Recovery Strategy for the Transient Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) in Canada
Aguilar, A. and A. Borrell. 1994. Abnormally high polychlorinated biphenyl levels in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) affected by the 1990-92 Mediterranean epizootic. Science of the Total Environment 154: 237-247.
Angliss, R.P. and K.L. Lodge. 2004. California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) U.S. stock. Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessments, 2003. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS0AFSC-144. Accessed Dec. 2, 2006 at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/sars/PO03casealion.pdf
Angliss, R.P. and R.B. Outlaw. 2005. Alaska marine mammal stock assessments. NOAA Tech. Memo NOAA-TM-AFSC-161. Accessed Dec. 2, 2006 at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/sars/ak2005whki-a1t.pdf
Bain, D.E. and R. Williams. 2006. Long-range effects of airgun noise on marine mammals: responses as a function of received sound level and distance. Paper IWC SC/58/E35 presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission in June 2006, St. Kitts.
Baird, R.W. 2000. The killer whales, foraging specializations and group hunting. Pages 127-153 in J. Mann, R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead (editors). Cetacean societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Baird, R.W. 2001. Status of killer whales, Orcinus orca, in Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist 115:676-701.
Baird, R.W. 2002. Killer whales of the world: natural history and conservation. Voyageur Press, Stillwater, Minnesota.
Baird, R.W., and L.M. Dill. 1996. Ecological and social determinants of group size in transient killer whales. Behavioural Ecology 7:408-416.
Baird, R.W., and H. Whitehead. 2000. Social organization of mammal-eating killer whales: group stability and dispersal patterns. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:2096-2105.
Barrett-Lennard, L.G. 2000. Population structure and mating patterns of killer whales as revealed by DNA analysis. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Barrett-Lennard, L.G. and G.M. Ellis. 2001. Population structure and genetic variability in Northeastern Pacific killer whales: toward an assessment of population viability. CSAS Res. Doc. 2001/065. 35 pp. Accessed December 8, 2006 at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/publications/ResDocs-DocRech/2001/2001_065_e.htm
Barrett-Lennard, L.G., J.K.B. Ford, and K. Heise. 1996. The mixed blessing of echolocation: Differences in sonar use by fish-eating and mammal-eating killer whales. Animal Behaviour 51: 553-565.
Barrett-Lennard, L.G., and K. Heise. 2006. The Natural History and Ecology of Killer Whales: Foraging Specialization in a Generalist Predator. Pages 163-173 in J. A. Estes, R. L. Brownell, Jr., D. P. DeMaster, D. F. Doak, and T. M. Williams (editors) Whales, Whaling and Ocean Ecosystems. UCSC Press, Berkely, California.
Béland,P., De Guise,S., C. Girard, A. Lagacé, D. Martineau, R. Michaud, D.C.G. Muir, R.J. Norstrom, E. Pelletier, S. Ray, and L.R. Shugart. 1993. Toxic compounds and health and reproductive effects in St. Lawrence beluga whales. J. Great Lakes Res. 19: 766-775.
Benson, A.J. and A. W. Trites. 2002. Ecological effects of regime shifts in the Bering Sea and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Fish and Fisheries 3: 95-113.
Bigg, M.A., P.F. Olesiuk, G.M. Ellis, J.K.B. Ford, and K.C. Balcomb. 1990. Social organization and genealogy of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the coastal waters of British Columbia and Washington State. Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 12:383-405.
COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). 2003. COSEWIC Species Database. Accessed December 1, 2006 at http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct1/searchform_e.cfm
Crum, L.A. and Y. Mao 1996. Acoustically enhanced bubble growth at low frequencies and its implications for human diver and marine mammal safety. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 99: 2898-2907.
Dahlheim, M.E. and J.E. Heyning. 1999. Killer whale Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758). Pages 281-322 in S. Ridgway and R. Harrison (editors). Handbook of marine mammals, Volume 6. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Darnerud, P.O. 2003. Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife. Environment International 29: 841-853.
Deecke, V.B. 2003. The vocal behaviour of transient killer whales (Orcinus orca): communicating with costly calls. PhD. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Deecke, V.B., Ford, J.KB. and P.J.B. Slater. 2005. Vocal behaviour of mammal-eating killer whales: Communicating with costly calls. Animal Behaviour 69: 395-405.
De Guise,S., Martineau,D., Béland,P., and Fournier,M. 1995. Possible mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants on St. Lawrence beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Environ. Health Perspect. Suppl. 103: 73-77.
De Swart,R.L., Harder,T.C., Ross,P.S., Vos,H.W., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1995. Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals. Infect. Agent. Dis. 4: 125-130.
DFO 2003. Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). DFO Canadian Scientific Advisor Secretariat Stock Status Report 2003/ 037 Accessed on the web in December 2006 at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2003/SSR2003_037_e.pdf
DFO 2005. Statement of Canadian practice on the mitigation of seismic noise in the marine environment. Accessed June 7, 2007 at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/oceans/im-gi/seismic-sismique/index_e.asp
Di Guardo, G., G. Marruchella, U. Agrimi, and S. Kennedy. 2005. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals: a brief overview. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 52:88-93.
Duffield, D.A., D.K. Odell, J.F. McBain, and B. Andrews. 1995. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) reproduction at Sea World. Zoo Biology 14:417-430.
(Enviroment Canada (EC). 2003. Georgia basin action plan: sustaining a healthy ecosystem and healthy communities 2003-2008. Accessed June 7, 2007 at http://www.pyr.ec.gc.ca/georgiabasin/reports/action_plan_2003/actionplan_e.pdf
Erbe, C. 2002. Underwater noise of whale-watching boats and potential effects on killer whales (Orcinus orca), based on an acoustic impact model. Marine Mammal Science 18:394-418.
Estes, J.A., M.T. Tinker, T.M. Williams, and D.F. Doak. 1998. Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282:473-476.
Evans, D.L., and G.R. England. 2001. Joint interim report Bahamas marine mammal stranding event of 15-16 March 2000. NOAA, US Dept. of Commerce and Dept. of the Navy.
Fernandez, A., M. Arbelo, R. Deaville, I.A.P. Patterson, P. Castro, J.R. Baker, R. Degolloada, H.M. Ross, P, Herraez, A.M. Pocknell, E. Rodrigez, F.E. Howie, A. Espinosa, R.J. Reid, R. Jaber, V. Martin, A.A. Cunningham, and P.D. Jepson. 2004. Whales, sonar and decompression sickness (reply). Nature 428: 1-2.
Finneran, J.J. 2003. Whole lung resonance in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 114: 529-535.
Ford, J.K.B. 1984. Call traditions and dialects of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia. 435 p.
Ford, J.K.B. and G.M. Ellis. 1999. Transients: Mammal-Hunting Killer Whales. UBC Press, Vancouver, British Columbia. 96 pp.
Ford, J.K.B., G.M. Ellis, and K.C. Balcomb. 2000. Killer Whales: the natural history and genealogy of Orcinus orca in British Columbia and Washington, second edition. UBC Press, Vancouver, British Columbia. 104 pp.
Ford, J.K.B., G.M. Ellis, L.G. Barrett-Lennard, A.B. Morton, R.S. Palm, and K.C. Balcomb. 1998. Dietary specialization in two sympatric populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1456-1471.
Ford, J.K.B., Ellis, G.M., Matkin, D.R., Balcomb, K.C., Briggs, D., and Morton, A.B. 2005. Killer whale attacks on minke whales: prey capture and antipredator tactics. Marine Mammal Science 21:603-618.
Forney, K. A. and P. Wade. 2006. Worldwide distribution and abundance of killer whales. Pages 145-162 in J. A. Estes, R. L. Brownell, Jr., D. P. DeMaster, D. F. Doak, and T. M. Williams (editors). Whales, whaling and ocean ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
Gaydos, J.K., K.C. Balcomb, R.W. Osborne, and L. Dierauf. 2004. Evaluating potential infectious disease threats for southern resident killer whales, Orcinus orca: a model for endangered species. Biological Conservation 117: 253-262.
Goley, P. D., and J. M. Straley. 1994. Attack on gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in Monterey Bay, California, by killer whales (Orcinus orca) previously identified in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:1528-1530.
González, I.A. Patterson, R.J.Reid, G. Foster, M. Barberán, J.M.Blasco, S. Kennedy, F.E. Howie, J. Godfroid, A. P. MacMillan, A. Schock, and D. Buxton. 2002. Chronin meningoencephalitis associated with Brucella sp. in live-stranded striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Journal of Comparative Pathology 126: 147-152.
Grant, S.C.H. and P.S. Ross. 2002. Southern resident killer whales at risk: toxic chemicals in the British Columbia and Washington environment. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 2412:1-111.
Hall, A.J., O.I. Kalantzi, and G.O. Thomas. 2003. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in grey seals during the first year of life – are they thyroid hormone endocrine disrupters? Environmental Pollution 126: 29-37.
Harvell, D.C., C.E. Mitchell, J.R. Ward, S.Altizer, A.P.Dobson, R.S. Ostfeld., and M.D. Samuel. 2002. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296: 2158-2162.
Heise, K., L. G. Barrett-Lennard, E. Saulitis, C. Matkin, and D. Bain. 2003. Examining the evidence for killer whale predation on Steller sea lions in British Columbia and Alaska. Aquatic Mammals 29: 325-334.
Herman, D. P., Burrows, D. G. Wade, P. R. Durban, J. W. Matkin, C. LeDuc, R. G. Barrett-Lennard, L. G. and M.M. Krahn, M. M. 2005. Feeding ecology of eastern North Pacific killer whales Orcinus orca from fatty acid, stable isotope, and organochlorine analyses of blubber biopsies Marine Ecology Progress Series. 302 2005. 275-291.
Hickie, B.E., R.W. Macdonald, J.K.B. Ford and P.S. Ross. 2007.. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) face protracted health risks associated with lifetime exposure to PCBs. For submission to Environmental Science and Toxicology.
Hites, R. 2004. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: a meta-analysis of concentrations. Environmental Science and Technology 38:945-956.
Hoelzel, A.R., A. Natoli, M.E. Dahlheim, C. Olavarria, R.W. Baird, and N.A. Black. 2002. Low worldwide genetic diversity in the killer whale (Orcinus orca): implications for demographic history. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Biological Sciences, Series B. 269:1467-1473.
Hooper, K. and T.A. McDonald. 2000. The PBDEs: an emerging environmental challenges and another reason for breast-milk monitoring programs. Environmental Health Perspectives 108: 387- 392.
IWC (International Whaling Commission). 2004. Annex K. Report of the Standing Working Group on Environmental Concerns. Report of the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission. Meeting held in Sorrento Italy, 29 June – 10 July 2004. Accessed December 6, 2006 at www.iwcoffice.org/_documents/sci_com/SCRepFiles2004/56annexk.pdf
Jepson, P.D., C.R. Allchin, R.J. Law, T. Kuiken, J.R. Baker, E. Rogan, and J.T. Kirkwood. 1999. Investigating potential associations between chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and infectious disease mortality in harbour porpoises from England and Wales. Science of the Total Environment 243-244: 339-348.
Jepson, P.D., M. Arbelo, R. Deaville, I. A. P. Patterson, P. Castro, J. R. Baker, E. Degollada, H. M. Ross, P. Herráez, A. M. Pocknell, F. Rodríguez, F. E. Howie, A. Espinosa, R. J. Reid, J. R. Jaber, V. Martin, A. A. Cunningham, and A. Fernández. 2003. Gas bubble lesions in stranded cetaceans. Nature 425: 575.
Jones, I. 2006. A northeast Pacific offshore killer whale (Orcinus orca) feeding on a Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepsis). Marine Mammal Science 22: 198-200.
Kannan, K., J. Koistinen, K. Beckmen, T. Evans, J.F. Gorzelany, K.J. Hansen, P.D. Jones, E. Helle, M. Nyman, and J.P. Giesy. 2001. Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals. Environmental Science and Technology 35: 1593-1598.
Kennedy, S., T. Kuiken, and P.D. Jepson. 2000. Mass die-off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 6: 637-639.
Ketten, D.R., J. Lien, and S. Todd. 1993. Blast injury in humpback whales: evidence and implications. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 94: 1849-1850.
Krahn, M.M., D.P. Herman, C.O. Matkin, J.W. Durban, L. Barrett-Lennard, D.G.Burrows, M.E. Dahlheim, N. Black, R.G. LeDuc, and P. R. Wade. 2007. Use of chemical tracers in assessing the diet and foraging regions of eastern North Pacific killer whales. Marine Environmental Research 63: 91-114.
Lambourn, D.M., S.J. Jeffries, and J.P. Dubey. 2001. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in southern Puget Sound, Washington. Journal of Parasitology 87: 1196-1197.
Lindstrom, G., H. Wingfors, M.Dam, and B. von Bavel. 1999. Identification of 19 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) from the Atlantic. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 36: 355-363.
Martineau,D., Béland,P., Desjardins,C., and Lagacé,A. 1987. Levels of organochlorine chemicals in tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 16: 137-147.
Martoja, R. & Berry, R.J. 1980. Identification of tiemannite as a probable product of demethylation of mercury by selenium in cetaceans, a complement scheme of the biological cycle of mercury. Vie Milieu 30: 7-10.
Matkin, C.O., G. M. Ellis, E. L. Saulitis, L. G. Barrett-Lennard, and D. R. Matkin. 1999. Killer Whales of Southern Alaska. North Gulf Oceanic Society, Homer, Alaska.
McCallum, H., D. Harvell, and A. Dobson. 2003. Rates of spread of marine pathogens. Ecological Letters 6: 1062-1067.
Miller,M.A., I.A. Gardner, C. Kreuder, D.M. Paradies, K.R. Worcester, D.A.Jessup, E. Dodd, M.D. Harris, J.A. Ames, A.E. Packham, and P.A. Conrad. 2002. Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). International Journal of Parasitology 32: 997-1006.
Morton, A. 1990. A quantitative comparison of the behaviour of resident and transient forms of the killer whale off the central British Columbia coast. Reports of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 12: 245-248.
Mos, L., Ross, P.S., McIntosh, D., and Raverty, S. 2003. Canine distemper virus in river otters in British Columbia as an emergent risk for coastal pinnipeds. Veterinary Record 152: 237-239.
Mos, L., B.Morsey, S.J. Jeffries, M.B. Yunker, S. Raverty, S.de Guise and P.S. Ross. 2006. Chemical and biological pollution contribute to the immunological profiles of free-ranging harbour seals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25: 3110-3117.
NRC (National Research Council). 2003. Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals. National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
Olesiuk, P.F. 1999. An assessment of the status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in British Columbia. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document 99/33. Accessed on the web at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/CSAS/DocREC/1999/pdf/99_033e1.pdf in December 2006.
Olesiuk, P.F., M.A. Bigg, and G.M. Ellis. 1990. Life history and population dynamics of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the coastal waters of British Columbia and Washington State. Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 12:209-243.
Olesiuk, P.F., G.M. Ellis, and J.K.B. Ford. 2005. Life history and population dynamics of northern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2005/ 045. Accessed on the web December 2006 at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2005/RES2005_042_e.pdf
Osborne, R.W., K. Koski, and R. Otis. 2003. Trends in whale watching traffic around southern resident killer whales. Powerpoint presentation from The Whale Museum, Friday Harbor, Washington.
Perrin, W.F. and J.R. Geraci. 2002. Stranding. Pages 1192-1197 in W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig, and J.G.M. Thewissen (editors). Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Pitman, R.L. and P. Ensor. 2003. Three forms of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Antarctic waters. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5: 131-139.
PSKF (Pacific Streamkeepers Foundation) 2005. Draft Meeting Notes, August 12, 2005 Teleconference. Accessed January 21, 2007 at http://www.pskf.ca/publications/cheakums05/notes01.html
Raverty, S.A. and J.K. Gaydos. 2004. Killer whale necropsy and disease testing protocol. Accessed December 6, 2006 at http://mehp.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/pdfs/orcanecropsyprotocol.pdf
Rayne, S., M.G. Ikonomou, P.S. Ross, G. M. Ellis, and L.G. Barrett-Lennard. 2004. PBDEs, PBBs, and PCNs in three communities of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Environmental Science and Technology 38: 4293-4299.
Reeves, R.R., W.F. Perrin, B.L. Taylor, C.S. Baker, and S.L.Mesnick. 2004. Report of the Workshop on Shortcomings of Cetacean Taxonomy in Relation to Needs of Conservation and Management April 30-May 2, 2004, La Jolla, California. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-NMFS-SWFSC-363. 94 pp. Accessed January 4, 2007 at http://swfsc.nmfs.noaa.gov/cmbc_reg/workshopreport22jul.pdf
Reidarson, T.H., J. McBain, C.House, D.P. King, J.L. Stott, A. Krafft, J.K. Taubenberger, J. Heyning, T.P. Lipscomb. 1998. Morbillivirus infection in stranded common dolphins from the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Wildlife Disease 34: 771-776.
Robeck, T.R. and S.L. Monfort. 2006. Characterization of male killer whale (Orcinus orca) sexual maturation and reproductive seasonality. Theriogenology 66 (2006) 242–250
Ross, P.S. 2000. Marine mammals as sentinels in ecological risk assessment. Humans and Ecological Risk Assessment 6: 29-46.
Ross, P.S. 2002. The role of immunotoxic environmental contaminants in facilitating the emergence of infectious diseases in marine mammals. Humans and Ecological Risk Assessment 8: 277-292.
Ross, P.S. 2006. Fireproof killer whales (Orcinus orca): Flame retardant chemicals and the conservation imperative in the charismatic icon of British Columbia, Canada. Can.J.Fish.Aquat.Sci. 63: 224-234.
Ross,P.S., De Swart,R.L., Addison,R.F., Van Loveren,H., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1996. Contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in harbour seals: wildlife at risk? Toxicology 112: 157-169.
Ross, P.S., G.M. Ellis, M.G. Ikonumou, L.G. Barrett-Lennard and R.F. Addison. 2000. High PCB concentrations in free-ranging Pacific Killer Whales, Orcinus orca: effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:504-515.
Ross, P.S., G. Ellis, J.K.B. Ford, and L.G. Barrett-Lennard. 2002. Toxic chemical pollution and Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca). Pages 126-130 in Fourth International Orca Symposium and Workshops, September 23-28, 2002, CEBC-CNRS, France.
Ross, P.S., S.J. Jeffries, M.B. Yunker, R.E. Addison, M.G. Ikonomou, and J. C. Calambokidis. 2004. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in British Columbia, Canada, and Washington State, USA, reveal a combination of local and global polychlorinated byphenyl, dioxin and furan signals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23: 157-165.
Saulitis, E., C.O. Matkin and G. Ellis. 2002. The biology and status of an endangered transient killer whale population in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Pages 131-132 in Fourth International Orca Symposium and Workshops, September 23-28, 2002, CEBC-CNRS, France.
Saulitis, E.L., C.O. Matkin and F.H. Fay. 2005. Vocal repertoire and acoustic behaviour of the isolated AT1 killer whale subpopulation in southern Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83: 1015-1029.
Scholin, C.A., F. Gulland, G.J. Doucette, S. Benson, M. Busman, F.P. Chavez, J. Cordaro, R. DeLong, A.D. Vogelaere, J. Harvey, M. Haulena, K. Lefebvre, T. Lipscomb, S. Loscutoff, L.J. Lowenstine, R. Marin, P.E. Miller, W.A. McLellan, P.D.R. Moeller, C.L. Powell, T. Rowles, P. Silvagni., M. Silver, T. Spraker, V. Trainer, and F.M.V. Dolah. 2000. Mortality of sea lions along the central California coast linked to a toxic diatom bloom. Nature 403:80-84.
Sih, A., A.M. Bell and J.L. Kerby. 2004. Two stressors are far deadlier than one. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 274-276.
Song, L., A. Seeger, and J. Santos-Such. 2005. On membrane motor activity and chloride flux in the outer hair cell: lessons learned from the environmental toxin tributyltin. Biophysical Journal 88 (3): 2350-2362.
Springer, A.M., J.A. Estes, G.B. van Vliet, T.M. Williams, D.F. Doak, E.M. Danner, K.A. Forney, B. Pfister. 2003. Sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: An ongoing legacy of industrial whaling? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100: 12223-12228.
Stone C.J. 2003. The effects of seismic activity on marine mammals in UK waters, 1998-2000. Joint Nature Conservation Committee Report No. 323. Aberdeen, UK.
Tabuchi, M., Veldhoen, N., Dangerfield, N., Jeffries, S. J., Helbing, C. C., and Ross, P. S. 2006. PCB-related alteration of thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone receptor gene expression in free-ranging harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Environ. Health Perspect. 114: 1024-1031.)
Todd, S., P. Stevick, J. Lien, F. Marques, and D. Ketten. 1996. Behavioural effects of exposure to underwater explosions in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 1661-1672.
Trites, A.W., V.B. Deecke, E.J. Gregr, J.K.B. Ford and P.F. Olesiuk. 2007. Killer whales, whaling, and sequential megafaunal collapse in the north Pacific: a comparative analysis of the dynamics of marine mammals in Alaska and British Columbia following commercial whaling. Marine Mammal Science 00:000-000--
Van de Vijver, K.I., P.T. Hoff, K. Das, W. Van Dongen, E. L Esmans, T. Jauniaux, J. Bouquegenau, R. Blust, and W. de Coen. 2003. Perfluorinated chemicals infiltrate ocean waters: link between exposure levels and stable isotope ratios in marine mammals. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 5545-5550.
Wade, P.R., V.N. Burkanov, M.E. Dahlheim, N.A. Friday, L.W. Fritz, T.R. Loughlin, S.A. Mizroch, M.M. Muto, D.W. Rice, L.G. Barrett-Lennard, N.A. Black, A.M. Burdin, J. Calambokidis, S. Cerchio, J.K.B. Ford, J.K. Jacobsen, C.O. Matkin, A.V.Mehta, R.J. Small, J.M. Straley, S.M. McCluskey and G.R. VanBlaricom. 2007. Killer whales and marine mammal trends in the North Pacific – a re-examination of evidence for sequential megafauna collapse and the prey-switching hypothesis. Marine Mammal Science 00:000-000.
Wade, P.R., J.W. Durban, J.M. Waite, A.N. Zerbini, and M.W. Dahlheim. 2003. Surveying killer whale abundance and distribution in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands. AFSC Quarterly Report Oct-Dec. Pages 1-16. Accessed Jan. 24, 2007 at http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/quarterly/ond2003/printfeature.pdf
Walker, L.A., L.A. Cornell, K.D. Dahl, N.M. Czekala, C.M. Dargen, B. Joseph, A.J.W. Hsueh, and B.L. Lasley. 1988. Urinary concentrations of ovarian steroid hormone metabolites and bioactive follicle-stimulating hormone in killer whales (Orcinus orca) during ovarian cycles and pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction 39: 1013-1020.
Walther, G, E. Post, P.Convey, A. Menzel, C. Parmesan, T.J.C. Beebee, J. Fromentine, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and F. Bairlein. 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416: 389-395.
Wiles, G.J. 2004. Washington state status report for the killer whale. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia. 106 p.
Williams, R., D. Lusseau, and P.S. Hammond. 2006. Estimating relative energetic costs of human disturbance to killer whales (Orcinus orca). Biological Conservation 133: 301-311.
Williams, R., A.W. Trites, and D.E. Bain. 2002. Behavioural responses of killer whales (Orcinus orca) to whale-watching boats; opportunistic observations and experimental approaches. Journal of the Zoological Society of London 256:255-270.
Williams, T.M., J.A. Estes, D.F. Doak and A.M. Springer. 2004. Killer appetites: assessing the role of predators in ecological communities. Ecology 85: 3373-3384.
WWOAN (Whale Watch Operators Association Northwest). 2006. Best Practices Guidelines. Accessed November 30, 2006 at http://www.nwwhalewatchers.org/guidelines.html
- Date Modified: