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Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Canada [Proposed]
- Part 2 - Recovery Strategy for Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Ontario, prepared by H. Bickerton and M. Thompson-Black for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
- Part 3 – Eastern Flowering Dogwood: Ontario Government Response Statement, prepared by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
Species at Risk Act
Recovery Strategy Series
Adopted under Section 44 of SARA
Eastern Flowering Dogwood
The federal recovery strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Canada consists of three parts:
Table of Contents
- Additions and Modifications to the Adopted Document
- 1. Species Status Information
- 2. Recovery Feasibility
- 3. Population and Distribution Objectives
- 4. Broad Strategies and General Approaches to Meet Objectives
- 5. Critical Habitat
- 6. Measuring Progress
- 7. Statement on Action Plans
- 8. Effects on the Environment and Other Species
- Appendix A: Subnational Conservation Ranks of Eastern Flowering ogwood in the United States
For copies of the recovery strategy, or for additional information on species at risk, including COSEWIC Status Reports, residence descriptions, action plans, and other related recovery documents, please visit the Species at Risk (SAR) Public Registry.
Cover illustration: Nigel Finney ©
Également disponible en français sous le titre
« Programme de rétablissement du cornouiller fleuri (Cornus florida) au Canada [Proposition] »
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of the Environment, 2013. All rights reserved.
Content (excluding the illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate credit to the source.
Part 1 - Federal Addition to the Recovery Strategy for Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Ontario, prepared by Environment Canada
The federal, provincial, and territorial government signatories under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk (1996) agreed to establish complementary legislation and programs that provide for effective protection of species at risk throughout Canada. Under the Species at Risk Act (S.C. 2002, c.29) (SARA), the federal competent ministers are responsible for the preparation of recovery strategies for listed Extirpated, Endangered, and Threatened species and are required to report on progress within five years.
The Minister of the Environment and the Minister responsible for the Parks Canada Agency are the competent ministers for the recovery of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood and have prepared the federal component of this recovery strategy (Part 1), as per section 37 of SARA. It has been prepared in cooperation with the Department of National Defence and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. SARA section 44 allows the federal Minister to adopt all or part of an existing plan for the species if it meets the requirements under SARA for content (sub-sections 41(1) or (2)). The Province of Ontario (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) led the development of the attached recovery strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Part 2) in cooperation with Environment Canada and the Parks Canada Agency. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources prepared the Government Response Statement (Part 3) which is the Ontario Government’s policy response to the recovery strategy and summarizes the prioritized actions that the Ontario Government intends to take. Environment Canada is adopting parts of the provincial recovery strategy (Part 2) and parts of the Government Response Statement (Part 3), as specified in this document.
Success in the recovery of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the directions set out in this strategy and will not be achieved by Environment Canada and the Parks Canada Agency, or any other jurisdiction alone. All Canadians are invited to join in supporting and implementing this strategy for the benefit of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood and Canadian society as a whole.
This recovery strategy will be followed by one or more action plans that will provide information on recovery measures to be taken by Environment Canada and the Parks Canada Agency and other jurisdictions and/or organizations involved in the conservation of the species. Implementation of this strategy is subject to appropriations, priorities, and budgetary constraints of the participating jurisdictions and organizations.
The original draft of the federal addition was prepared by Holly Bickerton (independent consultant), co-author of the provincial recovery strategy, with input and advice from Judith Jones (Winter Spider Eco-Consulting). The draft was updated by Kathy St. Laurent, Angela Darwin and Christina Rohe (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario). Madeline Austen and Lesley Dunn (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario), Wendy Dunford (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – National Capital), Amelia Argue, Vivian Brownell, Eric Snyder and Melinda Thompson (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources), Department of National Defense staff and Parks Canada Agency staff reviewed and provided comments and advice during the development of this document.
The following sections have been included to address specific requirements of SARA that are not addressed in the Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Ontario (Part 2). In some cases, these sections may also include updated information or modifications to the provincial recovery strategy for adoption by Environment Canada.
The Eastern Flowering Dogwood, a small understory tree of deciduous forests, is listed as Endangered on Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). In Ontario, the Eastern Flowering Dogwood is listed as Endangered under the provincial Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA).
The Eastern Flowering Dogwood’s global conservation status is secure (G5); however, it should be noted that the species has not been reviewed since 1996 (NatureServe 2010). Population declines (7% to 8% annually in Canada) and high mortality rates (25% to 75% in some areas of the United States) from the dogwood anthracnose fungus have been observed within the intervening time period. In Canada, the national conservation status is imperilled (N2), and the conservation status in Ontario, the only province within which the species occurs in Canada, is also imperilled (S2?) (NHIC 2010; NatureServe 2010). Formerly widespread throughout the eastern United States, Eastern Flowering Dogwood is secure nationally (N5) and is secure or is not ranked in most American states where it occurs (Appendix A). It is identified as critically imperilled (S1) in Kansas, Maine and Vermont (NatureServe 2010).
The species is at the northern edge of its North American range in Ontario and is restricted to the Carolinian Zone of southern Ontario. It is estimated that less than 5% of its global range occurs in Canada; the remainder occurs in the United States.
Based on the following four criteria outlined by the draft SARA Policies (Government of Canada 2009), there are unknowns regarding the feasibility of recovery of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood. Therefore, in keeping with the precautionary principle, a full recovery strategy has been prepared as would be done when recovery is determined to be feasible. This recovery strategy addresses the unknowns surrounding the feasibility of recovery.
- Individuals of the wildlife species that are capable of reproduction are available now or in the foreseeable future to sustain the population or improve its abundance.
Yes. Records (from 1975-2005) indicate that at least 154 populations of Eastern Flowering Dogwood occurred within Canada, all within the province of Ontario. It is unknown how many of these populations currently exist due to the effects of the dogwood anthracnose fungus and because many sites have not been visited recently; however, it is estimated that approximately 1,500 trees exist (COSEWIC 2007). The species also remains widespread, although in decline, in the eastern United States. Large seed crops have been recently observed on open-grown trees on sandy soils in Norfolk County (M. Gartshore, pers. comm. 2009) and probably exist elsewhere in Ontario. It is likely that sufficient propagules will continue to be available to restore this species, if required. However, it should be noted that trees infected with the dogwood anthracnose fungus show reduced levels of fruit production prior to succumbing to the fungus, thus indicating that the anthracnose fungus may impair the species’ ability to regenerate (Carr and Banas 2000).
- Sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species or could be made available through habitat management or restoration.
Yes. Sufficient suitable habitat is available, or could be made available across the species’ range (COSEWIC 2007). Eastern Flowering Dogwood grows in, and at the edge of, a variety of open deciduous and mixed forest communities, and also along fencerows and roadsides. While habitat loss, fragmentation, and alteration of Ontario’s Carolinian forests have likely contributed to the species’ decline, management actions such as prescribed burning or canopy thinning (to produce more open conditions) could provide additional suitable habitat to assist in the recovery of this species, if necessary.
- The primary threats to the species or its habitat (including threats outside Canada) can be avoided or mitigated.
Unknown. The primary threat to the Eastern Flowering Dogwood is the dogwood anthracnose fungus, which was confirmed or likely present at 20 of 32 (63%) stands inventoried in 2004 and 2005 in Ontario (COSEWIC 2007). Mortality from the fungus is high: Canadian population declines are estimated at 7% to 8% annually, and infected populations in the U.S. show mortality rates of 25% to 75%, with some populations declining by 95% (Schwegman et al. 1998 as cited in COSEWIC 2007; Holzmueller et al. 2006). The dogwood anthracnose fungus is spread by asexual spores originating from cankers on the host tree; spores may be spread locally by splashing rain, and more widely by insects and birds (Sherald et al. 1996). A resistant cultivar of the species, originating in Maryland, has been released for ornamental planting (Windham et al. 1998), but to date, no resistance has been documented in native Canadian populations. Most techniques that have been successfully used to control the anthracnose fungus (e.g., watering during drought, fungicide use, pruning of infected branches, fertilization, and mulching) require highly intensive management (Holzmueller et al. 2006). As a result, these techniques are largely untested in natural forest settings, and their utility on a larger scale is not known.
- Recovery techniques exist to achieve the population and distribution objectives or can be expected to be developed within a reasonable timeframe.
Unknown. Although the dogwood anthracnose fungus was first observed in the United States in the late 1970s (Daughtrey et al. 1996), the research to examine successful methods to minimize its impacts in forest ecosystems is relatively recent (e.g., Holzmueller et al. 2006; Jenkins et al. 2007; Pierce et al. 2008; Holzmueller et al. 2008). An American study suggests that prescribed burning may reduce the impacts of the fungus in forested environments, but many research questions remain (Holzmueller et al. 2008). It is believed that fire lessens the impacts of dogwood anthracnose by opening up the forest to provide drier conditions unsuitable for fungal growth (Holzmueller et al. 2008).
The Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Ontario occurs at the northern edge of its North American range. The species is restricted to the Carolinian Zone in southwestern Ontario. Due to the Eastern Flowering Dogwood’s naturally limited distribution in Canada, it will likely always be vulnerable to anthropogenic and natural stressors.
The provincial recovery strategy contains the following recovery goal for the recovery of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Ontario:
- The goal of this recovery strategy is to conserve and protect extant populations of Eastern Flowering Dogwood, to reduce its rate of decline, and where possible, to restore populations of the species across its range in southern Ontario.
The Government Response Statement for the province of Ontario lists the following goal for the recovery of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Ontario:
- The government’s goal for the recovery of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood is to protect and conserve existing populations, reduce its rate of decline, and where possible, restore populations of the species across its range in southern Ontario.
Under SARA, population and distribution objectives for the species must be established. The population and distribution objectives established by Environment Canada for Eastern Flowering Dogwood are to:
- Conserve existing populations, reduce the rate of decline and, if biologically and technically feasible, restore populations across its range in Canada.
Due to the severity of the dogwood anthracnose fungus, the observed rates of decline and the uncertainty around how many individuals/populations currently exist of Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Canada and the United States, it is considered inappropriate to set objectives pertaining to the abundanceof mature individuals in Canada.
Eastern Flowering Dogwood is a common species in the nursery trade due to its showy white flowers in the spring, and its striking red berries in the autumn and winter. It has been widely planted throughout the U.S. and Canada in parks and gardens. Trees that are believed to be horticultural specimens and cultivars (e.g., those clearly planted in landscaped settings such as urban/suburban gardens and parks or in orchards) are not considered as existing populations (or portions thereof) in the above objective.
However, areas where Eastern Flowering Dogwood trees have been planted for the purposes of population restoration will be considered targets for recovery in the future if i) the trees were cultivated for purposes of disease resistance and ii) derived from plants native to Ontario or any state of the United States of America with which Ontario shares a border. As information is currently lacking on the status and genetic origin of restoration plantings in Ontario, these populations cannot be considered targets for recovery at this time.
The government-led and government-supported actions tables from Ontario’s Government Response Statement for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Part 3) are adopted as the broad strategies and general approaches to address the threats and meet the population and distribution objectives. Environment Canada is not adopting the approaches identified in section 2.3 of the Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Ontario (Part 2).
Under SARA, critical habitat is ‘the habitat that is necessary for the survival or recovery of a listed wildlife species and that is identified as the species’ critical habitat in the recovery strategy or in an action plan for the species’.
Identification of critical habitat is not a component of the provincial recovery strategy process undertaken by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources under the ESA 2007. However, a recommendation to the Minister of Natural Resources on the area that should be considered in developing a habitat regulation is provided in the Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Ontario. Following completion of the provincial recovery strategy for this species, a provincial habitat regulation was developed for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood under the ESA 2007. A habitat regulation is a legal instrument that prescribes an area that will be protected as the habitat of the species by the Province of Ontario. The areas described in #1 and #2 below are prescribed as the provincially regulated habitat of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood:
- The terrestrial area within 20 metres of the stem of an Eastern Flowering Dogwood.
- The area populated by a vegetation type described by the Ecological Land Classification (ELC) for Southern Ontario (Lee et al. 1998) if,
- the vegetation type occurs naturally in Ontario, and
- Eastern Flowering Dogwood also exists in the area.
The areas described in #1 and #2 above only apply in the following cities, counties and municipalities: the cities of Brantford, Hamilton, London and Windsor; the counties of Brant, Elgin, Essex, Haldimand, Lambton, Middlesex, Oxford and Norfolk; the Municipality of Chatham-Kent; and the regional municipalities of Halton and Niagara.
Eastern Flowering Dogwood inhabits a range of naturally occurring forest and woodland vegetation types. It is considered a facultative upland species, meaning that it usually occurs in non-wetland settings (Reed 1988). In Canada, it typically occurs in deciduous forests ranging from open, dry oak (Quercus spp.) -hickory (Carya spp.) deciduous forests to more mesic maple (Acer spp.) - beech (Fagus grandifolia) associations (COSEWIC 2007). It may also occur in mixed (deciduous-coniferous) forests containing coniferous species including White Pine (Pinus strobus) and Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). At many Canadian sites, Eastern Flowering Dogwood occurs in dry, open woodlands, often on sandy soils, and it has also been documented within Black Oak (uercus velutina) savannah (NHIC 2010). However, the species also occurs in rich woods, and occasionally in moist or lowland sites, as long as these are not seasonally flooded (COSEWIC 2007; NHIC 2010). Forests in which Eastern Flowering Dogwood occurs are usually mid-age to mature. Eastern Flowering Dogwood is also frequently reported from the successional vegetation types that follow anthropogenic modification (e.g., agriculture, roadside maintenance). Such vegetation types include successional meadows and thickets containing young oak (Quercus spp.), hickory (Carya spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.) and hawthorn (Crataegus spp.).
The critical habitat under SARA will be the regulated habitat under Ontario’s ESA 2007 for Eastern Flowering Dogwood. Thus, in the geographic areas described above, critical habitat is the terrestrial area within 20 m of each existing stem of Eastern Flowering Dogwood, and in situations where the species occurs in a natural vegetation type (described by ELC) in Ontario, it also includes the entire area of the natural vegetation type within which the Eastern Flowering Dogwood exists (Figure–1; A, B and C). The 20 m distance represents the dripline of a mature Eastern Flowering Dogwood tree. The ELC framework, used to define the vegetation types within the area surrounding the trees, provides a standardized approach to the interpretation of dynamic ecosystem boundaries. It uses environmental and vegetation characteristics to identify vegetation types, and as such captures the biophysical attributes of Eastern Flowering Dogwood. If an Eastern Flowering Dogwood exists in a vegetation type that is not naturally-occurring in Ontario, critical habitat is the terrestrial area within 20 m of the stem (Figure 1: D).
Areas where Eastern Flowering Dogwood trees have been planted for population restoration purposes will be considered for critical habitat identification if the trees were cultivated for purposes of disease resistance and derived from plants native to Ontario or any state of the United States of America with which Ontario shares a border. In cases where the aforementioned criteria are met, determination of restoration success and viability – as measured through plant vigour and fitness, successful sexual reproduction and level of disease tolerance – will precede identification of critical habitat at restoration sites. Currently, no sites are known to meet the above mentioned criteria; however, critical habitat may be identified in the future at restoration plantings that meet the aforementioned criteria following long-term monitoring to determine success and level of disease tolerance.
In accordance with the population and distribution objectives, critical habitat is not identified for cultivars of Eastern Flowering Dogwoods planted within horticultural settings. Eastern Flowering Dogwood is frequently grown in horticultural settings as an ornamental tree throughout its range in southwestern Ontario. These trees are not included in the identification of critical habitat as trees within such intensively manicured settings are likely to have originated from non-native stock, and such areas do not allow for the natural dispersal or population expansion that would occur naturally in the vegetation types described above.
Destruction is determined on a case-by-case basis. Destruction would result if part of the critical habitat were degraded, either permanently or temporarily, such that it would not serve its function when needed by the species. Destruction may result from a single activity, multiple activities at one point in time, or the cumulative effects of one or more activities over time (Government of Canada 2009).
Activities that are likely to result in the destruction of critical habitat include, but are not limited to:
Activities that compact the soil and/or cause soil erosion (e.g., use of off-trail vehicles [ATVs] or heavy machinery) resulting in alteration of the biophysical conditions required for germination, establishment and growth of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood;
Activities that remove the vegetation component of critical habitat, such as clear-cut forest harvesting, spraying of herbicides and conversion to other land-uses, resulting in alteration of the biophysical conditions required for survival and reproduction of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood;
Activities that alter the hydrology or moisture levels of the ground (e.g., ditching or tiling to alter drainage, construction of water control structures) resulting in ground that is too wet or too dry to be suitable for establishment and growth of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood. In addition, wet conditions can increase the severity of dogwood anthracnose fungal infections;
Activities that encourage the expansion of exotic, invasive or introduced species into the Eastern Flowering Dogwood critical habitat (e.g., introduction of seeds and/or plants through direct seeding or planting; or through vectors such as ATVs; or through dirt, gravel or soil that may contain propagules of non-native, invasive species) may increase resource competition resulting in unsuitable habitat characteristics and/or conditions for growth and survival. In addition, invasive species can increase shading at Eastern Flowering Dogwood sites, potentially increasing the severity of dogwood anthracnose fungal infections.
The performance indicators presented below provide a way to define and measure progress toward achieving the population and distribution objectives. Every five years, success of recovery strategy implementation will be measured against the following performance indicators:
- Existing populations of Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Canada have been conserved;
- The rate of decline of Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Canada has been reduced.
- Where required and considered to be biologically and technically feasible, populations of Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Canada have been restored.
One or more action plans will be completed for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood and posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry by December 2018.
A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.
Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.
In general, protecting the woodland habitat of this species and the ecosystems within which it is found will benefit many other species and ecosystem functions within the heavily impacted Carolinian forest. Because Eastern Flowering Dogwood remains widespread, protection activities could benefit many other rare and at-risk species and ecological communities.
This recovery strategy will benefit the environment by encouraging the recovery of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood and the Carolinian forest communities in which it occurs. Several other Canadian at-risk species are found within the Carolinian forest zone. The species shares the range and preferred habitat characteristics of species at risk such as American Chestnut (Castanea dentata), Butternut (Juglans cinerea), Bird’s-foot Violet (Viola pedata), Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos), Hoary Mountain-mint (Pycnanthemum incanum), Milksnake (Lampropeltis triangulum), Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus), Spotted Wintergreen (Chimaphila maculata), Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus), and White Wood Aster (Eurybia divaricata), among others.
The potential for the strategy to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. Some management activities, such as prescribed burns and selective thinning of the forest canopy, have the potential to harm some species, at least in the short term. The maintenance of open conditions within forested settings may not benefit shade-tolerant and/or forest interior species. The ecological risks of such management activities will be considered before they are undertaken, in order to avoid or mitigate any negative effects. The SEA concluded that this strategy will clearly benefit the environment and will not entail significant adverse effects.
Carr, D.E. and L.E. Banas. 2000. Dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructiva): effects and consequences for host (Cornus florida) demography. The American Midland Naturalist 143 (1): 169-177.
COSEWIC 2007. COSEWIC Assessment and status report on the eastern flowering
dogwood Cornus florida in Canada. Committee of the Status of Wildlife in
Canada. Ottawa. vi + 22 pp.
Daughtrey, M.L., C.R. Hibben, K.O. Britton, M.T. Windham, and S.C. Redlin. 1996.
Dogwood Anthracnose: understanding a disease new to North America. Plant
Disease 80: 349-358.
Gartshore, M. Pers. comm. 2009. Telephone conversation with H. Bickerton. August 2009. Pterophylla Native Plants and Seeds, R.R. #1, Walsingham, ON.
Government of Canada. 2009. Species at Risk Act Policies, Overarching Policy Framework [Draft]. Species at Risk Act Policy and Guidelines Series. Environment Canada. Ottawa. 38 pp.
Holzmueller, E.J., S. Jose, M. Jenkins, A. Camp, and A. Long. 2006. Dogwood
anthracnose in eastern hardwood forests: what is known and what can be done?
Journal of Forestry 104: 21-26.
Holzmueller, E.J., S. Jose, and M.A. Jenkins. 2008. The relationship between fire
history and an exotic fungal disease in a deciduous forest. Oecologia 155: 347-
Jenkins, M.A., S. Jose and P.S. White. 2007. Impacts of an exotic disease and
vegetation change on foliar calcium cycling in Appalachian forests. Ecological
Applications 17: 869-881
Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998.
Ecological Land Classification for Southern Ontario: First Approximations and Its
Application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.
Natural Heritage Information Centre (NHIC). 2010. Element Occurrence and Observation data for Eastern Flowering Dogwood. Obtained from NHIC staff, December 2010. Peterborough, Ontario.
NatureServe. 2010. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed November 2010).
Pierce, A.R., W.R. Bromer, and K.N. Rabenold. 2008. Decline of Cornus florida and
forest succession in a Quercus-Carya forest. Plant Ecology 195: 45-53.
Reed, P. 1988. National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands: National Summary. National Wetland Inventory, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, St. Petersburg, Florida. 90 pp.
Schwegman, J.E., W.E. McLean, T.L. Esker and J.E. Ebinger. 1998. Anthracnose-caused mortality of Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) at the Dean Hills Nature
Preserve, Fayette County, Illinois, USA. Natural Areas Journal 18:3.
Sherald, J. L., T. M. Stidham, J. M. Hadidian, and J. E. Hoeldtke.1996. Progression of
the dogwood anthracnose epidemic and the status of flowering dogwood in
Catoctin Mountain Park. Plant Disease 80:310-312.
Windham, M.T., E.T. Graham, W.T. Witte, J.L. Knighten, and R.N. Trigiano. 1998. Cornus florida “Appalachian Spring”: A white flowering dogwood resistant to dogwood anthracnose. Hortscience 33:1265–1267.
|Global (G) Rank||National (N) Rank|
|Eastern Flowering Dogwood|
(Secure: widespread, still common, but being depleted by a fungus disease)
District of Columbia (S5)
New Hampshire (SNR)
New Jersey (S5)
New York (S4S5)
North Carolina (S4)
Rhode Island (SNR)
South Carolina (SNR)
West Virginia (S5)
S1: Critically Imperilled = extreme rarity (often 5 or fewer occurrences) or very steep declines making it especially vulnerable to extirpation.
S2: Imperilled = rarity due to very restricted range, very few populations (often 20 or fewer), steep declines, or other factors making it very vulnerable to extirpation.
S3: Vulnerable = restricted range, relatively few populations (often 80 or fewer), recent and widespread declines, or other factors making it vulnerable to extirpation.
S4: Apparently Secure = Uncommon but not rare; some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors
S5: Secure = common, widespread and abundant
SNR: Not Ranked = state/provincial conservation status not yet assessed
SH: Historical / possibly extirpated = species occurred historically and there is some possibility that it may be rediscovered. Its presence in the state or province has not have been verified in the past 20 or more years.
SX: Presumed Extirpated. Not located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.
?: Denotes inexact numeric rank.
Footnotes – Part 1
1 A wildlife species facing imminent extirpation or extinction in Canada.
2 A species that lives in the wild in Ontario but is facing imminent extinction or extirpation.
4 Any structure (e.g., seed) that will give rise to a new individual.
5 The response statement is the Ontario government’s policy response to the scientific advice provided in the recovery strategy.
6 Terrestrial area means an area where the water table is rarely or briefly above the substrate surface, and where hydric soils have not developed.
7 Capable of existing under varying environmental conditions. Species that are considered facultative upland species can live in both non-wetland and wetland environments.
8 Relating or adapted to a moderately moist habitat.
9 The area beneath a tree occupied by the roots into which water drips from the leaf canopy.
- Date Modified: