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4. Measuring Progress

This section replaces section 8 “Performance Measures” in the Province of British Columbia’s recovery strategy for Macoun’s Meadowfoam in British Columbia (Part 2).

The performance indicators presented below provide a way to define and measure progress toward achieving the population and distribution objectives. Progress towards recovering Macoun’s Meadowfoam in Canada will be assessed using the following measures:

Objective 1: Maintain the 31 extant populations at a stable or increasing size.

  • By 2018 best management practices are developed and implemented at 10 or more sites.
  • Ongoing monitoring continues to indicate that the populations remain extant.
  • By 2023, the total Canadian population is stable[5].

Objective 2: Prevent a decline in the known distribution of Macoun’s Meadowfoam in Canada.

  • There is no decrease in the known distribution (extent of occurrence and area of occupancy) of Macoun’s Meadowfoam in Canada.

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5. Statement on Action Plans

One or more action plans will be completed by November 2018.

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6. References

B.C. Conservation Data Centre. 2011. BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer. B.C. Ministry Of Environment Victoria, B.C. Web site: [accessed September 2011].

Brook, B.W., L.W. Traill, and J.A. Bradshaw. 2006. Minimum viable population sizes and global extinction risk are unrelated. Ecology Letters 9:375-382.

Bush, D. and J. Lancaster. 2004. Rare Annual Plants--Problems with Surveys and Assessments. Prairie Conservation and Endangered Species Conference, February 28, 2004.

COSEWIC. 2004. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Macoun’s Meadowfoam Limnanthes macounii in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vii + 24 pp.

Department of National Defence. 2011. Unpublished data: GPS coordinates of Macoun’s Meadowfoam patches on DND lands. Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt, Victoria, B.C.

Fairbarns, M. 2008. Report on Potential Critical Habitat for Selected Rare Plant Occurrences in CRD Parks. Capital Regional District, Parks, Victoria, B.C. 37 pp.

Fairbarns, M. 2011. 2011 Surveys for Critical Habitat for Limnanthes macounii (Macoun’s Meadowfoam). Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, Victoria, B.C. 33 pp.

Flather, C.H., G.D. Hayward, S.R. Beissinger, and P.A. Stephens. 2011. Minimum viable populations: is there a ‘magic number’ for conservation practitioners? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26:307-316.

Garnett, S.T., and K.K. Zander. 2011. Minimum viable population limitations ignore evolutionary history. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26(12): 618-619.

GOERT (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team). 2011. Unpublished data: Macoun’s Meadowfoam habitat surveys. Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, Victoria, B.C. x + 191 pp.

Jamieson, I.G., and F. W. Allendorf. 2012. How does the 50/500 rule apply to MVPs? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1566: 1-7.

Lea, T. 2006. Historical Garry Oak Ecosystems of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, pre-European Contact to the Present. Davidsonia 17:34–50.

Parks Canada Agency. 2006. Recovery Strategy for Multi-Species at Risk in Vernal Pools and other Ephemeral Wet Areas Associated with Garry Oak Ecosystems in Canada. xiv + 73 pp, in Government of Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series, Ottawa, Ontario.

Reed, D.H. 2005. Relationship between population size and fitness. Conservation Biology 19:563-568.

Spittlehouse, D. L., R.S. Adams, and R.D. Winkler. 2004. Forest, edge and opening microclimate at Sicamous Creek. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Mines, and Lands, Research. Branch, Victoria, B.C. 43 pp.

Traill, L.W., C.J.A. Bradshaw, and B.W. Brook. 2007. Minimum viable population size: A meta-analysis of 30 years of published estimates. Biological Conservation 139:159-166.

Traill, L.W., B.W. Brook, R.R. Frankham, and C.J.A. Bradshaw. 2009. Pragmatic population viability targets in a rapidly changing world. Biological Conservation 143:28–34.

Webb, C., H Mahoney, and A. Pelletier. 2011. Unpublished data: critical habitat for Limnanthes macounii at Fort Rodd Hill National Historic Site. Parks Canada Agency, Coastal B.C. Field Unit, Victoria, B.C.

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Appendix A: Effects on the Environment and Other Species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

The majority of the proposed recovery activities will lead to better site protection, broader public appreciation of rare species, reduced human impacts, and reduced pressure from invasive alien species. Accordingly, they will have positive effects on most non-target native species, natural communities, and ecological processes. Recovery activities aimed to reduce the impacts associated with encroachment from native trees and shrubs, which have occurred as the result of fire suppression, will have negative impacts on the woody species targeted as well as plant and animal species which rely upon them.

A number of species at risk and provincially rare species occur within or adjacent to populations of Macoun’s Meadowfoam (e.g., Table 5). Most recovery activities proposed for Macoun’s Meadowfoam can be expected to have a net positive effect on the habitat of these other non-target species and communities. Nevertheless, it is possible that specific management actions carried out during the course of Macoun’s Meadowfoam recovery (e.g., weed removal, shrub clearing, and population augmentation) could have unforeseen impacts on co-occurring non-target species. While probably slight, the chances of negative impacts accruing due to recovery activities must be duly considered. One method of mitigating such negative effects is to monitor the results of Macoun’s Meadowfoam management. In keeping with the principles of adaptive management, an important component of recovery action planning will be anticipating, monitoring, and mitigating collateral impacts (both positive and negative) on non-target species, communities, and ecological processes.

The potentially negative effects of recovery can also be mitigated or eliminated at the project implementation phase through proper field procedures and/or strong collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies. Further, all population augmentation should take a precautionary approach. Some recovery strategy activities may require a project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

Table 5. Partial list of species at risk and vulnerable species near Macoun’s Meadowfoam populations. These species could be affected by certain recovery activities. Sources: B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2011, NatureServe 2011.
Species and Common NameBritish Columbia provincial rankCOSEWIC designationSARA status
Castilleja ambigua
Paintbrush Owl-clover
S2S3 BlueNot assessedNot assessed
Crassula connata
Erect Pygmyweed
S2 RedNot assessedNot assessed
Lotus formosissimus
Seaside Birds-foot Lotus
S1 RedStatus pendingNot assessed
Lupinus densiflorus
Dense-flowered Lupine
S1 RedEndangeredEndangered
Microseris bigelovii
Coast Microseris
S1 RedEndangeredEndangered
Orthocarpus bracteosus
Rosy Owl-clove
S1 RedEndangeredEndangered
Sanicula arctopoides
Bear’s-foot Sanicle
S1 RedEndangeredEndangered
Ranunculus californicus
California Buttercup
S1 RedEndangeredEndangered
Triphysaria versicolor ssp.
Versicolor Bearded Owl-clover
S1 RedEndangeredEndangered

Actions taken to aid in the recovery of Macoun’s Meadowfoam should, if conducted in an open, informative manner, provide benefits for other species at risk and their habitats through increased public awareness of the negative environmental consequences associated with invasive alien species, the need to maintain natural ecological processes, and the need to protect natural habitats from the effects of development. This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Macoun’s Meadowfoam, a natural component of biodiversity. In addition, it is likely that habitat restoration for Macoun’s Meadowfoam will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat. The SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

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[5] Note that populations are expected to fluctuate and require long term datasets to estimate (Bush and Lancaster 2004).