., R.C.H. Wilson, and F. Aitkens. 1999. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Bycatch of Seabirds. Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, B.C. Dec 1-2, 1998.

Murata, E. 1958. The breeding of the Ancient Auk - Synthliboramphus antiquus (Gm.) of the island of Teuri, Hokkaido. Tori 14:22-26.

National Geographic Society. 1987. Field guide to the birds of North America, 3rd edition. National Geographic Society.

Nechaev, V.A. 1986. New data about seabirds on Sakhalin Island. Pages 71-81 in N.M. Litvinenko, editor. Morskie Ptitsy Dalnego Vostoka (Seabirds of the Far East). Far Eat Science Centre, USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences, Vladivostok.

Nelson, R.W. 1990. Status of the Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus pealei, on Langara Islands, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, 1968-1989. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:193-199.

Nelson, R. W., and M.T. Myers. 1976. Declines in populations of Peregrine Falcons and their seabird prey at Langara Island, British Columbia. Condor 78:281-293.

Nysewander, D.R., J. Forsell, P.A. Baird, D.J. Shields, G.J. Weiler, and J.H. Kogan. 1982. Marine bird and mammal survey of the eastern Aleutian islands, summers of 1980 - 1981. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpublished Report, Anchorage, AK.

Ohlendorf, H.M.,J.C. Bartonek, G.J. Divoky, E.E. Klaas, A.J. Krynitsky. 1982. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Special Scientific Report - Wildlife, No. 245, Washington, D.C. 41 pp.

Pearce, R.L., J.J. Wood, Y. Artukhin, T.P. Birt, M. Damus and V.L. Friesen. 2002. Mitochondrial DNA suggests high gene flow in Ancient Murrelets. The Condor 104:84-91.

Rodway, M.S. 1990. British Columbia Seabird Colony Inventory: report #2 - west coast Moresby Island. B.C. Tech Report No. 65, Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region.

Rodway, M.S. 1991. Status and conservation of breeding seabirds in British Columbia. Pages 43-102 in J.P. Croxall, editor. Seabird status and conservation: a supplement. International Council for Bird Protection Technical Publication, Cambridge, U.K.

Rodway, M.S. 1994. British Columbia Seabird Colony Inventory: report #6 - major colonies on the West coast of Graham Island. B.C. Tech Report No. 95, Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region.

Rodway, M.S., N. Hillis and L. Langley. 1983. Nesting population of Ancient Murrelets on Langara Island, British Columbia. Ms. Report, Canadian Wildlife Service, Vancouver.

Rodway, M.S., M.J. Lemon and G.W. Kaiser. 1988. British Columbia Seabird Colony Inventory: report #1 - east coast Moresby Island. B.C. Tech Report No. 50, Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region,.

Sealy, S.G. 1975. Feeding ecology of the Ancient and Marbled Murrelet near Langara Island, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 53:418-433.

Sealy, S.G. 1976. Biology of nesting Ancient Murrelets. The Condor 78:294-306.

Sealy, S.G., H.R. Carter and J. Hudon. 2001. Specimen records and sightings of Ancient Murrelets from the Canadian prairie provinces. Blue Jay 59: 175-183

Shibaev, Y.V. 1978. The descent to water and transition to sea life of Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus Gm. nestlings. Pages 79-85 in Ecology and Zoology of some vertebrates of the Far East. Institute of Biology and Soil Science, USSR Academy of Sciences' Far Eastern Branch, Vladivostok, Russia.

Shibaev, Y.V. 1987. Census of bird colonies and survey of certain bird species in Peter the Great Bay. Pages 43-59 in N.M. Litvinenko, editor. Rasprostranenie i biologiya morskikh ptits dalnego vostoka (Distribution and Biology of Seabirds of the Far East). Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences of The USSR Academy of Sciences' Far Eastern Branch, Vladivostok.

Smith, J.L., and C.D. French. 2000. Observations of Ancient Murrelet families at-sea in 1998. Pages 20-21 in A.J. Gaston, editor. Laskeek Bay Research 9. Laskeek Bay Conservation Society, Queen Charlotte City, B.C.

Sowls, A.L., S.A. Hatch, and C.J. Lensink. 1978. Catalog of Alaskan Seabird colonies. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska FWS/OBS-78/78. 254 pp.

Speich, S.M., and T.R. Wahl. 1989. Catalogue of Washington seabird colonies. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 88 (6), Washington.

Springer, A.M., A.Y. Kondratyev, H. Ogi, Y.V. Shibaev, and G.B. van Vliet. 1993. Status, ecology and conservation of Synthliboramphus Murrelets and auklets. Pages 187‑201 in K. Vermeer, K.T. Briggs, K.H. Morgan, and D. Siegel-Causey, editors. The status, ecology and conservation of marine birds on the North Pacific Ocean. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.

Summers, K.R. 1974. Seabirds breeding along the east coast of Moresby Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Syesis 7:1-12.

Summers, K.R. and M. Rodway. 1988. Raccoon-seabird interactions (with notes on rats and marten) on Moresby Island, Queen Charlotte Islands: a problem analysis. Unpublished report, Wildlife Branch, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Smithers, BC.

Taylor, R.H., and B.W. Thomas. 1989. Eradication of Norway rats Rattus norvegicus from Hawea Island, Fiordland, using brodifacoum. New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 12:23-32.

Taylor, R.H., and B.W. Thomas. 1993. Rats eradicated from rugged Breaksea Island (170 ha), Fiordland, using brodifacoum. Biological Conservation. 65:191-198.

Taylor, R.H., Gary W. Kaiser and Mark C. Drever. 2000. Eradication of Norway rats to recovery of seabird habitat on Langara Island, British Columbia. Restoration Ecology 8:151-160.

Tso-Hsin, C. 1987. A Synopsis of the Avifauna of China. Science Press, Beijing.

Udvardy, M.D.F. 1963. Zoogeographical study of the Pacific Alcidae. Proceedings of the Pacific Science Congress 10:85-111.

USFWS. 2003. Beringian Seabird Colony Catalog computer database and Colony Status Record archives. in. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Migratory Bird Management, Anchorage, Alaska.

Vermeer, K., J.D. Fulton and S.G. Sealy. 1985. Differential use of zooplankton prey by Ancient Murrelets and Cassin's Auklets in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Journal of Plankton Research 7:443-459.

Vermeer, K., and M.J.F. Lemon. 1986. Nesting habits and habitats of Ancient Murrelets and Cassin's Auklets in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Murrelet 67:33-44.

Vermeer, K., and K.H. Morgan, editors. 1997. The ecology, status and conservation of marine and shoreline birds of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper 93: 148 p.

Vermeer, K., A. Harfenist, G.W. Kaiser, and D.N. Nettleship. 1997. The reproductive biology, status, and conservation of seabirds breeding on the Queen Charlotte Islands: a summary. Pages 58 - 77 in K. Vermeer, and K.H. Morgan, editors. The ecology, status and conservation of marine and shoreline birds of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper 93.

Vermeer, K., Sealy, S.G., Lemon, M. and Rodway, M. 1984. Predation and potential environmental perturbances on Ancient Murrelets nesting in British Columbia. Pages 757-770 in J.P. Croxall, editor. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Technical Publication No.2, Cambridge.

Wahl, T.R., Speich, S.M., Manuwal, D.A., Hirsch, K.V. and Miller, C. 1981. Marine Bird Populations of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Strait of Georgia, and Adjacent Waters in 1978 and 1979. Report EPA-600/F-81-156, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Waldon, J. 1994. Ancient Murrelet in Devon: new to the Western Palearctic. British Birds 87:307-310.

Yamashina, Y. 1967. Birds in Japan: a Field Guide. Tokyo News Service, Tokyo.

Zhao-Qing, C. 1988. Niche selection of breeding seabirds on Chenlushan Island in the Yellow Sea, China. Colonial Waterbirds 11:306-307.


Return to Table of Contents

Biographical Summary of Report Writer

Christianne Wilhelmson is a writer with degrees in both the Arts (BA in English, History and Political Science from the University of Ottawa) and the Natural Sciences (B.Sc. in Biology/Environmental Sciences from Trent University and a M.Sc. in Ecology from the University of British Columbia). Her research has focused on behavioural ecology in the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), as well as the effects of gravity on copepods (Tigriopus californicus).

In early 2001, she started MS2 Communications, focusing her writing on science communication for both scientific audiences and the general public. She has worked in the academic, business and not-for-profit sector including with Environment Canada’s (Canadian Wildlife Service) Land bird biologist group, Partners in Flight, Environment Canada’s Ecological Gifts Program (BC), Environment Canada’s Disposal at Sea section (BC), Science’s Next Wave, the Greater Vancouver Regional District, BC Hydro and the Georgia Strait Alliance. Recent work for COSEWIC includes the draft status report on the Umatilla dace(Rhinichthys umatilla).

Authorities Contacted

Mailing address/Phone/Email
Amey, K.
Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre
RR#1 5421 Robertson Road
Delta, BC
V4K 3N2
Bartier, P.
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site
P.O. Box 37, 120 2nd Ave.
Queen Charlotte City, BC
V0T 1S0
Burles, D.
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site
P.O. Box 37
Queen Charlotte City, BC
V0T 1S0
Byrd, V.
US Fish and Wildlife, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge
2355 Kachemak Drive, Suite 101
Homer, Alaska 99603
Cannings, D
S.11, C.96, RR#1
Naramata, BC
V0H 1N0
Carter, H.
Humboldt State University, Department of Wildlife
1 Harpst Street,
Arcata, California 95521
Chutter, M.
BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection
PO Box 9338
Victoria, BC
V8W 9M1
Cober, A.
BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Skeena Regional Office
Bag 5000
3726 Alfred Avenue
Smithers, BC
V0J 2N0
Coon, M.
Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management
Donovan, M.
Conservation Data Centre BC Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management
PO BOX 9358 Stn Prov Govt
Victoria, BC
V8W 9M2
Fraser, D.
BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Section
PO Box 9338 Stn Prov Govt
Victoria, BC
V8W 9M1
Gaston, A.
Environment Canada, Migratory Bird Populations
1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Rd.
Carleton University
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0H3
Gold, C.
Gwaii Haanas Archipelago Management Board
Golumbia, T.
Parks Canada,
Gulf Islands National Park Reserve of Canada
2220 Harbour Road
Sidney, BC
V8L 2P6
Goulet, G.
COSEWIC Secretariat Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge,
Canadian Wildlife Service Environment Canada
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0H3
Harfenist, A.
Bulkley Valley Centre for Natural Resources Research and Mgmt.
Box 4274
Smithers, BC
V0J 2N0
Hetherington, A.
BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Skeena Regional Office
Bag 5000
3726 Alfred Avenue
Smithers, BC
V0J 2N0
Hipfner, M.
Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region
RR#1 5421 Robertson Road
Delta, BC
V4K 3N2
Hoyt, J.
BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection
2975 Jutland Rd,
Victoria, BC
V8W 9M1
Kaiser, G.
Nature Conservancy of Canada
26 Bastion Square, Suite 202
Victoria, BC
V8W 1H9
Lemon, M
Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region
RR1, 5421 Robertson Road
Delta, BC
V4K 3N2
Malkinson, L.
Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Coast Region
2080 Labieux Rd.
V9T 6J9
Martin, G.
Laskeek Bay Conservation Society
Box 867
Queen Charlotte, BC
V0T 1S0
Moore, K.
Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region
RR#1 5421 Robertson Road
Delta, BC
V4K 3N2
Morgan, K.
Canadian Wildlife Service c/o Institute of Ocean Sciences
P.O. Box 6000
Sidney, BC
V8L 4B2
Nettleship, D.N.
Canadian Wildlife Service, Bedford Institute of Oceanography
P.O. Box 1006
Dartmouth, NS
B2Y 4A2
Ono, K.
Japan Seabird Group/Japanese Seabird Conservation Committee, Hokkaido Seabird Center
Kita 6-1,
Haboro, Tomamae, Hokkaido,
078-4116 Japan
Paige, K.
BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Biodiversity Branch
PO Box 9338 Stn Prov Govt
Victoria, BC
V8W 9M1
Piatt, J.
Alaska Science Center, United States Geological Survey
1011 E. Tudor Road
Anchorage, Alaska 99503
Rodway, M.
Simon Fraser University
Sloan, N.
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site
P.O. Box 37
Queen Charlotte, BC
V0T 1S0
Stephenson, S.
US Fish and Wildlife, Beringian Seabird Colony Catalog
1011 E. Tudor Road
Anchorage, Alaska 99503
Whitehead, P.
Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region
RR 1, 5421 Robertson Road
Delta, BC
V4K 3N2

Return to Table of Contents