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Recovery Strategy for the False Hop Sedge (Carex lupuliformis) in Canada [Proposed]

10. References

Bachand-Lavallée, V. and S. Pellerin. 2006. Conservation du carex faux-lupulina, une espèce en voie de disparition au Canada. Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Montréal. 34 pp.

CDPNQ. 2011. Données sur le carex faux-lupulina. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec. Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs du Québec.

COSEWIC. 2011. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the False Hop Sedge Carex lupuliformis in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 36 pp. [Species at Risk (SAR) Registry].

Government of Canada. 2009. Environment Canada. 2009. Species at Risk Act Policies (PDF; 644 KB). Environment Canada. 38 pp.

Hill, S.R. 2006. Conservation Assessment for the False Hop Sedge (Carex lupuliformis Sartwell ex Dewey). Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Wildlife and Plant Ecology Technical Report 2006 (11), Champaign, Illinois. 40 pp.

Hudon, C., P. Gagnon, and M. Jean. 2005. Hydrological factors controlling the spread of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). EcoScience 12 : 347-357.

Jolicoeur, G. and L. Couillard. 2006. Plan de conservation du carex faux-lupulina (Carex lupuliformis), Espèce menacée au Québec. Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, Direction du patrimoine écologique et des parcs, Québec. 12 pp.

Labrecque, J. 1998. La situation du carex faux-lupulina (Carex lupuliformis) au Canada.  Québec: Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune, Direction de la conservation et du patrimoine écologique. 33 pp.

Leck, M.A., and Schutz, W. 2005. Regeneration of Cyperaceae, with particular reference to seed ecology and seed banks. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 7 (2) : 95-133.

Letendre, J., Pellerin, S. and S. Bailleul. 2007. Conservation du carex faux-lupulina, une espèce en voie de disparition au Canada. Institut de recherche en biologie végétale. 31 pp.

NatureServe. 2004. A Habitat-Based Strategy for Delimiting Plant Element Populations: Guidance from the 2004 Working Group. 15 pp.

NatureServe. 2010. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed january 26th 2011).

Templeton, A.R. and D.A. Levin. 1979. Evolutionary consequences of seed pools. American Naturalist 114: 232-249.

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Appendix A: Definition of NatureServe Ranks

G4 and N4 (Apparently Secure) --Uncommon but not rare; some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors.

N2 (Imperilled) --Imperilled in the jurisdiction because of rarity due to very restricted range, very few populations, steep declines, or other factors making it very vulnerable to extirpation from jurisdiction.

S1 (Critically Imperilled) --Critically imperilled in the jurisdiction because of extreme rarity or because of some factor(s) such as very steep declines making it especially vulnerable to extirpation from the jurisdiction.

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Appendix B. False Hop Sedge Populations in Canada

Table B-1: False Hop Sedge populations in Canada.

Name of population
(ID)
ProvinceCountyStatus of population and Quality Rank1Inventory YearNumber of Natural plants (fruiting stems)Number of transplants
(fruiting stems)
Mount Brydges
(5803)
OntarioMiddlesexExtant
(A)
199225–30 
20051075 
200929 (43) 
West Lorne
(5802)
OntarioElginExtant
(A)
1993~ 100 
200563 
200920 (59) 
West Elgin
(92901)
OntarioElginExtant
(A)
2005? (~ 150) 
200939 (132)63 (91)
Ailsa Craig
(NA)
OntarioMiddlesexExtant
(B)
200919 
London
(5804)
OntarioMiddlesexExtant
(D)
199212 (~ 150) 
2002> 12 
200528 
20095 (4) 
Rodney
(5805)
OntarioElginExtant
(D)
20022 
200526 
20091 (2) 
Lambeth
(NA)
OntarioMiddlesexExtant
(E)
2009? 
Amherstburg
(2938)
OntarioEssexHistorical
(H)
1985~ 100 
20020 
20050 
20090 
Galt
(2937)
OntarioWaterlooHistorical
(H)
1902Herbarium 
Grande Baie d’Oka
(6867)
QuebecDeux-MontagnesExtant - reintroduction
(Cr)
1935Herbarium 
1992Herbarium 
20060 
20070 
20080 
2009022 (1)
2010022 (121)
2011051
Sainte-Anne-de-Sabrevois
(6872)
QuebecHaut-RichelieuExtant - reintroduction
(Cr)
1936? 
19920 
2007061 (12)
2008019 (6)
2009015 (17)
2010013 (20)
2011010
McGillivray Bay
(6876)
QuebecHaut-RichelieuExtant
(C)
19945 
200125 
200318 
2005> 10 
20079 (?)50 (16)
200812(41)16 (21)
20096 (22)26 (66)
20104 (3)24 (7)
201128
Henryville2
(6874)
QuebecHaut-RichelieuExtant
(C)
1991? 
1992~ 13 
199719 
200019 
20043 
200524 
200618 (27)25 (1)
200717 (33)54 (1)
200820 (178)46 (44)
200926 (175)26 (55)
201022 (148) 
201135
Saint-Blaise-sur-Richelieu
(6873)
QuebecHaut-Richelieu Extant
(D)
19925 
20040 
20050 
2007010 (24)
2008033 (99)
2009018 (88)
20101 (2)71 (102)
2011133
Lacolle
(15349)
QuebecHaut-RichelieuExtant
(D)
20057 
20067 
20071 
20081 (2) 
20092 (1) 
Oka
(18675)
QuebecDeux-MontagnesExtant
(E)
2008? 
Carillon Island
(6875)
QuebecArgenteuil Extirpated
(X)
19922–10 
20010 
20020 
20060 
20070 
Rigaud
(6868)
QuebecVaudreuil-SoulangesExtirpated (X)1934Herbarium 
20070 
Iberville
(6869)
QuebecHaut-RichelieuExtirpated (X)1938Herbarium 
19920 
Saint-Paul-de-l’Île-aux-Noix
(6871)
QuebecHaut-RichelieuExtirpated (X)1972Herbarium 
19920 

Sources: Bachand-Lavallée and Pellerin (2006), Letendre et al. (2007), CDPNQ (2011), COSEWIC (2011)

1 Provides an assessment of the estimated viability or probability of persistence of the population (see Appendix C).

2 Following a review of the data by the CDPNQ in 2011, individuals from the Pointe du Gouvernement and Marcel-Raymond Ecological Reserve are considered to be part of the same population. No individuals have been detected in the Pointe du Gouvernement sector since 1992 and no individuals have been transplanted there.

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Appendix C: Definition of Quality Ranks of False Hop Sedge Populations

Quality RankDefinition
A
(Excellent)
More than 25 tufts in a floodplain forest covering at least 400 ha that is not affected by artificial regulation of water levels and that is subject to only minimal disturbance from human activities.
B
(Good)
From 12 to 25 tufts in a floodplain forest covering at least 400 ha that is subject to moderate disturbance from human activities, or a smaller habitat (more than 200 ha with little or no disturbance).
C
(Fair)
From 6 to 11 tufts in a 200-ha habitat that is significantly disturbed by human activities and has an intact natural flooding regime. 
D
(Low)
From 1 to 5 tufts in a heavily degraded habitat of any size; major disturbances caused by erosion, forest clearing, marina construction or altered natural flooding regime, drainage.
E
(Recent)
Recent population; the observation of the population dates back less than 25 years, but no information on its demographics is available.
F
(Not relocated)
Population not relocated during inventories conducted in the past 20 years (fail to find).
H
(Historical)
The observation (inventories) of the population dates back more than 20 years.
X
(Extirpated)
Extirpated population. No individuals of the species have been found for more than 20 years. The habitat may no longer be suitable. After three subsequent failures to find the population, it is classified as extirpated even if suitable habitat is still present.
r
(reintroduction)
Formally extirpated population in which plants have been reintroduced.

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Appendix D. Critical Habitat of False Hop Sedge in Canada

Table D-1: Locations containing False Hop Sedge critical habitat in Quebec.

Location /
population name
Reason for selectionCoordinates
of location*
Land tenure
Henryville
(Quebec)
Extant population where transplantation efforts have been undertaken (Marcel-Raymond ecological reserve sector); location is identified as a conservation target in the provincial plan45.080 ;
-73.150
Non federal
(provincial Plant habitat and ecological reserve + protected by an NGO)
McGillivray Bay
(Quebec)
Extant population where transplantation efforts have been undertaken ; location is identified as a conservation target in the provincial plan45.091 ;
-73.145
Non federal
(provincial)
Saint-Blaise-sur-Richelieu (Quebec)Extant population where transplantation efforts have been undertaken ; location is identified as a conservation target in the provincial plan45.125 ;
-73.152
Non federal
(provincial)
La Grande Baie d’Oka (Quebec)Extant population with suitable habitat where reintroduction efforts have been undertaken ; location is identified as a conservation target in the provincial plan45.290 ;
-73.591
Non federal (provincial park)
Sainte-Anne-de-Sabrevois (Quebec)Extant population with suitable habitat where reintroduction efforts have been undertaken45.115 ;
-73.150
Non federal
(provincial)
Lacolle
(Quebec)
Extant population; location is identified as a conservation target in the provincial plan45.004 ;
-73.212
Non federal
(provincial)
Carillon Island
(Quebec)
Extirpated population with suitable habitat ; location is identified as a conservation target in the provincial plan45.303 ;
-74.163
Non federal
(private; Migratory Bird Sanctuary)

* The listed coordinates represent the southwest corner of the 1 km Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Military Grid Reference System square containing the critical habitat site centroid (for more information on the reference system see [The UTM Grid - Section 5]. The coordinates may not fall within critical habitat and are provided as a general location only.

Table D-2: Locations containing False Hop Sedge critical habitat in Ontario.

Location /
population name
Reason for selectionCoordinates
of location*
Land tenure
Mount Brydges (Ontario)Extant population42.883 ;
-81.588
Non federal
(private)
West Lorne (Ontario)Extant population42.676 ;
-81.671
Non federal
(private)
West Elgin  (Ontario)Extant population where transplantation efforts have been undertaken42.604 ;
-81.658
Non federal
(private)
Ailsa Craig (Ontario)Extant population43.171;
-81.541
Non federal
(private)
London
(Ontario)
Extant population42.938 ;
-81.319
Non federal
(municipal)
Rodney
(Ontario)
Extant population42.621 ;
-81.707
Non federal
(private)

* The listed coordinates represent the southwest corner of the 1 km Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Military Grid Reference System square containing the critical habitat site centroid (for more information on the reference system see [The UTM Grid - Section 5]. The coordinates may not fall within critical habitat and are provided as a general location only.

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Appendix E: Effects on the Environment and Other Species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly in the strategy itself, but are also summarized below.

This recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of False Hop Sedge. The potential for the strategy to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. The SEA concluded that this strategy will clearly benefit the environment and will not entail any significant adverse effects.

The recovery activities recommended in this document should not have any negative impacts on other non-target indigenous species, natural communities and/or ecological processes. They may actually prove to be beneficial for the other species at risk that share False Hop Sedge’s habitat. These include four fish species: the Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) (COSEWIC status: Threatened), the Channel Darter (Percina copelandi) (COSEWIC status: Threatened), the River Redhorse (Moxostoma carinatum) (COSEWIC status: Special Concern), and the Grass Pickerel (Esox americanus vermiculatus) (COSEWIC status: Special Concern); two turtles: the Spiny Softshell (Apalone spinifera) (COSEWIC status: Threatened) and the Northern Map Turtle (Graptemys geographica) (COSEWIC status: Special Concern); and one bird: the Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) (COSEWIC status: Threatened). Other threatened or vulnerable plant species as designated by the Endangered Species Act, 2007 (Ontario) and the Act respecting Threatened or Vulnerable Species (Quebec) are likewise associated with False Hop Sedge habitats in Canada. The list for Ontario includes Palm Sedge (Carex muskingumensis), Frank’s Sedge (Carex frankii), Narrow-leaved Cattail Sedge (Carex squarrosa), Ribbed Sedge (Carex virescens), Pumpkin Ash (Fraxinus profunda), and Short’s Sedge (Carex shortiana). The list for Quebec is as follows: Swamp White Oak (Quercus bicolour); Lowland Yellow Loosestrife (Lysimachia hybrida); Yellow Water Buttercup (Ranunculus flabellaris), Small Beggarticks (Bidens cf. discoidea), Palegreen Orchid (Platanthera flava var. herbiola), and Golden Hedgehyssop (Gratiola aurea).

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