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Recovery Strategy for the Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) in Canada


The responsible jurisdiction for the carmine shiner under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) is Fisheries and Oceans Canada.  Section 37 of SARA requires the competent minister to prepare recovery strategies for listed extirpated, endangered or threatened species. The carmine shiner was listed as threatened under SARA in June 2003.  Fisheries and Oceans Canada – Central and Arctic Region co-led the development of this recovery strategy. This strategy meets SARA requirements in terms of content and process (Sections 39-41). It was developed in cooperation or consultation with:

  • The Province of Manitoba
  • The Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss Association,
  • ManitobaHydro,
  • Tembec Inc.,
  • ManitobaLive Bait Association

Also refer to Appendices B and C for a full record of public consultations.


This recovery strategy for the carmine shiner has been prepared in cooperation with the jurisdictions described in the Preface. Fisheries and Oceans Canada has reviewed and accepts this document as its recovery strategy for the carmine shiner as required by the Species at Risk Act (SARA).  This recovery strategy also constitutes advice to other jurisdictions and organizations on the recovery goals, approaches and objectives that are recommended to protect and recover the species.

Success in the recovery of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the directions set out in this strategy and will not be achieved by Fisheries and Oceans Canada or any other jurisdiction alone. In the spirit of the National Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk, the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans invites all Canadians to join Fisheries and Oceans Canada in supporting and implementing this strategy for the benefit of the carmine shiner and Canadian society as a whole. Fisheries and Oceans Canada will support implementation of this strategy to the extent possible, given available resources and its overall responsibility for species at risk conservation.  Implementation of the strategy by other participating jurisdictions and organizations is subject to their respective policies, appropriations, priorities and budgetary constraints.

The goals, objectives and recovery approaches identified in the strategy are based on best existing knowledge and are subject to modifications resulting from new findings and revised objectives.  The Minister of Fisheries and Oceans will report on progress within five years.

This strategy will be complemented by one or more action plans that will provide details on specific recovery measures to be taken to support conservation of the species. The Minister will take steps to ensure that, to the extent possible, Canadians interested in or affected by these measures will be consulted.

Responsible Jurisdictions

Under the Species at Risk Act, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is the responsible jurisdiction for the carmine shiner. The Province of Manitoba (Manitoba Water Stewardship) cooperated in the production of this recovery strategy.


The Carmine Shiner Recovery Strategy was developed by the Carmine Shiner Recovery Team, comprised of the following individuals:

Fred Hnytka (Co-chair)
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), Winnipeg, MB

Barb Scaife (Co-chair)
Manitoba Water Stewardship, Winnipeg, MB

Bruce Stewart (Secretariat)
Arctic Biological Consultants, Winnipeg, MB

Neil Fisher
DFO, Winnipeg, MB

Dr Bill Franzin
DFO, Winnipeg, MB

Gerry Hood
Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss Assoc., St. Albert, AB

Doug Leroux
Manitoba Water Stewardship, Lac du Bonnet, MB

Shelly Matkowski
Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB

Pat Rakowski
Environment Canada, Winnipeg, MB

Dr Ken Stewart
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB

Doug Watkinson
DFO, Winnipeg, MB


This report was written by D.B. Stewart of Arctic Biological Consultants, Winnipeg, MB, who was secretary to the Recovery Team. Doug Watkinson of DFO in Winnipeg, MB kindly provided the photograph of the carmine shiner and map of its Manitoba distribution. Konrad Schmidt of the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources in St. Paul, MN, John Lyons of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in Madison, WI, and Nick Mandrak of DFO in Burlington, ON, provided fish samples for the ongoing studies of carmine shiner morphology and genetics. Ken Stewart of the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, MB, is conducting the morphological analyses and Chris Wilson of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources in Peterborough, ON, is conducting the genetics analyses. Many individuals and stakeholder groups provided input into this document, in particular Connie Proceviat (Sun Gro Horticulture), Bud Ewacha (Conserve Native Plants Society Inc.), James Fraser (Tembec), Richard Pelletier (Premier Horticulture), Kris Snydal (MB Live Bait Association), and members of the Northeast Agassiz Watershed Management Association  who met with the team. Becky Cudmore (DFO Burlington), Bruce McCulloch (DFO Edmonton), Karolyne Pickett and Anne Phelps (DFO Ottawa), and Sam Stephenson (DFO Winnipeg) provided constructive comments on the draft document.

The Carmine Shiner Recovery Team extends its sincere appreciation to the individuals and organizations that supported the development of this recovery strategy and to the people who contributed their knowledge and hard work.

Strategic Environmental Assessment Statement

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, the purpose of a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally-sound decision making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The recovery planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on non-target species or habitats.

This recovery strategy describes a number of research, management and public education approaches required for the conservation and recovery of the carmine shiner.  Aside from the acquisition of further knowledge, the recovery strategy focuses on eliminating or mitigating threats to the species including overexploitation, species introductions, habitat loss or degradation, and pollution. In addition to generally improving environmental conditions, the reduction or elimination of these threats may benefit other co-occurring species (see Section 5.6). The recovery strategy also recommends the rationalization of existing or proposed stocking programs; potential impacts of any changes will be considered within the rationalization process.  The potential for the strategy to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. The SEA concluded that this strategy will clearly benefit the environment and will not have significant adverse effects.


SARA defines residence as: “a dwelling-place, such as a den, nest or other similar area or place, that is occupied or habitually occupied by one or more individuals during all or part of their life cycles, including breeding, rearing, staging, wintering, feeding or hibernating” [SARA S2(1)].

Residence descriptions, or the rationale for why the residence concept does not apply to a given species, are posted on the SARA public registry: