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Part 2: Recovery Strategy for Macoun's Meadow-Foam (Limnanthes Macounii) in British Columbia

As provided by the Government of British Columbia

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

Macoun’s Meadowfoam in flower.

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About the British Columbia Recovery Strategy Series

This series presents the recovery strategies that are prepared as advice to the province of British Columbia on the general strategic approach required to recover species at risk. The Province prepares recovery strategies to meet its commitments to recover species at risk under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk in Canada, and the Canada – British Columbia Agreement on Species at Risk.

What is recovery?

Species at risk recovery is the process by which the decline of an endangered, threatened, or extirpated species is arrested or reversed, and threats are removed or reduced to improve the likelihood of a species’ persistence in the wild.

What is a recovery strategy?

A recovery strategy represents the best available scientific knowledge on what is required to achieve recovery of a species or ecosystem. A recovery strategy outlines what is and what is not known about a species or ecosystem; it also identifies threats to the species or ecosystem, and what should be done to mitigate those threats. Recovery strategies set recovery goals and objectives, and recommend approaches to recover the species or ecosystem.

Recovery strategies are usually prepared by a recovery team with members from agencies responsible for the management of the species or ecosystem, experts from other agencies, universities, conservation groups, aboriginal groups, and stakeholder groups as appropriate.

What’s next?

In some cases, one or more action plan(s) will be developed to define and guide implementation of the recovery strategy. Action plans include more detailed information about what needs to be done to meet the objectives of the recovery strategy. However, the recovery strategy provides valuable information on threats to the species and their recovery needs that may be used by individuals, communities, land users, and conservationists interested in species at risk recovery.

For more information

To learn more about species at risk recovery in British Columbia, please visit the Ministry of Environment Recovery Planning webpage at:


Recommended citation

Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team Plants at Risk Recovery Implementation Group. 2011. Recovery strategy for Macoun’s meadow-foam (Limnanthes macounii) in British Columbia. Prepared for the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 25 pp.

Cover illustration/photograph

© Matt Fairbarns (reproduced with permission)

Additional copies

Additional copies can be downloaded from the B.C. Ministry of Environment Recovery Planning webpage at:


Publication information

ISBN: 978-0-7726–6492-1
Cataloguing in Publication : Pending

Content (excluding illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate credit to the source.


This recovery strategy has been prepared by the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team Plants at Risk Recovery Implementation Group, as advice to the responsible jurisdictions and organizations that may be involved in recovering the species. The British Columbia Ministry of Environment has received this advice as part of fulfilling its commitments under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk in Canada, and the Canada - British Columbia Agreement on Species at Risk.

This document identifies the recovery strategies that are deemed necessary, based on the best available scientific and traditional information, to recover Macoun’s meadow-foam populations in British Columbia. Recovery actions to achieve the goals and objectives identified herein are subject to the priorities and budgetary constraints of participatory agencies and organizations. These goals, objectives, and recovery approaches may be modified in the future to accommodate new objectives and findings.

The responsible jurisdictions and all members of the recovery team have had an opportunity to review this document. However, this document does not necessarily represent the official positions of the agencies or the personal views of all individuals on the recovery team.

Success in the recovery of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that may be involved in implementing the directions set out in this strategy. The Ministry of Environment encourages all British Columbians to participate in the recovery of Macoun’s meadow-foam.

Recovery Team Members

Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT) Plants at Risk Recovery Implementation Group (RIG) Members

  • Brenda Costanzo (co-chair until Dec. 2009), Senior Vegetation Specialist, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC
  • Tracy Cornforth, Department of National Defence, Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt, Esquimalt, BC
  • Matt Fairbarns (co-chair), Botanist, Victoria, BC
  • Chris Junck, Outreach Specialist, Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, Victoria, BC
  • Todd Kohler, Consultant, Vancouver, BC
  • Terry McIntosh, Botanist, Vancouver, BC
  • Mike Miller, Consultant, Vernon, BC
  • James Miskelly, Consultant, Victoria, BC
  • Brian Reader, Parks Canada Agency, Victoria, BC
  • Simone Runyan, Consultant, Vernon, BC
  • Shyanne Smith, Program Chair, Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, Victoria, BC
  • Andrea Schiller, Department of National Defence, Victoria, BC

Former recovery team member

  • Ted Lea (retired), Vegetation Ecologist, Victoria, BC

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Responsible Jurisdictions

The British Columbia Ministry of Environment is responsible for producing a recovery strategy for Macoun’s meadow-foam under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk in Canada. Parks Canada Agency and Environment Canada’s Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, participated in the preparation of this recovery strategy.

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Ksenia Barton was the original author of this strategy, and she would like to thank Adolf and Oluna Ceska, who have contributed much of the information about Macoun’s meadow-foam in Canada through their extensive surveying and monitoring efforts. Environment Canada (Canadian Wildlife Service) through the Province of B.C. provided funding for the preparation of this recovery strategy. The following reviewers provided comments on the first draft (in alphabetical order): Tracy Cornforth (Department of National Defence [DND], Canadian Forces Base [CFB] Esquimalt), Brenda Costanzo (B.C. Ministry of Environment), Matt Fairbarns, Chris Junck (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team [GOERT]), Ted Lea (formerly of B.C. Ministry of Environment), Terry McIntosh, Mike Miller, Brian Reader (Parks Canada Agency), Andrea Schiller (DND), and Shyanne Smith (GOERT).

The following people were helpful in providing information for the recovery strategy (in alphabetical order): Robin Annschild (Salt Spring Island Conservancy), Peggy Burfield (BC Parks), Eva Buxton, Adolf Ceska (Ceska Geobotanical Consulting), Tracy Cornforth (DND, CFB Esquimalt), Matt Fairbarns (Aruncus Consulting), Chris Junck (GOERT), Andy Katschor (Township of Esquimalt), Sheila Mackay (District of Metchosin), Stephen Meyers (Oregon State University), Moralea Milne, Harry Parsons (Bufo Inc.), Jenifer Penny (B.C. Conservation Data Centre), Adriane Pollard (District of Saanich), Erin Prescott (B.C. Conservation Data Centre), Jennifer Psyllakis (Capital Regional District Parks), Rae Roer (Saanich Parks), and Hans Roemer.

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Executive Summary

This recovery strategy has been developed to provide guidance for the recovery of Canadian populations of Macoun’s meadow-foam (Limnanthes macounii), a vascular plant at risk. Macoun’s meadow-foam is an annual species with small, whitish flowers.

Globally, Macoun’s meadow-foam occurs only in North America. In Canada, it is only found along a narrow coastal area in British Columbia and is, therefore, a British Columbia endemic. This species is only found in British Columbia on southern Vancouver Island and a few adjacent Gulf Islands. Twenty-eight extant populations are known. Habitats for this species are wet depressions, vernal pools, and seepage sites in lowland areas. It was designated as Threatened by COSEWIC in 2004 and listed as such under Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act in Canada. In British Columbia, the Macoun’s meadow-foam is ranked S2 (imperilled) by the Conservation Data Centre and is on the provincial Red list. The B.C. Conservation Framework ranks the Macoun’s meadow-foam as a priority 1 under goal 1 (contribute to global efforts for species and ecosystem conservation).

Threats to Macoun’s meadow-foam include: residential and commercial development; recreation activities; fire suppression; invasive alien plants; and climate change.

The population and distribution goal for Macoun’s meadow-foam is to maintain the extant populations in British Columbia.

Recovery objectives are:

  1. Ensure long-term protection[6] for the known populations and habitat of Macoun’s meadow-foam.
  2. Assess and mitigate the extent of the main threats to Macoun’s meadow-foam populations (e.g., construction of buildings and facilities; invasive alien plants; fire suppression; recreational activities).
  3. Determine sizes and population trends of all known populations.
  4. Confirm the distribution of all populations (existing and new locations) of Macoun’s meadow-foam in British Columbia.
  5. Address knowledge gaps relating to recruitment of new populations or subpopulations, mechanisms of dispersal and seed bank dynamics.

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Recovery Feasibility Summary

The recovery of Macoun’s meadow-foam in British Columbia is considered feasible based on the criteria outlined by the Government of Canada (2009):

  1. Individuals of the wildlife species that are capable of reproduction are available now or in the foreseeable future to sustain the population or improve its abundance.

    Yes, over 100,000 individuals are capable of reproduction and, therefore, available to improve the population growth rate or population abundance.

  2. Sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species or could be made available through habitat management or restoration.

    Yes, sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species at its known locations. There may be additional suitable habitat along the 200 kilometres of coastline where the species occurs.

  3. The primary threats to the species or its habitat (including threats outside Canada) can be avoided or mitigated.

    Yes, significant threats (residential and commercial development; recreation activities; fire suppression; invasive alien plants) to the species or its habitat can be avoided or mitigated through recovery actions. However, the impact that climate change may have in the future cannot be mitigated.

  4. Recovery techniques exist to achieve the population and distribution objectives or can be expected to be developed within a reasonable timeframe.

    Yes, the standard recovery techniques exist, and will be attempted in efforts to achieve the population and distribution objectives for this species.

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1. COSEWIC Species Assessment Information

Date of Assessment: November 2004

Common Name (population):* Macoun’s Meadowfoam

Scientific Name* Limnanthes macounii

COSEWIC Status: Threatened

Reason for designation: A Canadian endemic highly restricted within a narrow coastal fringe of seasonally wet microhabitats where it is at risk from continued competition with a wide range of exotic plants. Its presence in a highly urbanized area results in habitat disruption and population losses.

Canadian Occurrence: British Columbia

COSEWIC Status History: Designated Special Concern in April 1988. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in November 2004. Last assessment based on an updated status report.

* Common and scientific names reported in this recovery strategy follow the naming conventions of the British Columbia Conservation Data Centre, which differs slightly from COSEWIC’s naming conventions.

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2. Species Status Information

Macoun’s meadow-foama
Legal Designation
Identified Wildlifeb: NoB.C. Wildlife Act: NoSARA Schedule: 1 (2006)
Conservation Statusc
B.C. List: Red B.C. Rank: S2 (2007) National Rank: N2 Global Rank d: G2 (2006) Subnational Rankse: N/A – only found in BC
B.C. Conservation Frameworkf
Goal 1: Contribute to global efforts for species and ecosystem conservation.Priorityg: 1 (2009)
Goal 2: Prevent species and ecosystems from becoming at risk.Priority: 6 (2009)
Goal 3: Maintain the diversity of native species and ecosystemsPriority: 2 (2009)
Action Groups:Compile Status Report; Monitor Trends; Planning; List under Wildlife Act; Send to COSEWIC; Habitat Protection; Habitat Restoration; Private Land Stewardship; Species and Population Management

a Data source: B.C. Conservation Data Centre (2010) unless otherwise noted.

b Identified Wildlife under the Forest and Range Practices Act.

d The global conservation status rank assigned to Macoun’s meadow-foam is based on the assumption that the Californian population is not Macoun’s meadow-foam (NatureServe 2008)

e S = Subnational; N = National; G = Global; B = Breeding; X = presumed extirpated; H = possibly extirpated; 1 = critically imperiled; 2 = imperiled; 3 = special concern, vulnerable to extirpation or extinction; 4 = apparently secure; 5 = demonstrably widespread, abundant, and secure; NA = not applicable; NR = unranked; U = unrankable.

f Data source: Ministry of Environment (2010).

g Six-level scale: Priority 1 (highest priority) through to Priority 6 (lowest priority).

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3. Species Information

3.1 Species Description

Macoun’s meadow-foam is a small, annual plant that usually grows from 2-5 cm, sometimes to 15 cm tall (see Front Cover photo). Plants have hairless stems that may be unbranched or have one or more branches. Small plants grow upright, while larger plants lie on the ground with branch tips pointing up. Leaves range from 1-7 cm long and are divided into 3-13 segments arranged in two rows. The edges of the leaf segments may have pointed or rounded divisions. Its flowers usually have four to five petals and are 7-10 mm in diameter. The white petals are obovate, or broadest towards the slightly notched tips, and have two rows of hairs at the base. The green sepals that surround the petals are narrowed towards the sharp-pointed tips. Following fertilization, the flowers usually produce 3-4 (sometimes one), 3 mm long nutlets. The relatively conspicuous nutlets are yellow-green to brown, conical in shape, and attached to the plant at the small part of the cone. The tips of the nutlets are covered in warty lumps.

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3.2 Populations and Distribution

Globally, Macoun’s meadow-foam only occurs in North America and likely is endemic to British Columbia[7] (Figure 1). In British Columbia (B.C.), Macoun’s meadow-foam is restricted to southern Vancouver Island and a few adjacent Gulf Islands (Figure 2; COSEWIC 2004).The species extends from East Sooke northeast to Victoria (including the adjacent Inskip, Chatham, and Trial islands), with outlying populations at Yellow Point on Vancouver Island, and on Salt Spring, Gabriola, and Hornby islands (Figure 2). The estimated extent of occurrence of Macoun’s meadow-foam is 40 km2 and the estimated area of occupancy is <0.02 km2 and was considered to be declining (COSEWIC 2004).

Figure 1: North American distribution map of Macoun’s Meadowfoam

Figure 1. Global distribution of Macoun’s meadow-foam. Closed circle indicates confirmed localities in British Columbia; open circle indicates unconfirmed locality in California.

Figure 2: British Columbian distribution map of Macoun’s Meadowfoam

Figure 2. British Columbian distribution of Macoun’s meadow-foam as of 2003 (B.C. CDC 2008a).

Macoun’s meadow-foam grows in relatively small, discrete areas of suitable habitat that often occur in clusters. A total of 32 populations[8] of Macoun’s meadow-foam have been documented in B.C., of which 28 are extant (COSEWIC 2004; B.C. CDC 2008a). In 2004, the estimated number of Macoun’s meadow-foam individuals in B.C. was 20,000 (COSEWIC 2004). The B.C. population of Macoun’s meadow-foam declined in size by 8–12% from 1994 to 2003, with an estimated net loss of 800–1,200 individuals (COSEWIC 2004). However, surveys in 2010 found two new populations at Rocky Point estimated at a minimum of 110,000 plants (Cornforth, pers. comm. 2010). These new Macoun’s meadow-foam populations result in a substantial increase to the total estimated B.C. population.

Within the 30 years during which population sizes have been documented, 104 subpopulations[9] have been observed, of which 84% are extant and 16% apparently have been extirpated (COSEWIC 2004; B.C. CDC 2008a). Of the 87 extant subpopulations, 26 are large (>200 individuals), 22 are of medium size (51–200 individuals), 36 are small (<50 individuals), and three have unknown sizes.

Most subpopulations have been tracked for only one or two years, but about 63% of those that were measured appear to be stable or increasing based on this limited data.

Population and subpopulation information is detailed in Appendix 1.

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3.3 Needs of Macoun’s meadow-foam

3.3.1 Habitat and biological needs

Table 1 summarizes the habitat and biological needs of Macoun’s meadow-foam.

Table 1. Summary of habitat characteristics for Macoun’s meadow-foam (COSEWIC 2004).
General characteristicsHabitat Summary
  • open places or sparsely treed woodlands, usually <200 m from shore of Pacific Ocean (up to 2 km from shore)
  • rocky sites with shallow soil
  • wet or submerged in winter and completely dry in summer
  • usually grows 5–35 m above sea level, but occasionally as high as 195 m above sea level
Light requirements
  • optimal growth occurs in full-sun habitats
  • when plants grow in shade (among tall grasses or overshadowed by woody plants), the plants are thin and elongated and usually produce fewer nutlets
  • the climate of the species’ range is characterized by mild winters and dry, cool summers
  • snow and hard frosts are rare
  • plants tend to occur at coastal sites that have higher ground temperatures and moister soil in the winter compared to corresponding inland sites
  • most of the precipitation is in the winter months, precipitation declines sharply in the spring, and sites experience strong moisture deficits in the summer
  • growth period spans from late September or October to May; relatively mild temperatures and high rates of precipitation in this period are essential for the plant’s survival
  • dry summers are important for seed maturation
Climate fluctuations
  • adverse conditions for plant growth and development are associated with lower than average temperatures in winter and drier than average conditions in early spring
  • low temperatures in the fall can impede germination; winter frosts can kill the plants
Physiographic and topographic characteristicsBedrock
  • sites occur in bedrock depressions (lined with shallow soil) where water pools, or along bedrock fractures (with soil deposits) with intermittent seepage
  • sites generally have volcanic underlying bedrock, with sandstone bedrock at a few sites
  • soils are shallow, ranging from a few cm to about 30 cm thick
  • the most viable populations tend to occur in soils <4 cm deep
  • soils are humus-rich and black: Orthic Humic Regosol soil classification
  • soils are nutrient-rich and acidic
Soil conditions
  • the plant has the following edaphic requirements: water table at the ground surface or up to 5 cm above ground surface during winter; fresh and moist soil in spring until the end of April; and very dry soil in summer
EcologyBiogeoclimatic unit
  • CDFmm – the Moist Maritime subzone of the Coastal Douglas-fir zone
  • the species occurs in the following ecosystems:
  • vernal pools: open depressions with a large number of annual plants
  • ephemeral seepage streams on open slopes
  • seagull-roosting places: wet depressions and the end of seepage streams in places where seabirds gather and feed (nutrient-rich)
  • open woodlands: depressions and seepy places in open mixed woodlands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Garry oak (Quercus garryana), arbutus (Arbutus menziesii), Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), or shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta)
Sensitive ecosystems
  • sites usually occur in the following mapped Sensitive Ecosystems: coastal bluffs, herbaceous, and woodland
Disturbance regime (see below)
  • sites are commonly subject to intermediate levels of disturbance from human recreation and seabird activities
  • moderate disturbance from humans and seabirds may contribute to maintaining Macoun’s meadow-foam habitat by reducing cover of competing plant species
Disturbance regime

Although some types of disturbance can be detrimental to this species, twice a year tilling in late spring and early fall in a complex of old fields, meadows and wetlands at Rocky Point on DND lands has apparently created the ideal habitat for Macoun’s meadow-foam. At this location, a thin layer of soil overlays an impermeable clay base, allowing the furrows to collect water in fall after the area is disced with a plow. This disturbance, therefore, creates safe sites where the species is able to germinate in the late fall, and also potentially brings nutlets to the surface for germination. The plants are then able to flower and set seed prior to the second plowing of this area in the late spring.

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3.3.2 Limiting factors

Several biological factors limit the recovery potential of Macoun’s meadow-foam in Canada are described below.

Habitat specificity

Macoun’s meadow-foam has specific habitat requirements in terms of climate, physiography, moisture regime, ecosystem type, and disturbance regime (Table 1). Suitable habitats are limited in extent and are restricted to a small geographic range (southern Vancouver Island and some adjacent islands). The limited extent of habitat may be linked to widespread fire suppression, which encourages secondary succession and loss of suitable habitats.

Small and fragmented populations

Small, fragmented populations reduce the likelihood of persistence following stochastic events that cause mortality, or reduce reproductive success. Demographic stochasticity and genetic factors will also affect the probability of small populations persisting (Hanski 1999; Pollard 1966; Keiding 1975; Newman and Pilson 1997).

Limited dispersal ability

The nutlets of Macoun’s meadow-foam have no dispersal structures; they simply fall off the plant (COSEWIC 2004). Waterfowl may occasionally disperse the nutlets; this has been observed with the seeds and fruits of other vernal pool and aquatic plant species (Sauer 1991). The limited dispersal ability of Macoun’s meadow-foam may be assocaited with a low frequency of recruitment of new populations and subpopulations.

Low genetic variability

In an allozyme study of eight Macoun’s meadow-foam localities, no evidence of genetic differentiation was found among populations, and low genetic variability was found within populations (Kesseli and Jain 1984).

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4. Threats

Threats are defined as the proximate (human) activities or processes that have caused, are causing or may cause the destruction, degradation and/or impairment of biodiversity and natural processes. Threats can be historical, ongoing, and/or likely to occur in the future. Threats do not include intrinsic biological features of the species or population such as inbreeding depression, small population size and genetic isolation which are considered limiting factors.

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4.1 Threat Assessment

The threat classification below is based on the IUCN-CMP (World Conservation Union- Conservation Measures Partnership) unified threats classification system and is consistent with methods used by the British Columbia Conservation Data Centre and the B.C. Conservation Framework. For a detailed description of the threat classification system see the CMP website (CMP 2010). For information on how the values are assigned or overall impact is calculated see Master et al. (2009) and table footnotes for details. Threats for Macoun’s meadow-foam were assessed for the entire province based on populations known as of 2008 (Table 2).

Table 2. Threat classification table for Macoun’s meadow-foam.
ThreatImpacta (calculated)ScopebSeveritycTimingdPopulation(s)Stresse
1Residential & commercial developmentMediumRestrictedSeriousHigh  
  • Housing & urban areas
MediumRestrictedSeriousHigh8 on private landReduced population size; local extirpations
  • Tourism & recreation areas
Medium - LowRestrictedSerious - ModerateHigh10 in parksReduced population size or reduced population viability; local extirpations; increased mortality; poor reproductive success
6Human intrusions & disturbanceMediumLargeModerateHigh  
  • Recreational activities
MediumLargeModerateHighAll except DND landsReduced population size; reduced population viability; increased mortality
  • War, civil unrest & military exercises
LowSmallModerateLow6 at DNDReduced population size; reduced population viability; increased mortality
7Natural system modificationsMediumLargeModerateHigh  
  • Fire & fire suppression
MediumLargeModerateHighMostReduced population size; reduced population viability; increased mortality
8Invasive & other problematic species & genesHighPervasiveSeriousHigh  
  • Invasive non-native/
    alien species
HighPervasiveSeriousHighAllReduced population size or reduced population viability; local extirpations; increased mortality; poor reproductive success
11Climate change & severe weatherHighPervasiveSeriousUnknown  
  • Droughts
HighPervasiveSeriousUnknownAllReduced population size; local extirpations

a Impact – The degree to which a species is observed, inferred, or suspected to be directly or indirectly threatened in the area of interest. The impact of each stress is based on Severity and Scope rating and considers only present and future threats. Threat impact reflects a reduction of a species population or decline/degradation of the area of an ecosystem. The median rate of population reduction or area decline for each combination of scope and severity corresponds to the following classes of threat impact: very high (75% declines), high (40%), medium (15%), and low (3%).

b Scope – Proportion of the species that can reasonably be expected to be affected by the threat within 10 years. Usually measured as a proportion of the species’ population in the area of interest. (Pervasive = 71–100%; Large = 31–70%; Restricted = 11–30%; Small = 1–10%)

c Severity – Within the scope, the level of damage to the species from the threat that can reasonably be expected to be affected by the threat within a 10-year or three-generation timeframe. Usually measured as the degree of reduction of the species’ population. (Extreme = 71–100%; Serious = 31–70%; Moderate = 11–30%; Slight = 1–10%)

d Timing – High = continuing; Moderate = only in the future (could happen in the short term [< 10 years or 3 generations]) or now suspended (could come back in the short term); Low = only in the future (could happen in the long term) or now suspended (could come back in the long term); Insignificant/Negligible = only in the past and unlikely to return, or no direct effect but limiting.

e Stress – the condition or aspect (key ecological, demographic, or individual attribute) of the conservation target that is impaired or reduced by a threat (e.g., directly or indirectly results from human activities).

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4.2 Description of the Threats

The overall province-wide Threat Impact for this species is Very High[10]. The threats to Macoun’s meadow-foam habitats are similar to those described for vernal pools, ephemeral wetlands, and maritime meadows on southeastern Vancouver Island (Parks Canada Agency 2006a; 2006b). Major threats include: residential and commercial development (construction of buildings and facilities for housing and recreation); invasive alien plants; human intrusions and disturbance (from recreational activities and military exercises); natural system modification (fire suppression) and potentially climate change (Table 2). Details are discussed below under the Threat Level 1 headings.

IUCN-CMP Threat 1. Residential & commercial development

1.1 Housing and Urban Areas: Some of the remaining areas of Macoun’s meadow-foam habitat are at risk because they occur predominantly on coastal properties which may be desirable for residential development. Privately owned properties may be most threatened by habitat conversion, e.g., for landscaping purposes. A total of 27% of Macoun’s meadow-foam subpopulations occur on private land.

Examples of Macoun’s meadow-foam populations and subpopulations that have been extirpated due to the construction of buildings and facilities include:

  • a population was extirpated when a sundeck was built over a depression with Macoun’s meadow-foam on Salt Spring Island (B.C. CDC 2008a);
  • a site was subdivided and the construction of a sewer line diverted seepage flow away from the plants, with the resultant loss of a population (B.C. CDC 2008a);
  • two subpopulations on private land west of Devonian Park were lost when the area was developed: one site was drilled for seawater intake for a heat pump, and at another site, building debris associated with residential construction was burned (B.C. CDC 2008a);
  • a subpopulation was lost due to drilling associated with hydrothermal energy exploration in Metchosin (B.C. CDC 2008a).

1.3 Tourism and Recreation Areas: A variety of agencies are responsible for managing natural habitats where Macoun’s meadow-foam occurs (e.g., federal, municipal, provincial governments, and private operations). The inconspicuous appearance of Macoun’s meadow-foam makes it easy to overlook and habitat may be damaged unless the locations are known to site operators.

Most agencies that have Macoun’s meadow-foam populations on their properties are aware of it, but in some cases the site management plans do not make specific reference to the occurrences. As well, site operators may not have easy access to maps of populations or may lack training in identifying the occurrences. In the past, operational activities have lead to the damaging or direct destruction of portions of Macoun’s meadow-foam populations, or degradation of the habitats. These activities have included: mowing of vegetation; installation and maintenance of site infrastructure; driving of motorized service vehicles in wet season; redirection of trails; road construction; digging of ditches or trenches; deposition of gravel and other materials; changes in hydrological regimes of adjacent sites. Specific examples are as follows:

  • the installation of a new water line destroyed half of a subpopulation in 2006 in Ruckle Provincial Park by excavating through the habitat of Macoun’s meadow-foam (Annschild, pers. comm. 2008); and
  • during the installation of tent pads in Ruckle Provincial Park in February 2008, motorized vehicles created ruts in the saturated soil adjacent to a Macoun’s meadow-foam site altering the hydrology of the occupied site (Annschild, pers. comm. 2008).

However, some site operation activities can be beneficial to Macoun’s meadow-foam populations, such as appropriately timed mowing, which reduces the proliferation of competing species.

IUCN-CMP Threat 6. Human intrusions & disturbance

6.1 Recreational Activities: Recreational activities may threaten populations of Macoun’s meadow-foam. While the species’ habitats are somewhat resilient to moderate disturbance during its dormant season (summer), the species and its habitats are vulnerable to disturbance during its growth period in the wet season.

Recreational activities of particular concern include:

  • Heavy trampling during the wet season, which “may result in the creation of near-permanent ruts, compact soil, change the microtopography of pool bottoms, crush pool vegetation and reduce seed production, leading to a gradual decline in populations” (Fairbarns 2004). This soil compaction and disturbance is associated with trampling by humans or dogs as well as bicycling.
  • Use of recreational equipment and vehicles infested with carpet burweed propagules. This non-native invasive plant, relatively new to Canada, has been spreading among RV parks and campgrounds in southwestern B.C. (Ceska and Ceska 2007). Carpet burweed competes directly with Macoun’s meadow-foam and poses a serious risk to populations.
  • Construction of unauthorized bicycle motocross jumps in Uplands Park. These structures are built by excavating topsoil from intact vernal pools and meadows and park trails. The excavated material is stacked to create ramps and jumps. Park staff demolish these jumps as they are found, returning the soil material to the excavations as best they can. It is not possible to completely restore the excavated vernal pool sites.
  • Soil disturbance by dogs digging in wet depressions during the wet season (Fairbarns 2004).

While many recreational activities can be damaging, localized disturbance may be important to maintaining microsite conditions. Some human trampling, for example, may be beneficial to the species, especially if it occurs during the summer, following plant senescence. Trampling can serve to curb the proliferation of non-native perennial grasses and other competitors. Soil compaction due to trampling may also contribute to maintaining the optimal soil depth for the species, ensuring that seeds do not become buried too deeply for optimal germination. As site managers assume greater stewardship responsibilities for Macoun’s meadow-foam, well-intentioned attempts to reduce disturbance can threaten populations. Dramatic increases in levels of disturbance may also threaten Macoun’s meadow-foam populations. All of these factors need to be investigated further.

6.2 War, Civil Unrest and Military Exercises: Similar concerns as noted above in section 6.1 Recreational Activities may apply here with respect to military exercises at six sites (Appendix 1). However, these sites are not currently threatened as the Department of National Defence (DND) Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Esquimalt is engaged in several stewardship activities aimed at managing and protecting plant species at risk.

IUCN-CMP Threat 7. Natural System Modifications

7.1. Fire and Fire Suppression: The maintenance of an appropriate disturbance regime, in this instance a fire regime, is important for the survival of Macoun’s meadow-foam as disturbance creates and/or maintains the open habitats required for this species. While traditional First Nations ecosystem management using fire may have maintained open habitats in historic times, current fire suppression regimes have contributed to the increase in distribution of forest trees and shrubs in Garry oak ecosystems where Macoun’s meadow-foam is found. This lack of fire regime has potentially led to the loss and alteration of many Macoun’s meadow-foam habitats due to secondary succession.

IUCN-CMP Threat 8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes

8.1 Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species: Invasive, in particular alien plants represent threats to Macoun’s meadow-foam populations and some subpopulation extirpations and declines may be attributed to the proliferation of non-native species. Invasive non-native species act as competitors for germination sites, as well as for available soil moisture. They also produce shading, add leaf litter, as well as build up a thatch layer. All of these factors can inhibit seedling development of Macoun’s meadow-foam.

Several categories of non-native plants are of concern:

  • Non-native perennial grasses represent the most serious threat to populations because they compete directly with Macoun’s meadow-foam (COSEWIC 2004); they cover bare soil areas where the species grows, and they deposit litter that accumulates and alters the local moisture regime.
  • The non-native shrubs Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) and gorse (Ulex europaeus) may overshadow Macoun’s meadow-foam populations.
  • English ivy (Hedera helix) contributed to the decline and disappearance of two subpopulations in Glencoe Cove.
  • Two relatively recent non-native invasive winter annual species are of serious concern to Macoun’s meadow-foam populations: subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) (DND lands) and carpet burweed (Soliva sessilis) at Uplands Park; (COSEWIC 2004), and carpet burweed at Ruckle Provincial Park.
IUCN-CMP Threat 11. Climate change & severe weather – Potential Threat

Graham (2003) discusses the threat that climate change represents to species of ephemeral pools.

Ephemeral pool species and ecosystems are tied directly to temperature and precipitation patterns, and thus have the potential to be greatly affected by climate change. Vernal pool systems appear to be quite sensitive to climatic shifts. Individual species could be seriously affected, and perhaps even driven to extinction in some cases, under some predicted scenarios.

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5. Recovery goal and objectives

5.1 Population and Distribution Goal

The goal for Macoun’s meadow-foam is to maintain the extant populations in British Columbia.

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5.2 Recovery Objectives

Recovery will be considered significantly advanced if the following short-term (five to ten years) objectives have been met:

  1. Ensure long-term protection[11] for the known populations and habitat of Macoun’s meadow-foam.
  2. Assess and mitigate the extent of the main threats to Macoun’s meadow-foam populations (e.g., construction of buildings and facilities; invasive alien plants; fire suppression; recreational activities).
  3. Determine sizes and population trends of all known populations
  4. Confirm the distribution of all populations (existing and new locations) of Macoun’s meadow-foam in British Columbia.
  5. Address knowledge gaps relating to recruitment of new populations or subpopulations, mechanisms of dispersal and seed bank dynamics.

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5.3 Rationale for the Goal and Objectives

The population and distribution goal is to maintain the extant populations in British Columbia (see Appendix 1). This is particularly important as this species is endemic to Canada and is only found in British Columbia with no possible rescue effect from populations outside of Canada (COSEWIC 2004). Maintaining the existing populations is a realistic goal and will prevent the status of this species from worsening (e.g., becoming Endangered). It is likely that the status for Macoun’s meadow-foam will remain as Threatened, due to its small, fragmented distribution range and very restricted area of occupancy. This is true even if more populations are found and protected and/or the total estimated population numbers increase (as was recently the case with the discovery of new populations at Rocky Point in 2010).

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6. Approaches to Meet Objectives

6.1 Actions Already Completed or Underway

Actions listed below have been categorized by the action groups of the B.C. Conservation Framework. Status of the action group for this species is given in brackets.

Compile Status Report (complete)

  • COSEWIC report completed (COSEWIC 2004).

Send to COSEWIC (complete)

  • Macoun’s meadow-foam designated Threatened (COSEWIC 2004).

Planning (complete)

  • BC Recovery Strategy completed (this document, 2010).

Habitat Protection, Habitat Restoration and Private Land Stewardship (in progress)

Macoun’s meadow-foam populations occur on properties with a wide variety of land tenures. Many of the owners or land managers are involved in stewardship activities aimed at protecting natural habitats.

One of the most important initiatives related to recovery of Macoun’s meadow-foam is a project entitled “Report on Potential Critical Habitat in Garry Oak Ecosystems” (Parks Canada Agency 2009). This project involves delineating and mapping habitat required for the survival and recovery of a number of plant species at risk found in Garry oak and associated ecosystems on selected federal lands and provincial protected areas, one of which is Macoun’s meadow-foam.

Most provincial, regional and municipal parks where Macoun’s meadow-foam occurs have management plans that have been prepared by the responsible jurisdictions. These plans address the protection of natural habitats generally, and most do not make specific reference to the occurrence of Macoun’s meadow-foam. Some examples of specific efforts to monitor and manage populations of plant species at risk in parks include (but are not limited to):

  • Uplands Municipal Park: identification of management issues related to species at risk (Fairbarns 2004), species at risk monitoring, regular stewardship activities, and invasive species control.
  • Saxe Point Municipal Park: training workshop and informal management plan for species at risk (Katschor, pers. comm. 2008).
  • Trial Islands Ecological Reserve: monitoring of species at risk, invasive species control designed to minimize impacts to species at risk (Fairbarns, pers. comm. 2008).
  • Ruckle Provincial Park: population monitoring, carpet burweed control activities (Annschild, pers. comm. 2008).

The Department of National Defence (DND) Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Esquimalt is engaged in several stewardship activities aimed at managing and protecting plant species at risk. The DND has sponsored several surveys for species at risk on DND lands on Vancouver Island (e.g., Fairbarns 2006). CFB Esquimalt lands at Rocky Point, Albert Head, and Mary Hill are closed to members of the public. Rocky Point and Albert Head Macoun’s meadow-foam sites have been demarcated with Seibert Stakes (with the exception of the firebreak), which communicate to property users that the areas are “off limits.” The DND is also involved in surveys for, and mapping of, Macoun’s meadow-foam occurrences; maps identifying “sensitive areas” with instructions to not enter or disturb these areas are provided to property users. DND biologists are currently developing a species at risk work plan for Macoun’s meadow-foam that will identify actions required to further protect these sites. In the fall of 2010, baseline data was collected at known locations, and monitoring will likely occur on a three-year cycle (Cornforth, pers. comm. 2010).

The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT) is involved in an outreach and landowner contact program for species at risk, including Macoun’s meadow-foam.

One population of Macoun’s meadow-foam is under a restrictive covenant on the District of Saanich lands (see Appendix 1, CDC EO#33). This natural state restrictive covenant is specific for Macoun’s meadow-foam and monitoring occurs regularly. There are compliance and enforcement mechanisms in place (Pollard, pers. comm. 2010).

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6.2 Recovery Planning Table

Recovery planning for Macoun’s meadow-foam is summarized in Table 3.

Table 3. Recovery planning table for Macoun’s meadow-foam.
Obj. No.Conservation Framework action groupActions to meet objectivesThreatsa or concern addressedPriority







Habitat Protection; Habitat Restoration; Private Land Stewardship
  • Determine appropriate measures to protect habitat
  • Develop stewardship agreements, conservation covenants with private landowners on all properties
  • Develop and implement communication strategy among partner organizations
  • Develop and implement strategy for communicating with land users/stakeholders with respect to recovery activities as required
  • Develop or refine site-specific management plans for protected areas, municipal, and federal lands to reduce or remove threats to populations and habitat
  • Conduct experiments to determine appropriate methods for controlling or removing alien invasive species and methods to mimic fire regimes

1.1; 1.3; 6.1; 6.2

1.1; 1.3; 6.1; 6.2

1.1; 1.3; 6.1; 6.2

1.1; 1.3; 6.1; 6.2; 7.1, 8.1

1.1; 1.3; 6.1; 6.2; 7.1, 8.1

7.1, 8.1











  • Assess impacts of invasive alien species at all sites
  • Identify impact of disturbance (e.g., soil compaction, trampling, recreational activities, forest and shrubland encroachment, removal of invasive alien species) to the viability of meadow-foam populations
  • Develop and implement monitoring protocol to detect human and natural threats at each known site
  • Monitor sites to assess the effects of any management actions

8.1; Knowledge gap

6.1; 6.2; 8.1

All threats

All threats







Monitor Trends
  • Develop and implement monitoring protocol for Macoun’s meadow-foam distribution and abundance at each site
  • Monitor status of populations to determine population trends

Knowledge gap

Knowledge gap






Habitat Protection
  • Identify and map suitable habitat for the species
  • Prioritize areas for inventory
  • Conduct inventories

Knowledge gap

Knowledge gap

Knowledge gap






Compile/Update Status Report
  • Describe recruitment of new populations or subpopulations
  • Determine mechanisms of dispersal Characterize seed bank dynamics

Knowledge gap

Knowledge gap



a Threat numbers according to the IUCN-CMP classification (see Table 2 for details).

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7. Habitat Needs to Meet Recovery Goal

To meet the population and distribution goal for this species, it is recommended that specific habitat attributes are identified for Macoun's meadow-foam, and locations of habitat are geospatially described on the landscape, to facilitate management to mitigate habitat threats.

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7.1 Identification of Habitat for Management / Protection

Specific habitat attributes for the survival/ recovery of Macoun’s meadow-foam are presented in Table 1. Habitat needed for the survival/ recovery of the species is not being spatially identified for Macoun’s meadow-foam in B.C. at this time as outstanding work needs to be completed to quantify area requirements for the species.

A schedule of studies outlining the work necessary to spatially identify habitat needed to meet the recovery goal is provided in Table 4.

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7.2 Schedule of Studies to Identify Habitat Needed to Meet Recovery Goal

Table 4. Studies needed to describe survival/recovery habitat to meet the population and distribution goal for Macoun’s meadow-foam.
Description of research activityStart dateCompletion date

1. Conduct surveys:

  • Map occupied habitat using established mapping techniques.

2. Describe and record condition of occupied habitat:

  • Delineate the habitat features and site conditions supporting the species.
  • Compile site-specific information on community composition, site characteristics, ecological condition (vegetation competition, land use activities, presence/density of invasive alien species, other intrinsic limitations) and landscape context (adjacent land use, succession, habitat connectivity).

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8. Performance Measures

The success of the recovery program will be determined primarily through monitoring of populations and habitat trends through time. Macoun’s meadow-foam is an annual species and therefore the distribution of occurrences can be expected to be dynamic (on a scale of decades) within areas of suitable habitat. Population sizes can also vary dramatically from year to year, and these variations don’t necessarily reflect the probability of persistence of the species. However, even though there can be a wide variation in the number of plants within each population year-to-year, the individual numbers within each of three size categories (small: 1-50 plants; medium: >50 – 200 plants; large: >200 plants) are consistent between years (COSEWIC 2004). If population monitoring indicates that the number of extant populations is stable or increasing, then the population and distribution goal for Macoun’s meadow-foam will have been met.

The recovery strategy will be reviewed in five years to assess progress and to identify additional approaches or changes that may be required to achieve recovery.

The following performance measures will be used to evaluate progress by 2016:

  • At least four sites have stewardship agreements established for the protection of the species (Objective 1).
  • All parks have site-specific management plans in place (Objectives 1 and 2).
  • Research projects have been initiated by 2015 to identify threats and assess risk to populations (Objective 2).
  • Determination of the sizes and population trends of all known populations have been initiated (Objective 3).
  • Inventory of potential habitats has been conducted (Objective 4).
  • Knowledge gaps relating to recruitment of new populations or subpopulations, mechanisms of dispersal and seed bank dynamics have been initiated (Objective 5).

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9. Effects on Other Species

Many at-risk species and ecosystems occur in or adjacent to Macoun’s meadow-foam habitats. COSEWIC assessed and provincial plant species at risk include: snake-root sanicle (Sanicula arctopoides), rosy owl-clover (Orthocarpus bracteosus) (SARA listed), paintbrush owl-clover (Castilleja ambigua ssp. ambigua), bearded owl-clover (Triphysaria versicolor ssp. versicolor) (SARA listed), erect pygmyweed (Crassula connata var. connata), and seaside birds-foot trefoil (Lotus formosissimus). Since this species occurs within Garry oak and associated ecosystems, there are additional flora and fauna that would be protected by conserving Macoun’s meadow-foam (GOERT 2002a).

Coordinated, ecosystem-based approaches are needed to ensure that Macoun’s meadow-foam recovery activities are compatible with recovery activities for other species and ecosystems such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team Recovery Strategy and the Parks Canada multi-species strategy for vernal pools. The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team could possibly carry out landowner contact programs to engage landowners and land managers in future surveys, monitoring, and conservation of the species. As well, a component of the GOERT outreach program includes a field manual for species at risk, which includes Macoun’s meadow-foam (GOERT 2002b).

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10. References

B.C. Conservation Data Centre. 2010. BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer. B.C. Min. Environ., Victoria, BC. <http://a100.gov.bc.ca/pub/eswp/> [Accessed June 24, 2010]

British Columbia Conservation Data Centre (B.C. CDC). 2008a. Element occurrence record: Limnanthes macouniiB.C. Min. Environ., Victoria, BC.

British Columbia Conservation Data Centre (B.C. CDC). 2008b. Glossary. <http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/atrisk/glossary.html> [Accessed Feb. 1, 2008]

Buxton, E. and R. Ornduff. 1999. Noteworthy collections - California: Limnanthes macounii Trel. (Limnanthaceae). Madroño 45:184.

Ceska, A. and O. Ceska. 2007. Carpet burweed (Soliva sessilis, Asteraceae): rare and introduced species that occur with it in British Columbia, Canada. Botanical Electronic News: 373. <http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/ben/ben373.html> [Accessed Feb. 1, 2008]

Ceska, A. and O. Ceska. 1999. Limnanthes macounii: end of an endemic species. Menziesia 4(4):8–9.

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 2004. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Macoun’s meadow-foam Limnanthes macounii in Canada. Ottawa, ON. <http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca/virtual_sara/files/cosewic/sr_macouns_meadowfoam_e.pdf> [Accessed Feb. 1, 2008]

Conservation Measures Partnership. 2010. Threats taxonomy. <http://www.conservationmeasures.org/initiatives/threats-actions-taxonomies/threats-taxonomy> [Accessed June 24, 2010]

Douglas, G., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 1999. Illustrated flora of British Columbia, Volume 3: Dicotyledons (Diapensiaceae through Onagraceae). B.C. Min. Environ., Lands and Parks and B.C. Min. For., Victoria, BC.

Ertter, B. 2000. Floristic surprises in North America north of Mexico. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 87:81–109. <http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/floristic_surprises.html> [Accessed Feb. 1, 2008]

Fairbarns, M. 2004. Uplands Park and Cattle Point: managing rare plants. Prepared for Oak Bay Municipality, Victoria, BC. Unpubl. rep.

Fairbarns, M. 2006. Survey for species at risk on Department of National Defence Lands on Vancouver Island: Work Point (Golf Hill), Mary Hill, Albert Head, CFMETR, South Ballenas Island. Prepared for Can. For. Serv. and Dep. of National Defence, Victoria, BC.

Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT). 2002a. Recovery strategy for Garry Oak and associated ecosystems and their associated species at risk in Canada 2001–2006. <http://www.goert.ca/documents/RSDr_Feb02.pdf>

Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT). 2002b. Field manual: species at risk in Garry Oak and associated ecosystems in British Columbia. <http://www.goert.ca/publications_resources/species_at_risk.php>

Government of Canada. 2009. Species at Risk Act Policies, Overarching Policy Framework – Draft. Ministry of Environment, Ottawa. 38pp.<http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/collection_2009/ec/En4-113-2009-eng.pdf> [Accessed May 3, 2010]

Graham, T.B. 2003. Climate change and ephemeral pool ecosystems: potholes and vernal pools as potential indicator systems. <http://geochange.er.usgs.gov/sw/impacts/biology/vernal/> [Accessed Feb. 1, 2008]

Hammerson, G.A., D. Schweitzer, L. Master, and J. Cordeiro. 2008. Ranking species occurrences: a generic approach. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer/eorankguide.htm> [Accessed Feb. 1, 2009]

Hanski, I. 1999. Metapopulation ecology. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U.K.

Keiding, N. 1975. Extinction and exponential growth in random environments. Theor. Pop. Biol. 8:49–63.

Kesseli, R. and S.K. Jain. 1984. An ecological genetic study of gynodioecy in Limnanthes douglasii (Limnantheceae). Amer. J. Bot. 71(6):775-786.

Master, L., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Bittman, G. A. Hammerson, B. Heidel, J. Nichols, L. Ramsay, and A. Tomaino. 2009. NatureServe Conservation Status Assessments: Factors for Assessing Extinction Risk. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. <http://www.natureserve.org/publications/ConsStatusAssess_StatusFactors.pdf > [Accessed June 24, 2010]

Ministry of Environment. 2010. Conservation framework. B.C. Min. Environ., Victoria, BC. <http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/conservationframework/index.html> [Accessed June 24, 2010]

NatureServe. 2004. A habitat-based strategy for delimiting plant element occurrences: guidance from the 2004 Working Group. <http://www.natureserve.org/library/deliminting_plant_eos_Oct_2004.pdf> [Accessed Feb. 1, 2008]

NatureServe. 2009. NatureServe explorer: an online encyclopedia of life (web application). Version 6.1. Arlington, VA. <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer> [Accessed June 24, 2010]

Newman, D. and D. Pilson. 1997. Increased probability of extinction due to decreased genetic effective population size: experimental populations of Clarkia pulchella. Evol. 51: 354–362.

Parks Canada Agency. 2009. Report on Potential Critical Habitat in Garry Oak Ecosystems. Unpublished, Victoria, BC.

Parks Canada Agency. 2006a. Recovery strategy for multi-species at risk in maritime meadows associated with Garry oak ecosystems in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Parks Canada Agency, Ottawa, ON.

Parks Canada Agency. 2006b. Recovery strategy for multi-species at risk in vernal pools and other ephemeral wet areas in Garry oak and associated ecosystems in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Parks Canada Agency, Ottawa, ON.

Pollard, J.H. 1966. On the use of the direct matrix product in analyzing certain stochastic population models. Biometrika 53:397–415.

Sauer, J.D. 1991. Plant migration: the dynamics of geographic patterning in seed plant species. Univ. California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Tucker, G.C. 2010. Limnanthes. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 16+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 7, p. 176. <http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=250095081> [Accessed November 3, 2010]

Personal Communications

Annschild, Robin. Biologist, Salt Spring Island Conservancy. Salt Spring Island, BC.

Buxton, Eva. Senior Botanist/Ecologist, LSA Associates, Inc., Point Richmond, CA.

Ceska, Adolf. Botanist, Ceska Geobotanical Consulting. Victoria, BC.

Cornforth, Tracy. Environment Officer, Department of National Defence, Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt. Esquimalt, BC.

Donovan, Marta. Biologist, B.C. Conservation Data Centre. Victoria, BC.

Fairbarns, Matt. Biologist, Aruncus Consulting. Victoria, BC.

Katschor, Andy. Manager, Esquimalt Parks and Recreation. Esquimalt, BC.

Penny, Jenifer. Botanist, B.C. Conservation Data Centre. Victoria, BC.

Pollard, Adriane. Manager of Environmental Services, Planning Department, District of Saanich, Victoria, BC.

Psyllakis, Jennifer. Environmental Conservation Specialist, CRD Parks. Victoria, BC.

Meyers, Stephen. Graduate Student, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University. Corvallis, OR.

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Appendix 1. B.C. Populations of Macoun’s Meadow-foam

Table A1. B.C. populations and subpopulations of Macoun’s meadow-foam. Data from COSEWIC 2004; B.C. CDC 2008a; Fairbarns, pers. comm. 2008.
CDC EO #aViabilityPopulation nameSiteMunicipality or DistrictOwnershipSubpopulations
NumberRecent sizebLast observation
1fairBEECHY HEAD, BAY NORTH OFEast Sooke Regional Park (Cabin Point)SookeCRD Parks1.1medium2002–2003
CREYKE POINT, EAST SOOKE REGIONAL PARKEast Sooke Regional ParkSookeCRD Parks2.1large2002–2003
3fair?BECHER BAY 1R #2, WEST OF ROCKY POINTBecher Bay First Nation Reserve #2SookeBeecher Bay First Nation3.1extirpated1984
Old Orchardextirpated1977
5fairCHURCH POINT, WEST OFCanadian Forces Base Rocky PointMetchosinDND4.1medium2002–2003
6goodROCKY POINT, EASTcCanadian Forces Base Rocky PointMetchosinDND5.1large2002–2003
QUARANTINE COVE, VICTORIAWilliam Head PrisonMetchosinfederal6.1medium2002–2003
12fairMARY HILL, NORTHEAST BASE MetchosinDND1977 pop.?1977
13extirpatedASH POINT Metchosinprivate8.1extirpated1977
14fair?PEARSON COLLEGE Metchosinprivate9.1small2002–2003
15poorDEVONIAN REGIONAL PARKDevonian Regional ParkMetchosinCRD Parks11.1small2002–2003
outside of Parkprivate11.2extirpated1987
16goodSAXE POINT PARK, VICTORIASaxe Point ParkEsquimaltEsquimalt Parks18.1large2002–2003
17goodMONTREUL HILL Metchosinprivate10.1small2002–2003
20goodALBERT HEAD MetchosinDND12.1small2002–2003
ARBUTUS COVE, NORTH OF Saanichprivate25.1small2002–2003
22fairHORNBY ISLAND, DOWNES POINT Hornby Islandprivate32.1medium2002–2003
23fairFORT RODD HILL NATIONAL HISTORIC SITEFort Rodd Hill National Historic SiteColwoodParks Canada13.1medium2002–2003
YEW POINTFort Rodd Hill National Historic SiteColwoodParks Canada14.1large2002–2003
INSKIP ISLANDInskip IslandmarineDND16.1large2002–2003
25dextirpatedASHE HEADSonghees Nation ReserveCapital Regional DistrictSonghees Nation17.1extirpated1987
27goodHARLING POINTChinese Cemetery at Harling Point National Historic SiteOak Bayprivate20.1large2002–2003
Trafalgar ParkDistrict of Oak Bay Parksnewlarge2007
28goodTRIAL ISLANDS ECOLOGICAL RESERVETrial Islands Ecological ReservemarineBC Parks21.1/"north pop."large2002–2003
29goodGONZALES POINTVictoria Golf ClubOak Bayprivate22.1large2002–2003
CHATHAM ISLANDS, HERITAGE POINTChatham IslandsmarineSonghees Nation23.1large2002–2003
31good?UPLANDS PARK, VICTORIAUplands ParkOak BayDistrict of Oak Bay Parks24.1large2002–2003
north boat ramp?2002–2003
GORDON HEAD, LEYNS ROAD, GLENCOE COVE PARKGlencoe Cove-Kwatsech ParkSaanichSaanich Parks1small2006
outside of ParkDistrict of Saanich2small2006
34goodYELLOW POINTYellow Point LodgeLadysmithprivate1 (30.5)large2002–2003
4 (30.4)medium2002–2003
5 (30.3)medium2002–2003
6 (30.2)medium2002–2003
7 (30.1)large2002–2003
Rice farmprivate8 (29.6)medium2002–2003
9 (29.5)extirpated1987
Chemainus First Nation ReserveChemainus First Nation10 (29.4)small2002–2003
11 (29.3)large2002–2003
12 (29.2)small2002–2003
13 (29.1)small2002–2003
36extirpatedELEANOR POINT, SALT SPRING ISLANDSalt Spring IslandSalt Spring Islandprivate27.1extirpated1978
37goodBEAVER POINT, SALT SPRING ISLANDRuckle Provincial ParkSalt Spring IslandBC Parks28.2medium2002–2003
GABRIOLA ISLAND, DRUMBEG PROVINCIAL PARKDrumbeg Provincial ParkGabriola IslandBC Parks31.1medium2002–2003
44poorGONZALES BAY, VICTORIAGovernment HouseVictoriafederal19.1small2004
45extirpatedVIEW ROYAL View Royalprivate15.1extirpated1987

a These numbers are the labels of the mapped occurrences in the CDC. “Missing” numbers have no significance.

b small = <50 plants; medium = 51–200 plants; large = >200 plants

c Note that this table does not include the data from surveys in 2010 that estimated over 100,000 individual plants found at this location.

d EO #25 was formerly mapped as a single population by the B.C. CDC (B.C. CDC 2008a), but has since been separated into two EOs/populations because they are separated by a body of seawater (Ceska, pers. comm. 2008; Penny, pers. comm. 2008).

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[6] Protection can be achieved through various mechanisms including: voluntary stewardship agreements, conservation covenants, sale by willing vendors on private lands, land use designations, and protected areas.

[7] There is an unconfirmed population in California, however, according to the Flora of North America, is potentially another species (Tucker, 2010).

[8] The B.C. Conservation Data Centre (B.C. CDC) has mapped and defined the populations, and their corresponding element occurrences based on a separation distance of 500 m rather than the default distance of 1 km specified by the “Habitat-based Strategy for Delimiting Plant Element Occurrences” (NatureServe 2004).

[9] Populations consist of either the plants that grow within a single area of suitable habitat or the plants that grow within a cluster of suitable habitat areas. In the latter case, the plants growing in a continuous area of suitable habitat is considered a subpopulation.

[10] The overall threat impact was calculated following Master et al. (2009) using the number of Level 1 Threats assigned to this species: 2 High, and 3 Medium (Table 2).

[11] Protection can be achieved through various mechanisms including: voluntary stewardship agreements, conservation covenants, sale by willing vendors on private lands, land use designations, and protected areas.

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