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COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Aweme Borer in Canada

Technical Summary

Papaipema aweme

Aweme Borer
Perce-tige d'Aweme

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Ontario

Extent and Area Information

Extent of occurrence (EO)(km2)

Area of the site on Manitoulin Island: < 1 km2
(Max. 35 000 km2 – area encompassed by the one extant and two historic collection sites in Canada.)

Specify trend in EO

Not applicable – almost no data

Are there extreme fluctuations in EO?

Not applicable – only one specimen record in the past 70 years

Area of occupancy (AO) (km2)

Known: < 1 km2
(Max. 625 km2 including historic sites)

Specify trend in AO


Are there extreme fluctuations in AO?

None known

Number of known or inferred current locations

One (2 additional historic locations)

Specify trend in #

Stable at 1

Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations?


Specify trend in area, extent or quality of habitat

Fragmented and declining

Population Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population)

1 year

Number of mature individuals


Total population trend

Historic declines; recent trend unknown

% decline over the last/next 10 years or 3 generations.

None known

Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals?

None known

Is the total population severely fragmented?

Probably. Known at a single site; based on known sites, historic population was severely fragmented

Specify trend in number of populations

1 extant plus 2 historic

Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations?


List populations with number of mature individuals in each:

Manitoulin Island – unknown, probably less than 100

Threats (actual or imminent threats to populations or habitats)

  1. Burning
  2. Overgrazing
  3. Natural succession
  4. Development and other intensive human activity

Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)?

USA: None – possibly extirpated

Is immigration known or possible?

Not known; unlikely

Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada?


Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada?

Unknown but likely

Is rescue from outside populations likely?

No, species possibly extirpated in the US

Quantitative Analysis

Not applicable

Current Status

Manitoba and Ontario: NRH; MI and NY, NRH; MI SC
COSEWIC: Endangered (2006)

Status and Reasons for Designation

Status: Endangered

Alpha-numeric code: D1

Reasons for Designation: Prior to the collection of one specimen in Ontario in 2005, the moth was last collected 70 years earlier. It is known from only five localities globally, three of which are in Canada. Although the species is poorly known, it is apparently restricted to a rare, fragmented and threatened habitat. Repeated collecting at all of the historic locations has not resulted in relocation of the species, and intensive collecting in the vicinity of the recent record has not yielded any additional specimens.

Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Declining Total Population):
Not applicable.

Criterion B (Small Distribution, and Decline or Fluctuation):
The known extent of occurrence is much smaller than 5000 km2 (smaller than 1 km2) – B1. The area of occupancy is much smaller than 500 km2 (smaller than 1 km2) – B2. The population was likely severely fragmented during historic times but is no longer fragmented as it is known to exist at 1 location – a. There is no evidence of continuing declines and it is unknown whether the species undergoes extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals.

Criterion C (Small Total Population Size and Decline):
Not applicable – although the extant population is likely very small, there is no evidence of decline.

Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Very likely meets Endangered under D1 – number of mature individuals is very likely fewer than 250. Also meets Threatened under D2 – the population has a very restricted known area of occupancy (smaller than 1 km2) and number of locations (1), such that the moth is prone to the effects of human activities and stochastic events.

Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.