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Sand-verbena Moth (Copablepharon Fuscum)

Appendix 1: Initial Description of the Copablepharon fuscum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (reprinted from Troubridge and Crabo, 1996 [1995])


Description

Adult

Males and females similar. Eyes round. Frons smooth. Antennae ciliate, dorsal surface with white scales; scape white with small patch of golden brown scales dorsally. Palpi white, second segment with a small patch of gray scales dorsally. All tibiae with stout setae. Head and thorax golden brown, base of thoracic collar and edges of tegulae paler. Forewing length 17-19 min. Forewing ground colour golden brown, slightly darker than thorax; trailing margin darker gray-brown; costa and anal margin white; medial vein and MI edged posteriorly with a pale yellow line, this line edged posteriorly within discal cell with a black line which follows vein M2 to within 2 mm of margin; a diffuse black line follows vein R5 to within 2 mm of margin; a second pale yellow line borders the cubital vein and vein CuA2; postmedian line a series of black dots on veins; fringe concolourous with forewing basally, white to pale gray-brown distally. Hindwing dark gray-brown, fading to very light gray or white basally; fringe white in distal half, dark gray-brown basally. Undersurface of wings predominantly dark gray, light gray on hindwing base and along forewing costa, vein M2 distal to cell and anal margin.

Male Genitalia

Uncus curved, thin, tapered distally. Tegumen broad with penicillus lobes. Juxta broad, flat. Clavi long, cylindrical, slightly expanded distally. Valve 4X as long as wide, rounded distally, widest distal to sacculus due to triangular process of ventral margin; corona present; sacculus 2/5X length of valve; clasper as long as valve width, parallel to dorsal vaIve, broadest at base, tip curved slightly dorsad, basal sclerite strong, joined to clasper proper at 90°angle; digitus very short. Aedoeagus 3X as long as wide with a long, thin extension onto inner curve of coiled vesica; inflated vesica spirals 360° ventrad and leftward to project distal to tip of aedoeagus, distal vesica bulbous, median diverticulum finger-like with a single spike-like cornutus at apex.

Female Genitalia

Ovipositor lobes elongate, cone-shaped, covered with long and short setae; ductus bursae very rightly sclerotized, joined to posterior corpus bursae; bursa copulatrix bisaccate, without signa; corpus bursae straight, 4X as long as narrow, swollen anteriorly; appendix bursae joined to right side of posterior corpus bursae, curved 360' ventrad, its distal end swollen and fiddlehead-shaped; ductus seminalis joined to right side of distal appendix bursae.


Type Specimens

Holotype Male

USA, Washington, Island County, Deception Pass State Park, 26 May, 1995, Troubridge and Crabo in the Canadian National Collection (CNC). Paratypes (16 males, 18 females): 15 males, 15 females, same data as holotype; 1 female, 1 July, 1994, Saanichton, B.C., Troubridge; 1 male, 2 females, 1 July, 1995, Saanichton, B.C., Troubridge. Paratypes to be deposited in the CNC, American Museum of Natural History and United States National Museum.

Figure 1: Copablepharon fuscum: A. holotype male; B. female genitalia; C. male genital capsule; D. aedoeagus and everted vesica.

Figure 1: Copablepharon fuscum: A. holotype male; B. female genitalia; C. male genital capsule; D. aedoeagus and everted vesica.


Derivation of the Name

The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word fuscus, which means dark or swarthy. This refers to the wing colour, which is unusually dark for the genus.


Diagnosis

Adults of C. fuscum are easily separated from all other species in the genus by their dark colour and the presence of the contrasting yellow and black forewing lines. It is the only species with a predominantly gray underside to both forewing and hindwing -the ventral forewing of other species may be dark, but their ventral hindwing is white or off-white. Structurally, C. fuscum is most closely related to C. absidum (Harv.). The male and female genitalia are nearly identical to those of C. absidum, but the clasper of C. fuscum is wider (ca. 0.16 mm near tip vs. 0.12mm in C. absidum) and is rounded distally, while that of C. absidum is slightly pointed.

 

Appendix 2: 2001 and 2002 Moth Sampling Records from Beaches, Spits, and Dunes in the Strait of Georgia, Western Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, and Puget Sound (Note: the names and coordinates for all sites with confirmed Copablepharon fuscum populations are not included for conservation reasons)

LocationRegionCoordinates (NAD83)DateNo.FamilyGenusAuthorMethod
2001 Samples
Goose Spit (west)northern Strait of Georgia
(near Comox, B.C.)
49 39 40, 124 55 00May 20, 20013NoctuidaeApamea
cinefacta
(Grote, 1881)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 1852
1NoctuidaePlusia
nichollae
(Hampson, 1913)
1NoctuidaeEgira
perlubens
(Grote, 1881)
1NoctuidaeEgira
rubrica
(Harvey, 1878)
1ArctiidaeSpilosoma
virginica
(Fabricius, 1798)
Keeha BayVancouver Island
(near Bamfield,
B.C. within PRNPR)
48 47 04.1, 125 10 02.4May 21, 20011NoctuidaeScoliopteryx
libatrix
(Linnaeus, 1758)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeSideridis
maryx
(Guenée, 1852)
23NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeEgira simplex(Walker, 1865)
7NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaePseudaletia
unipuncta
(Haworth, 1809)
Wickaninnish BeachVancouver Island
(near Tofino, B.C.)
49 01 15.8, 125 40 33.6June 2, 20012NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)1
Lighttrap
Not available   northern Strait of Georgia
(Comox area, B.C.)
Not availableJune 11, 20012NoctuidaeApamea
cuculliformis
(Grote, 1875) 
7NoctuidaeCopablepharon
fuscum
Troubridge & Crabo, [1996]
3NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 1852
1NoctuidaeParabagrotis
sulinaris
Lafontaine, 1998
Wickaninnish BeachVancouver Island
(near Tofino, B.C.)
49 01 15, 125 40 33June 12, 20014NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeAletia
oxygala
(Grote, 1881)
3NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1ArctiidaeSpilosoma
virginica
(Fabricius, 1798)
2NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
Schooner CoveVancouver Island
(near Tofino, B.C.)
49 03 58.3, 125 47 39.8June 13, 20011SphingidaeSmerinthus
cerisyi
Kirby1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeAcronicta
fragilis
(Guenée, 1852)
1NoctuidaeScoliopteryx
libatrix
(Linnaeus, 1758)
1NoctuidaeSideridis
maryx
(Guenée, 1852)
3NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
10NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
Pachena BayVancouver Island
(near Bamfield, BC)
48 47 31.3, 125 06 55.9June 14, 200111NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)1
Lighttrap
Not availablenorthern Strait of Georgia
(Comox area, B.C.)
Not availableJune 18, 20011NoctuidaeApamea
cuculliformis
(Grote, 1875)1
Lighttrap
3ArctiidaeHyphantria
cunea
(Drury, 1773)
2NoctuidaeCopablepharon
fuscum
Troubridge & Crabo, [1996]
6NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 1852
7NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
8NoctuidaeAletia
oxygala
(Grote, 1881)
1NoctuidaeDiarsia
rosaria
(Grote, 1878)
1NoctuidaeApamea
scoparia
Mikkola, Mustelin &
Lafontaine, 2000
1NoctuidaeDiscestra
trifolii
(Hufnagel, 1766)
Cheewhat Beach duneswest Vancouver Island
(near Nitinat Lake, B.C.)
48 39 27.1, 124 48 34.4June 21, 20011NoctuidaeLasionycta
arietis
(Grote, 1879)1
Lighttrap
6NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
1NotodontidaeOligocentria
pallida
(Strecker, 1899)
13NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1PantheidaePanthea
virginaria
(Grote, 1880)
1NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
Port Renfrewwest Vancouver Island
(Port Renfrew, B.C.)
48 34 05.6, 124 24 11.0June 26, 20011NoctuidaeEuplexia
benesimilis
McDunnough, 19221
Lighttrap
3NoctuidaeMniotype
ducta
(Grote, 1878)
1NoctuidaeLeucania
farcta
(Grote, 1881)
1NoctuidaeOchropleura
implecta
Lafontaine, 1998
3ArctiidaeLophocampa
maculata
Harris, 1841
7NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
4NoctuidaeAletia
oxygala
(Grote, 1881)
4NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeApamea
plutonia
(Grote, 1883)
1NotodontidaeFurcula
scolopendrina
(Boisduval, 1869)
2ArctiidaeSpilosoma
virginica
(Fabricius, 1798)
Witty's Lagoonsouthern Strait of Georgia
(near Metchosin, B.C.)
48 23 10, 123 30 55June 28, 20012NotodontidaeClostera
brucei
(Hy. Edwards, 1885)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeLacinipolia
cuneata
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
4NoctuidaeLeucania
multilinea
Walker, 1856
1NoctuidaeLacanobia
nr. atlantica
undescribed
Vargas North DunesVancouver Island
(Vargas Island)
49 11 24.4, 126 01 51.3July 4, 20011NoctuidaeTrichordestra
liquida
(Grote, 1881)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
4NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
Ahous Bay NorthVancouver Island
(Vargas Island)
49 11 06.1, 126 00 44.0July 5, 20011NoctuidaeLeucania
farcta
(Grote, 1881)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeTrichordestra
liquida
(Grote, 1881)
13NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
Wickaninnish BeachVancouver Island
(near Tofino, B.C.)
49 01 15.8, 125 40 33.6July 18, 20011NoctuidaeDiarsia
esurialis
(Grote, 1881)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeOchropleura
implecta
Lafontaine, 1998
1NoctuidaeSpiramater
lutra
(Guenée, 1852)
31NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
2NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NotodontidaeFurcula
scolopendrina
(Boisduval, 1869)
1PantheidaePanthea
virginaria
(Grote, 1880)
8NoctuidaeEuxoa
wilsoni
(Grote, 1873)
6NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
Stubbs IslandVancouver Island
(near Tofino, B.C.)
49 09 44.3, 125 55 26.3July 19, 20012NoctuidaeLeucania
farcta
(Grote, 1881)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeOligia
indirecta
(Grote, 1875)
14NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
1NoctuidaePeridroma
saucia
(Hübner, 1803-08)
1ArctiidaeSpilosoma
virginica
(Fabricius, 1798)
5NoctuidaeEuxoa
wilsoni
(Grote, 1873)
24NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
Sidney Spitsouthern Strait of Georgia
(near Sidney, B.C.)
48 38 38.9, 123 20 00.4July 23, 20011NoctuidaeLeucania
anteoclara
Smith, 19021
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeNoctua
comes
(Hübner, [1813])
23NoctuidaeTrichoclea
edwardsii
Smith, 1888
5NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
8NoctuidaeLeucania
multilinea
Walker, 1856
1NoctuidaeEuxoa
tristicula
(Morrison, 1876)
1NoctuidaeOligia
tusa
(Grote, 1878)
1NoctuidaeAgrotis
vancouverensis
Grote, 1873
3NoctuidaeEuxoa
wilsoni
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
Whitesand Cove 1Vancouver Island
(Flores Island)
49 15 41, 126 03 35August 3, 20011NoctuidaeSyngrapha
celsa
(Hy. Edwards, 1881)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeDiarsia
esurialis
(Grote, 1881)
1NoctuidaeLeucania
farcta
(Grote, 1881)
2NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
1NoctuidaePhlogophora
periculosa
Guenée, 1852
5NoctuidaeEuxoa
wilsoni
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
Whitesand Cove 2Flores Island49 15 40, 126 03 35August 4, 20011NoctuidaePseudo-
hermonassa
(Smith, 1892)1
Lighttrap
1NotodontidaeOligocentria
pallida
(Strecker, 1899)
Ahous Bay MiddleVargas Island49 11 20, 126 01 22August 14, 20011NoctuidaeApamea
amputatrix
(Fitch, 1857)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeProtolampra
brunneicollis
(Grote, 1865)
1NoctuidaeXestia
c-nigrum
(Linnaeus, 1758)
1NoctuidaeApamea
cogitata
(Smith, 1891)
8NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
1NoctuidaeEurois
occulta
(Linnaeus, 1758)
2NoctuidaeAletia
oxygala
(Grote, 1881)
1NotodontidaeOligocentria
pallida
(Strecker, 1899)
2NoctuidaePhlogophora periculosaGuenée, 1852
5NoctuidaeAnaplectoides
prasina
(Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)
1NoctuidaeAdelphagrotis
stellaris
(Grote, 1880)
1NoctuidaeParabagrotis
sulinaris
Lafontaine, 1998
1NoctuidaeOligia
tusa
(Grote, 1878)
1NoctuidaeEuxoa
wilsoni
(Grote, 1873)
12NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
2002 Samples
Not availablenorthern Strait of Georgia
(Comox area, B.C.)
Not available1-Jun-021NoctuidaeCopablepharon
fuscum
Troubridge & Crabo, [1996]Net
Spencer Spit
(state park)
Puget Sound
(Lopez Is., Washington)
122 52 00, 48 33 00June 6, 20021NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 18531
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeAgrotis
vancouverensis
Grote, 1874
Odlin County ParkPuget Sound
(Lopez Is., Washington)
122 54 00, 43 30 00June 6, 20021NoctuidaeAgrotis
vancouverensis
Grote, 18751
Lighttrap
Not availablePuget Sound
(San Juan Is., Washington)
Not availableJune 7, 20021NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)1
Lighttrap
2NoctuidaeCopablepharon
fuscum
Troubridge & Crabo, [1996]
5NoctuidaeAletia
oxygala
(Grote, 1881)
1NoctuidaeDargida
procincta
Grote, 1873
7NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
21NoctuidaeAgrotis
vancouverensis
Grote, 1876
Not availablePuget Sound
(San Juan Is., Washington)
Not availableJune 7, 2002Records unavailable
(No C. fuscum captured)
1
Lighttrap
Not availablePuget Sound
(San Juan Is., Washington)
Not availableJune 7, 20023NoctuidaeCopablepharon
fuscum
Troubridge & Crabo, [1996]Net
1NoctuidaeAutographa
californica
Speyer, 1875
Not availablePuget Sound
(Whidbey Is., Washington)
Not availableJune 8, 20021NoctuidaeCopablepharon
fuscum
Troubridge & Crabo, [1996]Net
Perego's LagoonPuget Sound
(Whidbey Is, Washington)
48 11 00, 122 44 00June 8, 20021NoctuidaeApamea
cuculliformis
(Grote, 1875)1
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeEuxoa
quebecensis
Smith, 1900
1NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
1NoctuidaeParabagrotis
sulinaris
Lafontaine, 1999
1NoctuidaeNoctua
comes
(Hübner, [1813])
1NoctuidaeZosteropoda
hirtipes
Grote, 1974
6NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 1854
Sidney Spitsouthern Strait of Georgia
(Sidney Is., B.C.)
48 38 53.7, 123 20 10.7June 11, 20021NoctuidaeApamea
alia
Guenee, 18521
Lighttrap
8NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
11NoctuidaeTrichoclea
edwardsii
Smith, 1889
1NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
1NoctuidaeAletia
oxygala
(Grote, 1881)
1NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
Not availableJuan de Fuca Strait
(Sequim, Washington)
Not availableJune 12, 20023NoctuidaeTrichoclea
edwardsii
Smith, 18901
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeCopablepharon
fuscum
Troubridge & Crabo, [1996]
2NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 1855
6NoctuidaeAletia
oxygala
(Grote, 1881)
Not availablePort Townsend, WashingtonNot availableJune 12, 20021NoctuidaeAletia
oxygala
(Grote, 1881)1
lightrap
4NoctuidaeAletia
oxygala
(Grote, 1881)
1NoctuidaeApamea
cogitata
(Smith, 1891)
1NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
1NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)
29NoctuidaeCopablepharon
fuscum
Troubridge & Crabo, [1996]
18NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeLasionycta
wyatti
(Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
2NoctuidaeLeucania
farcta
(Grote, 1881)
10NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 1856
3NoctuidaeOligia
tusa
(Grote, 1878)
1NoctuidaeParabagrotis
sulinaris
Lafontaine, 2000
1NoctuidaeZosteropoda
hirtipes
Grote, 1974
Savary Island dunesnorthern Strait of Georgia
(Savary Island)
49 56 10, 124 48 00June 15, 20021NoctuidaeApamea
maxima
(Dyar, 1904)1
Lighttrap
1ArctiidaeGrammia
complicata
(Walker, 1865)
1NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeSideridis
maryx
(Guenée, 1852)
6NoctuidaeHomorthodes
hanhami
Barnes and McDunnough, 1911
1NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 1858
Witty's Lagoon (west)southern Strait of Georgia
(Metchosin, B.C.)
48 23 10, 123 30 55May 30, 20022NoctuidaeEuxoa
vetusta
Walker, 18651
Lighttrap
1NoctuidaeBehrensia
conchiformis
Grote, 1875
1NoctuidaeApamea
cinefacta
(Grote, 1881)
4NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeParabagrotis
exertistigma
(Morr.)
1NoctuidaeTrichordestra
liquida
(Grote, 1881)
6NoctuidaeLacanobia
nr. atlantica
undescribed
Island View Beachsouthern Strait of Georgia
(Sidney, B.C.)
48 35 50, 123 23 50May 31, 20026NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 18591
Lighttrap
7NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
7NoctuidaeAgrotis
vancouverensis
Grote, 1878
Witty's Lagoon (east)southern Strait of Georgia
(Metchosin, B.C.)
48 23 15, 123 30 45May 30, 20025NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)1
Lighttrap
2NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 1860
4NoctuidaeLacanobia
nr. atlantica
undescribed
1NoctuidaeLacinipolia
cuneata
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeAgrotis
vancouverensis
Grote, 1879
Shoreline Parknorthern Strait of Georgia
(Campbell River, B.C.)
49 53 50, 125 08 50 June 1, 20021ArctiidaeHyphantria
cunea
(Drury, 1773)1 Lighttrap
1ArctiidaeSpilosoma
virginica
(Fabricius, 1798)
1NoctuidaeLacinipolia
patalis
(Grote, 1873)
1NoctuidaeLeucania
insueta
Guenée, 1861
1NoctuidaeTrichordestra
liquida
(Grote, 1881)
1NoctuidaeApamea
amputatrix
(Fitch, 1857)

 

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