Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.

Skip booklet index and go to page content


Upon completion of the draft recovery strategy, a public meeting was conducted in Milk River, Alberta to allow members of public to review and provide comments on the document.  A list of participants at the meeting is provided in Appendix B.


Alberta Environment.  2001.  Workshop on remediation guidelines for upstream oil and gas sites in Alberta, June 18-19 and June 28-29, 2001, Red Deer, AB.  Available online at:

http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/protenf/soilgrndwater/Workshop_Material.html [Accessed: 27 November 2006].

Alberta Environment.  2004.  Alberta’s submission to the International Joint Commission respecting a review of the IJC’s 1921 order on the measurement and apportionment of the St. Mary and Milk rivers.  Edmonton, AB. 1 + 33 p.

Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. 2003. Status of the western silvery minnow (Hybognathus argyritis) in Alberta. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, and Alberta Conservation Association, Wildlife Status Report No. 47. Edmonton, AB. 24 pp.

Alò, D., and T.F. Turner.  2005.  Effects of habitat fragmentation on effective population size in the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow.  Conserv. Biol. 19(4); 1138-1148.

Bonner, T.H. and G.R. Wilde. 2002. Effects of turbidity on prey consumption by prairie stream fishes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 131:1203-1208.

Burr, B.M. and  L.M. Page. 1986. Zoogeography of fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi Basin, p. 287-324.. In C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley (ed.). The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, Canada.

Canada. 2005. Species at Risk Act - Policy on the feasibility of recovery.  [Draft January 06, 2005] 4 p.

COSEWIC. 1997. Status report on species at risk in Canada – Western Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus argyritis). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 13 pp.

Cowley, D. 2002. Water requirements for endangered species – Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus). New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute. Available online at:  http://wrri.nmsu.edu/publish/watcon/proc47/cowley.pdf [Accessed: 11 July 2007]

Cross, F.B., R.L. Mayden and J.D. Stewart. 1986. Fishes in the western Mississippi drainage, p. 363-412. In C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley (Editors). The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, Canada.

Grove, G. 1985. An investigation of the streamflow-ground water interactions along a portion of the Milk River, Alberta. National Hydrology Research Institute, Inland Waters Directorate, Environment Canada.  38 p.

Henderson, N.E. and R.E. Peter. 1969. Distribution of fishes of southern Alberta. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 26: 325-338.

Hlohowskyj, C.P., M.M. Coburn and T.M. Cavender. 1989. Comparison of a pharyngeal filtering apparatus in several species of the herbivorous cyprinid genus Hybognathus (Pisces:Cyprinidae). Copeia 1989:172-183.

ISMMRAMTF (International St. Mary – Milk Rivers Administrative Measures Task Force).  2006.  Report to the International Joint Commission.  125 p.  Available online at: http://www.ijc.org/rel/pdf/SMMRAM.pdf [Accessed 2 Nov. 2006]

McAllister, D., J. Craig, N. Davidson, D. Delany and M. Seddon. 2000. Biodiversity impacts of large dams. Working paper prepared on behalf of IUCN – The World conservation Union for Thematic Review II.1: Dams, ecosystem functions and environmental restoration.  iv + 61 p.  Available online at: http://www.wca-infonet.org/servlet/BinaryDownloaderServlet?filename=1066734099866_biodiversity.pdf&refID=115470 [Accessed 11 July 2007]

McLean, D.G. and G.R. Beckstead. 1980.   Long term effects of a river diversion on the regime of the Milk River. Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB.  [Contribution No. 1054: 21 p.].

Missouri Fish and Wildlife Information System. 2002. see website:


Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks. 2004. see website: http://maps2.nris.state.mt.us/scripts/esrimap.dll?name=MFISH&Cmd=INST

Natural Regions Committee.  2006.  Natural Regions and Subregions of Alberta. Compiled by D.J. Downing and W.W. Pettapiece. Government of Alberta. Pub. No. T/852: vi + 254 p. Available online at:

http://tprc.alberta.ca/parks/heritageinfocentre/naturalregions/default.aspx [Accessed: 11 July 2007]

Nelson, J.S. and M.J. Paetz 1992. The fishes of Alberta. Second Edition. The University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 437 p.

Noton, L. 1980. Milk River Basin environmental overview – surface water quality overview and assessment. Prepared for Alberta Environment, Planning Division.

National Recovery Working Group. 2004. Recovery handbook (ROMAN). October 2004. Working draft. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildife , Ottawa, ON. iii + 98 p.

P. & E. Environmental Consultants Ltd. 2002. Fish species of concern survey on the Milk River. October 2002. Prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Lethbridge and Alberta Conservation Association, Lethbridge. 12 pp. plus appendices.

Pflieger, W.L. 1997. The fishes of Missouri, Revised Edition. Montana Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Montana. 372 pp.

Pflieger, W.L. 1980. Hybognathus argyritis Girard, western silvery minnow, p. 174. In D.S. Lee, C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer Jr. (ed.). Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, North Carolina Biological Survey Publication 1980-12.

Pflieger, W.L. and T.B. Grace. 1987. Changes in the fish fauna of the lower Missouri River. 1940-1983, p. 166-177. In W. Matthews and D. Heins (ed.). Community and evolutionary ecology of North American stream fishes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Platania, S.P. and C.S. Altenbach. 1998. Reproductive strategies and egg types of seven Rio Grande Basin cyprinids. Copeia 3:559-569.

Pringle, C.M.  1997.  Exploring how disturbance is transmitted upstream:  going against the flow.  J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 16(2): 425-438.

Quist, M.C., W.A. Hubert and F.J. Rahel. 2004. Relations among habitat characteristics, exotic species, and turbid-water Cyprinids in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133: 727-742.

Raney, E.C. 1939. The breeding habits of the Eastern Silvery Minnow, Hybognathus regius Girard. Am. Midl. Nat. 21: 215-218.

R.L.&L. Environmental Services Ltd. 2002.Fish species at risk in the Milk and St. Mary Drainages. Prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. Alberta Species At Risk Report No. 45:  82 pp. plus appendices.

Robins, R.C., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Fifth Edition. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 20. Bethesda, Maryland.

Schmidt, T.R. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hybognathus (Teleosti: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1994: 622-630.

Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 184: xi + 966 p.

Sikina, C.L. and T.B. Clayton. 2006. Fisheries investigations in the lower Milk River, Alberta, in 2005, p. 54-83. In B.A. Downey, B.L. Downey, R.W. Quinlan, T.B. Clayton, C.L. Sikina and P.F. Jones (eds). MULTISAR: A Multi-Species Conservation Strategy for Species at Risk, 2005-2006 Report. Alberta Species at Risk Report 108:  88 pp.

Stash, S.W. 2001. Distribution, relative abundance, and habitat associations of Milk River fishes related to irrigation diversion dams. M.Sc. Thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. 67 pp.

Trautman, M.B. 1957. The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 683 p.

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.  2004.  Regional feasibility report – North Central Montana.  Montana Area Office, Billings, Montana.  iv + 115 p.

U.S. Geological Survey. 2004. North Dakota endangered and threatened species website: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wildlife/nddanger/species/hyboplac.htm (last updated October 8, 2004).

Welker, T.L. and D.L. Scarnecchia. 2004. Habitat use and population structure for four native minnows (family Cyprinidae) in the upper Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers, North Dakota (USA). Ecol. Freshw. Fish 13: 8-22.

Willock, T.A. 1969. The ecology and zoogeography of fishes in the Missouri (Milk River) drainage of Alberta. M.Sc. Thesis. Carleton University. Ottawa, Ontario.

Winston, M.R., C.M. Taylor, and J. Pigg.  1991.  Upstream extirpation of four minnow species due to damming of a prairie stream.  Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 120: 98-105.

WSC (Water Survey of Canada).  2006.  Archived hydrometric data, Milk River at Milk River (11AA005), monthly mean discharge, June 1909 to December 2005.  Available at: http://www.wsc.ec.gc.ca/hydat/H2O [Accessed 1 November 2006]



Dr. Robert Bramblett. Assistant Research Professor, Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717.

Mike Bryski. Aquatic Biologist, Water Management Operations, Alberta Environment. 200-5th Avenue South, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4L1.

Terry Clayton. Lethbridge and Medicine Hat Fisheries Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, 2nd Fl. YPM Place, 530-8th St. S., Lethbridge, AB, T1J 2J8.

Lorne Fitch, Provincial Riparian Management Specialist, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, 2nd Fl. YPM Place, 530-8th St. S., Lethbridge, AB, T1J 2J8.

Wendell Koning, Limnologist, Regional Environmental Management Southern Region, Alberta Environment, 2938 - 11 Street NE, Calgary AB, T2E 7L7.

Ken Miller. Member of the Milk River Watershed Council of Canada, Box 87, Milk River, AB T0K 1M0.

Shane Petry. Impact Assessment Biologist, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 204, 704-4th Avenue South, Lethbridge, AB T1J 0N8.

Doug Watkinson, Research Biologist, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6.




Anoxic water is too low in oxygen to support fish life and causes winterkill.

A cyprinid is a member of the minnow family, Family Cyprinidae.

Fork length is the distance from the tip of the snout to the fork in the tail.

Pelagic eggs are found in the water column below the surface and above the bottom.

Piscivores are species that eat fish.

The riparian zone is the vegetated corridor along the banks of streams and rivers

A Threatened species is likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed.