Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.
Recovery Strategy for the Buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) in Canada (Proposed)
Ahring, R.M. and G.W. Todd. 1977. The bur enclosure of the caryopses of buffalograss as a factor affecting germination. Agronomy Journal 69: 15-17.
Anderson, K.L., Smith, E.F. and C.E. Owensby. 1970. Burning bluestem range. Journal of Range Management 23: 81-92.
Bai, T.J. 1989. Association of Bouteloua gracilis and Buchloe dactyloides. Ph.D. Dissertation, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Bakker, J. and S. Wilson. 2001. Competitive abilities of introduced and native grasses. Plant Ecology 157: 117-125.
Beetle, A.A. 1950. Buffalograss – native of the short grass plains. Bulletin 293, University of Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station, Laramie, Wyoming. 31 pp.
Boivin, B. 1981. Flora of the Prairie Provinces: A handbook to the flora of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Part 5, Gramineae, Provancheria 12: 1-107.
Bonham, C.D. and A. Lerwick. 1976. Vegetation changes induced by prairie dogs on shortgrass range. Journal of Range Management 29: 221-225.
Brockway, D.G., Gatewood, R.G., and R.B. Paris. 2002. Restoring fire as an ecological process in shortgrass prairie ecosystems: initial effects of prescribed burning during the dormant and growing seasons. Journal of Ecological Management 65: 135-152.
Channell R., M. V. Lomolino. 2000. Dynamic biogeography and conservation of endangered species. Nature. 403: 84–86.
Christian, J.M. and S.D. Wilson. 1999. Long-term ecosystem impacts of an introduced grass in the Northern Great Plains. Ecology 80: 2397-2047.
Coffin, D.P. and W.K. Lauenroth. 1989. Spatial and temporal variation in the seed bank of a semiarid grassland. American Journal of Botany 76: 53-58.
Coffin, D.P., Lauenroth, W.K. and I.C. Burke. 1996. Recovery of vegetation in a semiarid grassland 53 years after disturbance. Ecological Applications 6: 538-555.
Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 1997. Ecological Regions of North America: towards a common perspective. Communications and Public Outreach Department, CEC Secretariat, Montreal, Quebec. (PDF Format-4.21MB, accessed November 15, 2006).
COSEWIC. In Press. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the buffalograss Buchloë dactyloides in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vii + 29 pp. (www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm)
COSEWIC. 2006. COSEWIC's assessment process and criteria. Available at: http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/pdf/assessment_process_e.pdf (accessed October 11, 2006).
Dittberner, P.L. and M.R. Olson. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service.
Ecological Stratification Working Group. 1995. A National Ecological Framework for Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch, Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research and Environment Canada, State of the Environment Directorate, Ecozone Analysis Branch, Ottawa/Hull. Report and national map at 1:7,500,000 scale. Map available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/soer-ree/English/Framework/NarDesc/canada_e.cfm.
Eilers, R.G., Hopkins, L.A. and R. E. Smith. 1978. Soils of the Boissevain-Melita area. Soils Report No. 20. Manitoba Department of Agriculture, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 204 pp.
Environment Canada. 2006. Canadian Climate Normals or Averages: 1971–2000. (accessed November 7, 2006).
Ford, P.L. 1999. Response of buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) to fire. Great Plains Research 9: 261-276.
Ford, P.L. 2003. Steppe plant response to seasonal fire. Pages 1125-1131 in Allsopp, N., Palmer, A.R., Milton, S.J., Kirkman, K.P., Kerley, G.I.H., Hurt, C.R. and C.J. Brown (Eds). Proceedings of the VIIth International Rangelands Congress, 26th July-1st August 2003, Durban, South Africa, Document Transformation Technologies.
Ford, P.L. and G.V. Johnson. 2006. Effects of dormant- vs. growing-season fire in shortgrass steppe: biological soil crust and perennial grass responses. Journal of Arid Environments 67: 1-14.
Foster, C. and C. Hamel. 2006. Rare Species Surveys of the Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, 2005. MS Report 06-01. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 43 pp.
Fung, K., B. Barry and M. Wilson. 1999. Atlas of Saskatchewan. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. 336 pp.
Gauthier, D.A., L. Patino, and K. McGovern. 2002. Status of native prairie habitat, Prairie Ecozone, Saskatchewan. Project Report to Wildlife Habitat Canada, No. 8.65A.1R-01/02. Great Plains Research Center, Regina, Saskatchewan.
Harms, V.L. In Press. COSEWIC status report on the buffalograss Buchloë dactyloides in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the buffalograss Buchloë dactyloides in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 1-29 pp.
Harrington, H.D. 1977. How to Identify Grasses and Grasslike Plants. Swallow Press and Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio.
Harris, J.G. and M. W. Harris. 2001. Plant Identification Terminology: an illustrated glossary. 2nd ed. Spring Lake Publishing, Spring Lake, Utah.
Hart, R.H. and M.M. Ashby. 1998. Grazing intensities, vegetation, and heifer gains: 55 years on shortgrass. Journal of Range Management 51: 392-398.
Hayes, G.F. and K.D. Holl. 2003. Cattle grazing impacts on annual forbs and vegetation composition of mesic grasslands in California. Conservation Biology 17: 1694-1702.
Henderson, D.C. 2005. Ecology and Management of Crested Wheatgrass Invasion. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. 137 pp.
Henderson, D.C. and M.A. Naeth. 2005. Multi-scale impacts of crested wheatgrass invasion in mixed-grass prairie. Biological Invasions 7: 639-650.
Herbel, C.H. and K.L. Anderson. 1959. Response of true prairie vegetation on major Flint Hills range sites to grazing treatment. Ecological Monographs 29: 171-186.
Higgins, K.F., Kruse, A.D., and J. L. Piehl. 1989. Effects of fire in the Northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. Extension Circular 761. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. (accessed October 20, 2006).
Howard, J.L. 1995. Buchloe dactyloides. In: Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Available at: http://www.fs.fes.us/database/feis. (accessed October 4, 2006).
Huff, D.R. and L. Wu. 1992. Distribution and inheritance of inconstant sex forms in natural populations of dioecious buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides). American Journal of Botany 79: 207-215.
Hulett, G.K., Brock, J.H., Lester, J.E. 1972. Community structure and function in a remnant Kansas prairie. Pages 104-112 in J.H. Zimmerman (Ed.). Proceedings, 2nd Midwest prairie conference, 1970 September 18-20, University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Madison, WI.
IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List categories and criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources/World Conservation Union, Cambridge, U.K. ii + 30 pp.
James, P.C., Murphy, K.M., Beek, F., and Sequin, R. 1999. The biodiversity crisis in southern Saskatchewan: a landscape perspective. Pages 13-16 in Thorpe, J., Steeves, T.A., and Gallop, M. (Eds). Proceedings of the Fifth Prairie Conservation and Endangered Species Conference. Provincial Museum of Alberta, Natural History Occasional Paper No. 24. Edmonton, Alberta.
Johnston, Alex. 1987. Plants and the Blackfoot. Lethbridge Historical Society, Lethbridge, Alberta. 20 pp.
Jones, M.D. and L.C. Newell. 1946. Pollination cycles and pollen dispersal in relation to grass improvement. Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin 148, Lincoln.
Looman, J. and K.F. Best. 1979. Budd's Flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Publication 1662. Ottawa, Ontario. 863 pp.
Manitoba Conservation Data Centre. 2001. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre: Aspen Parkland – Species Information. Available at: http://web2.gov.mb.ca/conservation/cdc/species/ecoregions/aspenpkld.php (accessed December 4, 2006).
Manitoba Land Resource Unit, 1997. Soils and Terrain. An Introduction to the Land Resource. Rural Municipality of Arthur. Information Bulletin 97-2, Brandon Research Centre, Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon, Manitoba.
McFarland, M.L., Ueckert, D.N., Hons, F.M. and S. Hartmann. 1994. Selective-placement burial of drilling fluids: effects on soil properties, buffalograss and fourwing saltbush after 4 years. Journal of Range Management 47: 475-480.
Milchunas, D. G., W. K. Lauenroth, P. L. Chapman, and M. K. Kazempour. 1989. Effects of grazing, topography, and precipitation on the structure of a semiarid grassland. Vegetatio 80:11-23.
Milchunas, D. G., W. K. Lauenroth, and P. L. Chapman. 1992. Plant competition, abiotic, and long- and short-term effects of large herbivores on demography of opportunistic species in a semiarid grassland. Oecologia 92:520-531.
Mintenko, A.S., Smith, S.R. and D.J. Cattani. 2002. Turfgrass evaluation of native grasses for the Northern Great Plains Region. Crop Science 42: 2018-2024.
Mueller, I.M. 1941. An experimental study of rhizomes of certain prairie plants. Ecological Monographs 11: 165-188.
NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (accessed: October 20, 2006).
Nernberg, D. and D. Ingstrup. 2005. Prairie conservation in Canada: the prairie conservation action plan experience. Pp. 478-484 in Proceedings of the Third International Partners in Flight Conference, March 20-24, 2002, Asilomar Conference Grounds, California. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191.
Ortmann, J., Schacht, W.H., Stubbendieck, J. and D.R. Brink. 1998. The “foliage is the fruit” hypothesis: complex adaptations in buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides). American Midland Naturalist 140: 252-263.
Pettit, R.D. and R.E. Fagan. 1974. Influence of nitrogen and irrigation on carbohydrate reserves of buffalograss. Journal of Range Management 28: 279-282.
Quinn, J.A. and D. F. Hervey. 1970. Trampling losses and travel by cattle on sandhills range. Journal of Range Management 23: 50-55.
Quinn, J.A., Mowrey, D.P., Emanuele, S.M., Whalley, R.D.B. 1994. The “foliage is the fruit” hypothesis: Buchloe dacyloides (Poaceae) and the shortgrass prairie of North America. American Journal of Botany 81: 1545-1554.
Reader, R.J., Wilson, S.D., Belcher, J.W., Wisheu, I., Keddy, P.A., Tilman, D., Morris, E.C.. Grace, J.B., McGraw, J.B., Olff, H., Turkington, R., Klein, E., Leung, Y., Shipley, B.. van Hulst, R., Johansson, M.E., Nilsson, C., Gurevitch, J., Grigulis, K. and B.E. Beisner. 1994. Plant competition in relation to neighbor biomass: an intercontinental study with Poa pratensis. Ecology 75: 1753–1760.
Reed, J.M., L.S. Mills, J.B. Dunning, E.S. Menges, K.S. McKelvey, R. Frye, S.R. Beissinger, M. Anstett, and P. Miller. 2002. Emerging issues in population viability analysis. Conservation Biology 16: 7–9.
Reimer, E. and C. Hamel. 2003. Rare species surveys of the Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, 2002. MS Report 03-02. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 46 pp.
Reimer, E., Hamel, C., and M. Kowalchuk. 2003. Update on the distribution of buffalograss in southwestern Manitoba. Blue Jay 61: 96-101.
Richard, C.E. and E.F. Redente. 1995. Nitrogen and phosphorus effects on blue grama and buffalograss interactions. Journal of Range Management 48: 417-422.
Ring C.B., Nicholson R.A., and J.L. Launchbaugh. 1985. Vegetational traits of patch grazed rangeland in west-central Kansas. Journal of Range Management 38:51–55
Ringold, P.L., Alegria, J., Czaplewski, R.L., Mulder, B.S., Tolle, T. and K. Burnett. 1996. Adaptive monitoring design for ecosystem management. Ecological Applications 6: 745-747.
Samson, F., and F. Knopf. 1994. Prairie conservation in North America. BioScience 44:418-421.
Saskatchewan Industry and Resources. 2006. Mineral Resources of Saskatchewan: Coal. Available at: http://www.ir.gov.sk.ca/default.aspx?DN=3549,3541,3538,3385,2936,Documents (accessed November 8, 2006).
Saskatchewan Soil Survey. 1997. The Soils of the Weyburn and Saskatchewan Portion of the Virden Map Area 62E and 62F, Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Centre for Soil Research Publication No. S7. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Schimel, D., Stillwell, M.A. and R.G. Woodmansee. 1985. Biogeochemistry of C, N, and P in a soil catena of the shortgrass steppe. Ecology 66: 276-282.
Shaw, R.B., Bern, C.M. and G. L. Winkler. 1987. Sex ratios of Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. along catenas on shortgrass steppe. Botanical Gazette 148: 85-89.
Sieg, C.H., Uresk, D.W. and R.M. Hansen. 1983. Plant-soil relationships on bentonite mine spoils and sagebrush-grassland in the northern High Plains. Journal of Range Management 36: 289-294.
Smit, A-M. 2003: Adaptive monitoring: an overview. DOC Science Internal Series 138. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 16 p.
Smith, D.R., Brown, J.A. and N.C.H. Lo. 2004. Application of adaptive sampling to biological populations. In: Thompson, S.K. (Ed). Sampling Rare or Elusive Species. Island Press, Washington. Pp. 77-122.
Swank, George R. 1932 The Ethnobotany of the Acoma and Laguna Indians. M.A. Thesis, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 34 pp.
Thompson, S.K. 1990. Adaptive cluster sampling. Journal of the American Statistical Association 85: 1050-1059.
Thompson, S.K. 1991. Stratified adaptive cluster sampling. Biometrika 78: 389-397.
Thornburg, A.A. 1982. Plant materials for use on surface-mined lands. SCS-TP-157. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. Plants database - Plants Profile for Bouteloua dactyloides (buffalograss). (accessed November 20, 2006).
Vallentine, J.F. 1990. Grazing Management. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Vogel, W.G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the eastern United States. General Technical Report NE-68. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, Pennsylvania.
Vucetich, J.A. and T. A. Waite. 2003. Spatial patterns of demography and genetic processes across the species' range: Null hypotheses for landscape conservation genetics. Conservation Genetics4: 639-645.
Wiken, E.B. (compiler). 1986. Terrestrial ecozones of Canada. Ecological Land Classification Series No. 19. Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec. 26 pp. + map.
Wilson, S.D. 1989. The suppression of native prairie by alien species introduced for revegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning 17: 113-119.
Wilson, S.D. and J. W. Belcher. 1989. Plant and bird communities of native prairie and introduced Eurasian vegetation in Manitoba, Canada. Conservation Biology: 39-44.
Wright, H.A., and A.W. Bailey. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, New York. 501 pp.
Wu, L. and A. Harivandi. 1995. Buffalograss response to cold, shade and salinity. California Turfgrass Culture 45: 5-7.
Young, V.A. 1956. The effects of the 1949-1954 drought on the ranges of Texas. Journal of Range Management 9: 139-142.
- Date Modified: