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Canadian Species at Risk, November 2002

The lists that follow are organized by status category and then by taxonomic group. An explanation of the symbols and abbreviations is provided below. For each species, the information provided includes the common name, scientific name, population name, and range of occurrence in Canada(by province/territory/ocean). The most recent date of examination by COSEWIC is shown, and symbols provide information on the outcome of status re-examinations (e.g., uplisting, downlisting) and the basis of re-examination for species evaluated against the new quantitative criteria. For birds, range of occurrence includes the Canadian breeding and wintering distribution.

The first COSEWIC "Endangered Species List" was issued in 1978. In 1990, it was decided that all species considered by COSEWIC should be listed even if the species were "not at risk" or "data deficient." Therefore, this document is divided into three separate lists. List 1 includes Species designated as Extinct, Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Special Concern.

List 2 includes species examined and designated in the Not at Risk category. List 3 includes species examined and designated in the Data Deficient category because of insufficient scientific information. All three lists include the geographical occurrence and most recent date of examination.

Explanation of symbols

Re-assessments and new species

3 Species placed in a higher risk category (uplisted) after re-examination on the date shown.
4 Species placed in a lower risk category (downlisted) after re-examination on the date shown.
<> Species stays in the same risk category (no change) after re-examination on the date shown.
6 Species moved to the Not at Risk category from a risk category (de-listed) on the date shown.
0 Species moved to the Data Deficient Category from a risk category, or to a risk category from the Data Deficient Category (changed), on the date shown.
(no arrow) New species examined on the date shown.


Evaluation with COSEWIC's new quantitative criteria

COSEWIC has recently begun using quantitative criteria to assess species' risk of extinction. These criteria were adapted from the criteria used by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and have been used by COSEWIC since May 2002.

1 or 1+ Assessment based on a new status report or an update status report. A plus sign (+) indicates the report has an addendum.
2 or 2+ Species re-assessed using an existing status report. A plus sign (+) indicates the report has an addendum or that the report has been modified slightly.

Geographical occurrence abbreviations

AB Alberta
NS Nova Scotia
QC Québec
BC British Columbia
NT Northwest Territories
SK Saskatchewan
MB Manitoba
NU Nunavut
YT Yukon Territory
NB New Brunswick
ON Ontario
NL Newfoundland and Labrador
PE Prince Edward Island

List 1. Species designated in the five "risk" categories, with range of occurrence (by province/territory/ocean) and year of designation. For extinct and extirpated species, the historical range of occurrence and the approximate date of disappearance are shown.





Common Name





Historical Range

of Occurrence

Extirpation DateAssessment Date
Mammals (4)      
1 <>Bear, GrizzlyionUrsus arctosPrairie populationAB SK MB1880sMay 2002
2 <>Ferret, Black-footedMustela nigripes AB SK MB1974May 2000
2 <>Walrus, AtlanticOdobenus rosmarus rosmarusNorthwest Atlantic image populationageAtlantic Oceanmid 19th centuryMay 2000
2 <>Whale, Grey Atlantic populationAtlantic Oceanbefore end of 1800sMay 2000
Birds (2)      
2 <>Prairie-Chicken, GreaterTympanuchus cupidog, app AB SK MB ONlast reported in 1987 in SaskatchewanMay 2000
2 <>Sage-grouse phaios subspecies, GreateragCentrocercus urophasianus phaios BCnot observed since1960sMay 2000
Reptiles (4)      
2 <>Lizard, Pygmy Short-hornedPhrynosoma douglassii douglassiiBritish Columbia populationd.ms-excelBClast reported in 1898, near Osoyoos, BCMay 2000
1Rattlesnake, TimberCrotalus horridusO ON1941May 2001
1Snake, Pacific GopherPituophis catenifer catenifer
 BCnot observed since 1957May 2002
1Turtle, Pacific Pondê:iClemmys marmorataNIDQSRT BCnot observed since 1959May 2002
Amphibians (1)      
1Salamander, TigerAmbystoma tigrinumGreat Lakes populationONnot observed since 1915Nov 2001
Fishes (2)      
2 <>Chub, GravelErimystax x-punctatus ONlast reported in 1958, Thames RiverMay 2000
2 <>PaddlefishPolyodon spathula ON1917May 2000
Lepidopterans (3)      
2 <>Blue, KarnerLycaeides melissa samuelis ON1991May 2000
2 <>Elfin, FrostedeCallophrys irus ON1988May 2000
2 <>Marble, IslandEuchloe ausonides BCbefore 1910May 2000
Molluscs (2)      
1Snail, Puget OregonianCryptomastix devia BCnot observed since 1905Nov 2002
2 <>Wedgemussel, DwarfAlasmidonta heterodon NB1968May 2000
Plants (2)      
2 <>Spring Blue-eyed MaryCollinsia verna ONnot observed since1954May 2000
2 <>Tick-trefoil, IllinoisDesmodium illinoense ONnot observed since 1888May 2000
Mosses (1)      
1Moss, Incurved GrizzledPtychomitrium incurvum ON1828Nov 2002
Lichens (0)      
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