Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.
The recovery of the three target species at risk is considered technically and biologically feasible.
There are extant sites for each species. The habitat at the currently occupied sites is suitable, and additional suitable habitat may also be available. Recovery actions such as stewardship and cooperation with landowners and land managers can mitigate major threats. Presently, recovery techniques are believed to be sufficient to protect the species.
Table 6 outlines the criteria (Environment Canada et al. 2005) used to determine recovery feasibility.
|Feasibility criteria||Dwarf woolly-heads||Slender collomia||Stoloniferous pussytoes|
|Are individuals capable of reproduction available to support recovery?||yes||yesa||yes|
|Is habitat available for recovery or could it be made available through recovery actions?||yes||yes||yes|
|Can significant threats to the species or its habitat be avoided or mitigated through recovery actions?||yes||yes||yes|
|Do the necessary recovery techniques exist and are they known to be effective?||yes||yes||yes|
a No reproductive individuals were known to occur in Canada in 2004 (Douglas, unpubl. data.). However the species is an annual plant and thus is expected to have a viable seed bank (Douglas and Penny 2003).
The recovery goals for each of dwarf woolly-heads, slender collomia, and stoloniferous pussytoes are:
- To maintain population(s) with the current area of occupancy; and
- To maintain any newly located additional population(s).
As the species have only been documented since 1997 and as there are no trend data for the populations for any of these species, historical trends in distribution and population sizes are unknown. It is likely that these species are naturally rare in the province and will continue to be so.
Additional surveys for new populations for all the species is necessary, as is monitoring of extant populations to determine population trends. As the species are annuals, and a short-lived perennial, population sizes fluctuate yearly. Therefore, determining a quantitative population target for any of these species is not possible at this time.
The recovery objectives for each of dwarf woolly-heads, slender collomia, and stoloniferous pussytoes are:
- Increase protection for all extant occurrences by 2012;
- Confirm the distribution of these three species and update population and distribution objectives as needed by 2011;
- Reliably determine population trends by 2012;
- Assess the severity of the main threats to the populations (habitat loss or degradation, exotic species, changes in ecological dynamics or natural processes) by 2012;
- Determine the ecological factors necessary for population maintenance by 2012; and
- Determine the feasibility and necessity of restoring populations in suitable habitat by 2012.
Table 7 details the recommended approaches for effecting recovery of the three species.
The measure of success of recovery activities in achieving recovery goals will be accomplished primarily through regular target species at risk population monitoring. Recovery objectives must also be evaluated to ensure that the recovery strategy has been adequately implemented. Evaluation criteria are outlined below:
- Protection achieved for extant sites (Objective 1)
- Proportion of potential habitat for target species at risk surveyed and proportion of new target species at risk localities protected. (Objectives 1 and 2)
- Distribution of species is confirmed and population numbers updated (Objective 2)
- Populations have been monitored and population trends established (Objective 3)
- Site-specific threats to the populations have been assessed and mitigated (Objective 4)
- Risks associated with intrinsic threats to target species at risk are characterized. (Objective 4)
- Ecological factors for population maintenance for each species, including detailed habitat attributed have been determined (Objective 5)
- If assessing for reintroduction, mapping of potential habitat for target species at risk completed (Objective 6)
- The slender collomia population is re-established from seed bank with reproducing individuals. (Objectives 5 and 6)
- Dwarf woolly-heads and stoloniferous pussytoes populations are maintained or increased. (Objectives 5 and 6)
Critical habitat means “the habitat that is necessary for the survival or recovery of a listed wildlife species and that is identified as the species’ critical habitat in the recovery strategy or in an action plan for the species” (Environment Canada et al. 2004).
No critical habitat can be identified for the three species at risk at this time, due to a lack of information about general and site-specific habitat features. It is expected that critical habitat will be identified within a recovery action plan following: (1) consultation and development of stewardship options with affected landowners and organizations; and (2) completion of outstanding work required to quantify specific habitat and area requirements for the species. A schedule of studies outlining work necessary to identify critical habitat is found below.
- Using established survey and mapping techniques (applied during phenologically appropriate periods), delimit the boundaries of all occupied habitats. Timeframe: 2011-2012.
- Describe habitat attributes of all occupied habitats (e.g., soil texture, moisture regime, length of inundation and exposure, soil chemical properties, plant cover) and identify all occupied habitat. Timeframe: 2011-2012.
- Identify, map, and describe all intact sites of potential habitat that are currently unoccupied by species at risk. Rate these habitats for their potential to support these three species, as well as other species at risk. Timeframe: 2011-2012.
Currently, all B.C. occurrences of the target species at risk occur in the Princeton Landscape, on private land.
The stewardship and protection of target species at risk habitat could be managed by the landowner contact program of the South Okanagan–Similkameen Stewardship Program (SOS Stewardship Program) as administered by The Land Conservancy (TLC). TLC is presently involved in the conservation of natural biodiversity of the south Okanagan and lower Similkameen watersheds (see SOSCP 2003 for more detail). Many successful programs have already been initiated and completed in the south Okanagan and lower Similkameen areas; therefore, the present recovery strategy should be integrated into other conservation efforts.
Habitat protection for the target species at risk should be initiated cooperatively with the private landowners. The involvement of the owners of target species at risk localities is critical for the recovery of these species, which do not occur on public lands. Stakeholders such as resource tenure holders, local residents, and other interested parties should also be encouraged to join the process.
For successful implementation in protecting species at risk, there will be a strong need to engage in stewardship on various land tenures. Stewardship involves the voluntary cooperation of landowners to protect species at risk and the ecosystems they rely on. The preamble to the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) states that “stewardship activities contributing to the conservation of wildlife species and their habitat should be supported” and that “all Canadians have a role to play in the conservation of wildlife in this country, including the prevention of wildlife species from becoming extirpated or extinct.” The Bilateral Agreement on Species at Risk, between British Columbia and Canada, states that “stewardship by land and water owners and users is fundamental to preventing species from becoming at risk and in protecting and recovering species that are at risk” and that “cooperative, voluntary measures are the first approach to securing the protection and recovery of species at risk.”
Stewardship approach for private lands
Additional populations of the target species may occur on private lands. As with other species at risk found on private property, stewardship efforts will be the key. To successfully protect many species at risk in British Columbia, there will have to be voluntary initiatives by landowners to help maintain areas of natural ecosystems that support these species of risk. This stewardship approach will cover many different kinds of activities, such as: following guidelines or best management practices to support species at risk; voluntarily protecting important areas of habitat on private property; creating conservation covenants on property titles; eco-gifting property, in whole or in part, to protect certain ecosystems or species at risk; or selling their property for conservation. Both government and non-governmental organizations have had good success in conserving lands in the province.
Recovery activities for the target species at risk are anticipated to have neutral or beneficial effects on populations of Red- and Blue-listed vascular plant species that occur within the landscape (listed in Table 3), since the latter are at risk due to similar threats.
According to the B.C. Conservation Data Centre, no rare species other than plants have been recorded within the area. While the area presumably provides some habitat for more common wildlife species, no information is currently available on this topic.
Recovery actions could affect the following socioeconomic sectors: private land development; coal resource exploration and extraction; livestock grazing; agricultural management activities; and off-road vehicle recreation. The expected magnitude of these effects is unknown and will be further addressed in the recovery action plan. The extent of the area covered by the species is very small.
The recommended approach for recovery implementation is a multi-species approach involving the South Okanagan–Similkameen Conservation Program.
Recovery activities in the South Okanagan and Similkameen watersheds need to consider the numerous species that are nationally and provincially at risk within the area, as well as pressures from the growing human population. Landscape-level approaches to conservation are preferred to prevent unnecessary duplication, conflicts, omissions, and inefficiency associated with species-specific approaches (SOSCP 2003).
The species addressed in this recovery strategy -- dwarf woolly-heads, slender collomia, and stoloniferous pussytoes -- have several characteristics in common, including:
- Canadian populations are restricted in distribution to a small area south of Princeton, BC;
- each species has annual or very short life cycles;
- each species is a colonist of low-competition microsites;
- all populations are peripheral populations at the northernmost extent of their ranges;
- none of the species are considered to be at risk in Washington State;
- populations and individuals of the three species can be easily overlooked by non-botanists; and
- all three species are subjected to similar general threats.
These commonalities suggest justify a multi-species approach would be appropriate to facilitate recovery and management decisions in this systems, that is more efficient than treating these species in isolation, given limited conservation resources.
It is recommended that a recovery action plan be completed by April 2011.
Bauder, E.T. 2000. Inundation effects on small-scale plant distributions in San Diego, California vernal pools. Aquatic Ecol. 34:43–61.
Bayer, R.J. 1990. Patterns of isozyme variation in Antennaria flagellaris (Asteraceae: Inuleae). In C.V. Grant. Addendum: Antennaria flagellaris at Hayden Hill, California: soil and vegetation characteristics. Report submitted to AMAX Inc. for Hayden Hill Operating Company, Inc.
_______. 1996. Phylogenetic inferences in Antennaria (Asteraceae: Inuleae: Gnaphaliinae) based on sequences from the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Am. J. Bot. 83:516–527.
Björk, C.R. 2005. Invasibility of eastern Washington vernal pools: environmental effects and anthropogenic disturbance.
Björk, C.R. and P.W. Dunwiddie. 2004. Floristics and distribution of vernal pools on the Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington. Rhodora 106:928.
Borgias, D. 2004. Effects of livestock grazing and the development of grazing best management practices for the vernal pool – mounded prairies of the Agate Desert, Jackson County, OR. Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR. <http://www.fws.gov/pacific/oregonfwo/oregon%20es%20field
%20offices/roseburg/GrazingRpt2004.pdf> [Accessed June 1, 2005]
British Columbia Conservation Data Centre (B.C. CDC). 2005. B.C. Red- and Blue-listed vascular plant species important nationally listed by national and global priority. Victoria, BC.
_______. 2008. Conservation Data Centre Mapping Service [web application]. Victoria, BC. <http://maps.gov.bc.ca/imf50/imf.jsp?site=cdc> [Accessed June 3, 2008].
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 2003a. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the dwarf woolly-heads Psilocarphus brevissimus in Canada. Ottawa, ON. <www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm> [Accessed May 15, 2005]
_______. 2003b. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the slender collomia Collomia tenella in Canada. Ottawa, ON. <www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm> [Accessed May 15, 2005]
_______. 2004. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the stoloniferous pussytoes Antennaria flagellaris in Canada, Ottawa, ON. <www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm> [Accessed May 15, 2005]
_______. 2006. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the dwarf woolly-heads Psilocarphus brevissimus Southern Mountain population and Prairie population, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON.
Cox, G.W. and J. Austin. 1990. Impacts of a prescribed burn on a vernal pool vegetation at Miramar naval air station, San Diego California. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 89:67–85.
Cronquist, A. 1950. A review of the genus Psilocarphus. Res. Stud. State College Washington 18:71–89.
Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren, eds. 1994. Vascular plants of the Intermountain West. Vol. 5. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.
Douglas, G.W., J. Gould, and J.M. Illingworth. 2001. COSEWIC status report on tall woolly-heads Psilocarphus elatior in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON.
Douglas, G.W., F. Lomer, and H.L. Roemer. 1998a. New or rediscovered native vascular plant species in British Columbia. Can. Field-Nat. 112(2):276–279.
Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 1999. Dicotyledons (Orobanchaceae through Rubiaceae). Vol. 4 in Illustrated flora of British Columbia. B.C. Min. Environ., Lands and Parks and B.C. Min. For., Victoria, BC.
Douglas, G.W. and J.L. Penny. 2003. COSEWIC status report on the slender collomia Collomia tenella in Canada. In COSEWIC assessment and status report on the slender collomia Collomia tenella in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON.
Douglas, G.W., J.L. Penny, and K. Barton. 2003. COSEWIC status report on the dwarf woolly-heads Psilocarphus brevissimus in Canada. In COSEWIC assessment and status report on the dwarf woolly-heads Psilocarphus brevissimus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON.
_______. 2004. COSEWIC status report on the stoloniferous pussytoes Antennaria flagellaris in Canada In COSEWIC assessment and status report on the stoloniferous pussytoes Antennaria flagellaris in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON.
Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley, D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar. 1998b. Illustrated flora of British Columbia. Vol. 1: Gymnosperms and dicotyledons (Aceraceae through Asteraceae). B.C. Min. Environ., Lands and Parks and B.C. Min. For., Victoria, BC.
Elmore, W. 1992. Riparian response to grazing practices. In R.J. Naiman, ed. Watershed management: balancing sustainability and environmental change. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Environment Canada, Parks Canada Agency, and Fiseries and Oceans Canada. 2004. Draft technical discussion paper: guidance for establishing population and distribution objectives and identifying critical habitat. Drafted by Environment Canada. June 1, 2004.
_______. 2005. Species at Risk Act policy: recovery – draft policy on the feasibility of recovery. April 15, 2005. Ottawa, ON.
Grant, C.V. 1989. Antennaria flagellaris at Hayden Hill, California: Soil and vegetation characteristics. Report submitted to AMAX Inc. for Hayden Hill Operating Company, Inc.
_______. 1990. Addendum: Antennaria flagellaris at Hayden Hill, California: Soil and vegetation characteristics. Report submitted to AMAX Inc. for Hayden Hill Operating Company, Inc.
Griggs, F.T. and S.K. Jain. 1983. Conservation of vernal pool plants in California. 2. Population biology of a rare and unique grass genus Orcuttia. Biological Conservation 27(2): 171-193.
Hitchcock, C. L. and A. Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Seattle, WA.
Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Vol. 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Univ. Washington Press, Seattle, WA.
Holland, S.S. 1964. Landforms of British Columbia: a physiographic outline. B.C. Dep. Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria, BC. Bull. No. 48.
Kauffman, J.B. and W.C. Krueger. 1984. Livestock impacts on riparian ecosystems and streamside management implications. J. Range Manage. 37:430–437.
Keeley, J.E. and P.H. Zedler. 1998. Characterization and global distribution of vernal pools (PDF; 385 KB). In C.W. Witham, E.T. Bauder, D. Belk, W.R. Ferren Jr., and R. Ornduff, eds. Ecology, conservation, and management of vernal pool ecosystems: proceedings from a 1996 conference. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. [Accessed June 1, 2005]
Lloyd, D., K. Angrove, G. Hope, and C. Thompson. 1990. A field guide to site identification and interpretation for the Kamloops Forest Region. Parts 1 and 2. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, BC. Land Manage. Handb. 23.
Montana Natural Heritage Program. 2005. Montana plant field guide: Psilocarphus brevissimus. <http://nhp.nris.state.mt.us/plants/index.html?guidebook.asp> [Accessed June 1, 2005]
Moore, C., M. Bastian, and H. Hunt. 2001. Long term vegetation and faunal succession in an artificial Northern California vernal pool system (PDF; 1 MB). September 2001. California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA. [Accessed June 1, 2005]
NatureServe. 2007. NatureServe Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life. Version 6.2. Arlington, VA. [Accessed August 2, 2007]
Province of British Columbia. 2004. Weed Control Act Chapter 487 (Updated November 2, 1999). [Accessed June 1, 2005]
Schlising, R.A. and E.L. Sanders. 1982. Quantitative analysis of vegetation at the Richvale vernal pools, California. Am. J. Bot. 69:734–742.
Silveira, J.G. 1998. Avian uses of vernal pools and implications for conservation practice (PDF; 100 KB). In C.W. Witham, E.T. Bauder, D. Belk, W.R. Ferren Jr., and R. Ornduff, eds. Ecology, conservation, and management of vernal pool ecosystems: proceedings from a 1996 conference. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. [Accessed June 1, 2005]
Smith, A. 2005. Fueling frustration: energy and the environment. In D. Beers, ed. Liberalized. New Start Books, Vancouver, BC.
South Okanagan–Similkameen Conservation Program (SOSCP). 2003. Recovery strategy for species at risk in the South Okanagan and Lower Similkameen Valleys of British Columbia, Canada: towards integrating the landscape-level and single-species approaches to conservation. Draft August 21, 2003.
South Okanagan-Similkameen Conservation Program Science Team and the South Okanagan-Similkameen Ecosystem Recovery Working Group. <http://www.soscp.org/media/Sokrecovery.pdf> [Accessed June 1, 2005].
Turner, M. and P. Gustafson. 2006. Wildflowers of the Pacific Northwest. Timber Press. Portland, OR.
van Woudenberg, A.M. 1999. Grazing impacts on the biodiversity of riparian ecosystems. In L.M. Darling, ed. At Risk: Proceedings of a Conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk. B.C. Min. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC.
Vujnovic, K. and J. Gould. 2002. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre tracking and watch lists – vascular plants, mosses, liverworts and hornworts. June, 2002. Alberta Community Development, Parks and Protected Areas Division, Edmonton, AB. <http://www.cd.gov.ab.ca/preserving/parks/anhic/docs/plants_2002.pdf> [Accessed June 1, 2005]
Wilken, D.A. 1993. Collomia. In J.C. Hickman, ed. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. Univ. California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Björk, Curtis. June 2005. Email and personal communications. Plant Ecologist, Clearwater, BC. Telephone: (250) 674-2553. Email: email@example.com.
Costanzo, Brenda. May 2005. Email communication. Plant Species at Risk Biologist, Biodiversity Branch, B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. Telephone: (250) 387-9611. Email: Brenda.Costanzo@gov.bc.ca.
Donovan, Marta. May-June 2005. Email communication. Botanist, Conservation Data Centre, B.C. Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Victoria, BC. Telephone: (250) 356-0928. Email: Marta.Donovan@gov.bc.ca.
Dyer, Orville. May 2005. Email communication. Wildlife Biologist, Okanagan Fish and Wildlife Science and Allocation Section, B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Penticton, BC. Telephone: (250) 490-8244. Email: Orville.Dyer@gov.bc.ca.
Fairbarns, Matt. May 2005. Email and personal communications. Botanical Consultant, Aruncus Consulting, Victoria, BC. Telephone: (250) 595-2057. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fraser, Dave. May-June 2005. Email and telephone communications. Species Specialist, Species at Risk, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Section, B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC. Telephone: (250) 387-9756. Email: Dave.Fraser@gov.bc.ca.
Gould, Joyce. May 2005. Email communications. Botanist, Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Parks and Protected Areas Division, Alberta Community Development, Edmonton, AB. Telephone: (780) 427-7702. Email: Joyce.Gould@gov.ab.ca.
Gutsell, Robin. June 2005. Email communication. Provincial Resource Assessment Biologist, ESCC/SSC Secretariat, Resource Data and Species at Risk Section, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Edmonton, AB. Telephone: (780) 422-3412. Email: Robin.Gutsell@gov.ab.ca.
Humphrey, Gordon. May 2005. Email communications. Oil & Gas Program Manager - CBM/GDP, Project Assessment Branch, Oil and Gas Commission, Fort St. John, BC. Telephone: (250) 261-5726. Email: Gord.Humphrey@gov.bc.ca.
Hureau, Stephen. May 2005. Email communication. Habitat Biologist, Species at Risk, Environment Canada, Delta, BC. Telephone: (604) 940-4722. Email: Stephen.Hureau@ec.gc.ca.
Krannitz, Pam. May 2005. Email communication. Plant Community Ecologist, Species at Risk, Environment Canada, Delta, BC. Telephone: (604) 940-4676. Email: Pam.Krannitz@ec.gc.ca.
Lea, Ted. May-June 2005. Telephone, email, and personal communications. Vegetation Ecologist, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Section, B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC. Telephone: (250) 387-1110. Email: Ted.Lea@gov.bc.ca.
Lomer, Frank. May-June 2005. Telephone and email communications. Botanist, New Westminster, BC. Telephone: (604) 525-3934. Email: email@example.com.
McIntosh, Terry. May-June 2005. Telephone, email, and personal communications. Botanical Consultant, Biospherics Environmental Inc., Vancouver, BC. Telephone: (604) 874-1175. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Penny, Jenifer. May-June 2005. Telephone, email, and personal communications. Botanist, Conservation Data Centre, B.C. Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Victoria, BC. Telephone: (250) 356-5244. Email: Jenifer.Penny@gov.bc.ca.
Sanger, Allison. June 2005. Telephone and email communications. Botanist, Lassen National Forest, Susanville, CA. Telephone: (530) 252-6662. Email: email@example.com.
Schmitt, Rolf. May 2005. Telephone and email communications. Project Manager, Resource Development Section, B.C. Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC. Telephone: (250) 356-9822. Email: Rolf.Schmitt@gov.bc.ca.
Schouten, Madelon. May 2005. Telephone communication. Vermillion Forks Field Naturalists, Princeton, BC. Telephone: (250) 295-7078.
Seguin, Joe. May 2005. Email communications. Inspector of Mines, Permitting, South Central Region, B.C. Ministry of Energy and Mines, Kamloops, BC. Telephone: (250) 371-6051. Email: Joe.Seguin@gov.bc.ca.
Stewart, Robert. May 2005. Email communication. Ecosystem Biologist, Ecosystems Section, B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Penticton, BC. Telephone: (250) 490-8253. Email: Robert.Stewart@gov.bc.ca.
Trehearne, Dick. May 2005. Telephone communication. Vermillion Forks Field Naturalists, Princeton, BC. Telephone: (250) 295-6308.
Tuason, Thayne. June 2005. Email communications. Botanist, Boise, ID. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wooten, George. June 2005. Email communication. Biological Consultant, Twisp, WA. Email: email@example.com.
Footnotes – Part 2
2 This may involve protection in any form including stewardship agreements and conservation covenants on private lands; land use designations on Crown lands; and protection in federal, provincial, and local government protected areas.
- Date Modified: