Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.
Recovery Strategy for the Transient Killer Whale [Proposed]
- Executive Summary
- Background (Description and population distribution)
- Background (Habitat and Biological Requirements, Ecological Role and Limiting Factors)
- Background (Threats)
- Background(Actions Already Completed or Underway and Knowledges Gap)
- Recovery ( Goals and Feasibility)
- Recovery (Approaches, Effect and Performance)
- Appendix A: Reference
- Appendix B: Glossary
- Appendix C: Threat Classification table
- Appendix D: Record of Cooperation and Consultation
Appendix C: Anthropogenic Threat Classification Table Definitions
Note that these are taken from the Draft Species at Risk Act Implementation Guidance, Guidelines on Identifying and Mitigating Threats to Species at Risk, September 27, 2006 produced by Environment Canada.
Broad definition indicating the type of threat.
Habitat Loss or Degradation, Exotic or Invasive Species, Changes in Ecological Dynamics or Natural Processes, Pollution, Accidental Mortality, Consumptive Use, Disturbance or Persecution, Climate and Natural Disasters, Natural Processes or Activities
- General Stressor
- Typically the general activity causing the specific threat. To be determined by status report author or recovery team/planner.
- Specific Stress
- The specific factor or stimulus causing stress to the population.
- Indicated by an impairment of a demographic, physiological or behavioural attribute of a population in response to an identified or unidentified threat that results in a reduction of its viability.
- Indicate whether the threat is widespread, localized or unknown across the species range.
- Indicate whether the threat is historic, current, imminent, anticipated or unknown.
- Indicate whether the threat is a one-time occurrence, seasonal, continuous, recurrent, or unknown.
- Causal Certainty
- Indicate whether the best level of evidence suggests demonstrated, expected, plausible, or unknown linkage between stressor and effect on population viability.
- Indicate whether the severity of the threat to the population is high, moderate, low or unknown.
|pesticide used in some countries, banned in North America, persists in terrestrial runoff 30 years post ban, enters atmosphere from areas where still in use||yes||yes||reproductive impairment, immunosuppression, adrenal and thyroid effects|
Polychlorinated Biphenyl s
|electrical transformer and capacitor fluid, limited use in North America but enters environment from runoff, spills and incineration||yes||yes||reproductive impairment, skeletal abnormalities, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption|
|Dioxins and Furans||by-product of chlorine bleaching, wood product processing and incomplete combustion. Mills less of a source now. Current sources include burning of salt-laden wood, municipal incinerators, and residential wood and wood waste combustion, in runoff from sewage sludge, wood treatment||yes||yes||thymus and liver damage, birth defects, reproductive impairment, endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity and cancer|
Persistent Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
|by-product of fuel combustion, aluminium smelting, wood treatment, oil spills, metallurgical and coking plants, pulp and paper mills||yes||no||carcinogenic|
Flame retardants, esp. PBBs and PBDEs
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
|flame retardants; in electrical components and backings of televisions and computers, in textiles and vehicle seats, ubiquitous in environment. 2/3 product PBDEs banned in Europe. Same two products withdrawn from North American marketplace in 2005, but one (deca) product still used globally.||yes||yes||endocrine disruption, impairs liver and thyroid|
|stain, water and oil repellent (included in Scotchgard until recently), fire fighting foam, fire retardants, insecticides and refrigerants, ubiquitous in environment||yes||yes but in blood, liver, kidney and muscle||promotes tumour growth|
|antifoulant pesticide used on vessels||yes||Yes||unknown but recently associated with hearing loss|
|flame retardants, plasticizers, paints, sealants and additives in lubricating oils||yes||yes||endocrine disruption|
|ship insulation, electrical wires and capacitors, engine oil additive, municipal waste incineration and chlor-alkali plants, contaminant in PCBs||yes||Yes||endocrine disruption|
|detergents, shampoos, paints, pesticides, plastics, pulp and paper mills, textile industry found in sewage effluent and sediments||moderate||moderate||endocrine disruption|
|fire retardants, plasticizers, lubricants, inks and sealants, enters environment in runoff||yes||yes||endocrine disruption and reproductive impairment|
|References: Primarily Grant and Ross 2002, but also Lindstrom et al. 1999, Hooper and MacDonald 2000, Kannan et al. 2001, Hall et al. 2003; Van deVijver et al. 2003, Rayne et al. 2004, Song et al. 2005|
- Date Modified: