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Recovery Strategy for the Horsetail Spike-rush (Eleocharis equisetoides) in Canada [Final Version]


Charalambidou, I. and L. Santamaria. 2005. Field evidence for the potential of waterbirds as dispersers of aquatic organisms. Wetlands 25:252–258.

De Vlaming, V. and V. Proctor. 1968. Dispersal of aquatic organisms: viability of seeds recovered from the droppings of captive Killdeer and Mallard ducks. American Journal of Botany 55:20–26.

Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd edition. New York Botanical Garden, New York, N.Y.

Holmgren, N.H.1998. Illustrated companion to Gleason and Cronquist’s manual. New York Botanical Garden, New York, N.Y.

Holt-Mueller, M. and A. van der Valk. 2002. The potential role of ducks in wetland seed dispersal. Wetlands 22:170–178.

Jackson, S.T. and D.K. Singer. 1997. Climate change and the development of coastal plain disjunctions in the central Great Lakes region. Rhodora 99:101–117.

Keddy, P.A. and A.A. Reznicek. 1982. The role of seed banks in the persistence of Ontario’s coastal plain flora. American Journal of Botany 69(1):13–22.

Lande, R. 1993. Risks of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes. American Naturalist 142:911–927.

Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: first approximation and its application. SCSS Field Guide FG-02. Southcentral Sciences Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.

Mal, T.K. and L. Narine. 2004. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 84(1):365–396.

Marks, M., B. Lapin, and J. Randall. 1993. Element stewardship abstract for Phragmites australis (common reed). Available at: (accessed November 15, 2005).

McKeating, G. 1983. Management plan: Long Point National Wildlife Area. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada – Ontario.

MichiganNatural Features Inventory. 2006. Online data resources: County element data. Available at:

Natural Heritage Information Centre. 2005. Natural Heritage Website Site. Available at: (accessed January/February 2006).

NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 4.4. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available at: (accessed January 27, 2006).

Oldham, M.J. 2004. Unpublished field notes. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.

Reznicek, A.A. 1994. The disjunct coastal plain flora in the Great Lakes region. Biological Conservation 68:203–215.

Reznicek, A.A. and P.M. Catling. 1989. Flora of Long Point, Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk, Ontario. Michigan Botanist 28(3):99–175.

Schneider, R. 1994. The role of hydrological regime in maintaining rare plant communities of New York’s coastal plain pondshores. Biological Conservation 68:253–260.       

Sutherland, D.A. 2000. COSEWIC status report on horsetail spike-rush (Eleocharis equisetoides) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. iv + 12 pp.

Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I: Gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and the University of Michigan Herbarium, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Young, S.M. and T.W. Weldy, eds. 2005. New York Natural Heritage Program rare plant status list. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, N.Y. Available at:

Young, A., T. Boyle, and T. Brown. (1996)  The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11 (10): 413-418

Personal Communications

Arnold, H. 2005. Science and Stewardship Coordinator, Nature Conservancy of Canada.

Crins, W. 2005. Senior Ecologist, Ontario Parks.

Oldham, M. 2005. Botanist/Herpetologist, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.

Robinson, J. 2005. Environment Canada – Ontario Region.

Sutherland, D. 2005. Zoologist, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.