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COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos ) in Canada

Distribution

Global range

The Eastern Hog-nosed Snake is found in both Canada and the United States (Figure 1). In the United States, it is present from southern New England through southern Michigan to Minnesota and South Dakota, south to southern Texas, the Gulf Coast, and southern Florida in 34 states plus the District of Columbia (See Table 2).

Figure 1. North American range map for the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos) (NatureServe 2005).

Figure 1.North American range map for the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake

 

Table 1a. List of Provincial Parks in the Extent of Occurrence of the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake including those which contain an NHIC Element Occurrence (Compiled by J.F. Crowley, 2006)
Provincial Parks within the current distribution of the EHSPresence confirmed and sent to NHIC
Algonquin Provincial Park
X
Arrowhead Provincial Park 
X
Awenda Provincial Park
X
Balsam Lake Provincial Park
 
Bass Lake Provincial Park
 
Bell Bay Provincial Park
 
Big East River Provincial Park (Waterway Class)
 
Bigwind Lake Provincial Park 
X
Bronte Creek Provincial Park
X
Carson Lake Provincial Park
 
Dividing Lake Provincial Park (Nature Reserve Class)
 
Egan Chutes Provincial Nature Reserve
 
Emily Provincial Park
 
Ferris Provincial Park
 
Fish Point Provincial Nature Reserve
X
French River Provincial Park
 
Gibson River Provincial Park (Nature Reserve Class)
 
Grundy Lake Provincial Park (Natural Environment Class)
X
Hardy Lake Provincial Park
X
Indian Point Provincial Park
 
Ipperwash Provincial Park
X
J. Albert Bauer Provincial Park
 
John E. Pearce Provincial Park
 
Kawartha Highlands Provincial Park
 
Killbear Provincial Park
X
Komoka Provincial Park
X
Lake St. Peter Provincial Park
 
Long Point Provincial Park
X
Magnetawan River Provincial Park (Waterway Class)
X
Manitou Islands Provincial Nature Reserve
 
Mara Provincial Park
 
Mark S. Burnham Provincial Park
 
Mattawa River Provincial Park
 
Mcrae Point Provincial Park
 
Mikisew Provincial Park
 
Noganosh Lake Provincial Park (Waterway Class)
X
Oastler Lake Provincial Park
 
O'donnell Point Provincial Nature Reserve
X
Opeongo River Provincial Park
 
Oxtongue River - Ragged Falls Provincial Park
 
Peter's Woods Provincial Nature Reserve
 
Petroglyphs Provincial Park
X
Port Burwell Provincial Park 
X
Quackenbush Provincial Park
 
Queen Elizabeth Ii Wildlands Provincial Park (Natural Environment Class)
X
Restoule Provincial Park (Natural Environment Class)
 
Rondeau Provincial Park
X
Round Lake Provincial Nature Reserve
X
Sandbanks Provincial Park
X
Serpent Mounds Provincial Park
 
Silent Lake Provincial Park
 
Silent Lake Provincial Park Addition 
X
Six Mile Lake Provincial Park
X
South Bay Provincial Park
 
Springwater Provincial Park
 
Sturgeon Bay Provincial Park
 
The Massasauga Provincial Park
X
The Pinery Provincial Park
X
Trillium Woods Provincial Park
 
Turkey Point Provincial Park
X
Upper Madawaska Provincial Park
 
Wasaga Beach Provincial Park
X
Waubashene Beaches Provincial Park
 
West Sandy Island Provincial Nature Reserve
 
Wolf Island Provincial Park
 

 

Table 1b. List of Conservation Reserves in the Extent of Occurrence of the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake including those which contain an NHIC Element Occurrence (Compiled by J.F. Crowley, 2006)
Conservation Reserves within the current distribution of the EHSPresence confirmed and sent to NHIC
Ahmic Forest And Rock Barrens Conservation Reserve
 
Axe Lake Wetland Conservation Reserve
 
Bear Creek Conservation Reserve
 
Bear Lake Peatland Conservation Reserve
 
Big Deer Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Boulter-Depot Creek Conservation Reserve
 
Bray Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Bridge Lake Outwash Plain Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Cache Bay Wetland Conservation Reserve
 
Callander Bay Wetland Conservation Reserve
 
Cardwell Township Old Growth Conservation Reserve
 
Chain Lakes Conservation Reserve
 
Clear Lake Conservation Reserve
X
Cognashene Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Cognashene Point Conservation Reserve
 
Commanda Creek Conservation Reserve
 
Conroys Marsh Conservation Reserve
 
Crane Lake Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Crowe River Swamp Conservation Reserve
 
Draper Township Conservation Reserve
 
Dutcher Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Ferguson Township White Pine Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Ferrie Township Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Fish Bay Conservation Reserve
 
Freeman Township Sugar Maple Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Gibson River Conservation Reserve
X
Horseshoe Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Island Lake Forest And Barrens Conservation Reserve
X
Jevins & Silver Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Joly Township Hardwoods Conservation Reserve
 
Little Spring Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Long Lake - Lancelot Creek Conservation Reserve
 
Loon Lake Wetland Conservation Reserve
 
Louck Lake Wetland Conservation Reserve
 
Lower Moon River Conservation Reserve
X
Mccrae Lake Conservation Reserve
X
Monteith Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Moreau's Bay Conservation Reserve
 
Morrison Lake Wetland Conservation Reserve
 
Mowat Township Hemlock Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Muldrew Barrens Conservation Reserve
 
Naiscoot Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Northern Mcconkey Conservation Reserve
 
Oxbow Lake Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Pakeshkag River Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Plastic Lake And Dawson Ponds Conservation Reserve
 
Pointe Au Baril Forests And Wetlands Conservation Reserve
 
Raganooter Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Ryerson Township Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Sausage Lake Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Seguin River Conservation Reserve
 
Severn River Conservation Reserve
X
Shack Creek Wetland Conservation Reserve
 
Sharpe Bay Fen Conservation Reserve
 
Shawanaga Lake Conservation Reserve
 
South River Forest Conservation Reserve
 
Swan Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Torrance Barrens Conservation Reserve
X
Upper Raft Lake Conservation Reserve
 
Upper Shebeshekong Wetland Conservation Reserve
 
Wahwashkesh - Naiscoot Conservation Reserve
 
Wainfleet Bog Conservation Reserve
 

Canadian range

Although the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake is widespread in eastern North America, less than 10% of its global range is in Ontario. The Eastern Hog-nosed Snake is restricted in Canada to southern and south-central Ontario and is found in two geographically distinct areas: the Carolinian Region of southwestern Ontario and in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Region of central Ontario south of the French River and Lake Nipissing and east of Georgian Bay (Figure 2). It is absent, however, from the St. Lawrence drainage (eastern Ontario and most of New York State). The northern limit of its range corresponds approximately to a 120-day frost-free period (Schueler 1997) or to areas with greater than 2100 Annual Crop Heat Units (www.OMAFRA.on). They can extend further into slightly cooler areas if there are sandy, exposed, south-facing slopes that have warmer soil conditions for incubation which probably determine northern range limits (Brooks et al. 2003). The Eastern Hog-nosed Snake occurs in two National Heritage Protected Areas managed by Parks Canada (Georgian Bay Islands and Trent-Severn Waterway) and occurs (or has occurred since 1984) in several protected areas including:  Arrowhead P.P., Awenda P.P., Apps Mills C.A., Backus Woods, Craigleith P.P., Grundy Lake P.P, Ipperwash P.P., Killbear P.P., Komoka P.P., Long Point P.P., Petroglyphs P.P., Pinery P.P., Port Burwell P.P., Rondeau P.P., Six Mile P.P., Skunks Misery, Spooky Hollow Sanctuary, St. William’s Forest, Turkey Point P.P., Wasaga Beach P.P., and Wye Marsh (but see Table 1 for a complete list of protected areas within the hognose’s range in Ontario, and of those protected areas that have had at least one reported sighting of an Eastern Hog-nosed Snake). According to the NHIC database, since 1990 there have been sightings in the counties and districts of Lambton, Muskoka, Niagara, Simcoe, Haliburton, Kent, Middlesex, Peterborough, Parry Sound, Victoria, Haldimand, Elgin, Hastings, Frontenac, and Northumberland. The Eastern Hog-nosed Snake has been extirpated from the regional municipalities of Halton, Peel and York, as well as Pelee Island and Point Pelee National Park (Oldham and Austen 1998). Also, the records from Bruce, Grey, and Prince Edward Counties are considered historic and H. platirhinosmay be extirpated from these areas (Oldham and Austen 1998) and from Hastings and Durham counties (Schueler 1997).  (See Fluctuations and Trends for other more local areas from which the species may be extirpated.)

Figure 2. Canadian range map for the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos).

Figure 2. Canadian range map for the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos).

 

Table 2. NatureServe Rank for the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos) for all jurisdictions within its global range.
State/ProvinceS2
Imperiled
S3
Vulnerable
S4
Apparently Secure
S5
Secure
SNR/SNA
Not Ranked/Not Applicable
Rhode Island
X
 
 
 
 
South Dakota
X
 
 
 
 
Ontario
 
X
 
 
 
Indiana
 
X
 
 
 
Kansas
 
X
 
 
 
New Hampshire
 
X
 
 
 
Ohio
 
X
 
 
 
West Virginia
 
X
 
 
 
Connecticut
 
X
X
 
 
Michigan
 
X
X
 
 
New York
 
X
X
 
 
Pennsylvania
 
X
X
 
 
Delaware
 
 
X
 
 
Iowa
 
 
X
 
 
Massachusetts
 
 
X
 
 
Minnesota
 
 
X
 
 
Nebraska
 
 
X
 
 
Tennessee
 
 
X
 
 
Wisconsin
 
 
X
 
 
North Carolina
 
 
X
X
 
Alabama
 
 
 
X
 
Arkansas
 
 
 
X
 
Georgia
 
 
 
X
 
Illinois
 
 
 
X
 
Kentucky
 
 
 
X
 
Louisiana
 
 
 
X
 
Maryland
 
 
 
X
 
Mississippi
 
 
 
X
 
New Jersey
 
 
 
X
 
Oklahoma
 
 
 
X
 
Texas
 
 
 
X
 
Virginia
 
 
 
X
 
District of Colombia
 
 
 
 
SNA
Missouri
 
 
 
 
SNR
South Carolina
 
 
 
 
SNR

The Extent of Occurrence was calculated by connecting the outermost observations in Figure 2 to create a Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP), and determining its area which was 107,100 km². The calculation of Area of Occupancy is provided in the section on Abundance in this report.