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COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Bluehearts in Canada
- Assessment Summary
- Executive Summary
- COSEWIC Mandate, Membership and Definitions
- Lists of Figures and Appendices
- Species Information
- Population Sizes and Trends
- Limiting Factors and Threats
- Special Significance of the Species
- Evaluation and Proposed Status
- Technical Summary
- Acknowledgements, Literature Cited, and The Author
- Appendix 1: Population Size and Trend of Bluehearts in Ontario
The following individuals and institutions have been of assistance by supplying data and information. Special thanks are extended to Alf Rider, who conducted several searches for Buchnera americana in September 1997 and who has been concerned about the welfare of this species for many years.
Terry Crabe, Chief Park Naturalist, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Pinery Provincial Park, Ontario.
Michael J. Oldham, Botanist, Natural Heritage Information Center, Peterborough, Ontario.
Alf Rider, Naturalist, Kettle Point, Ontario
Donald A. Sutherland, Biologist, Natural Heritage Information Center, Peterborough, Ontario.
Casey Vanden Bygaart, R.R.#2, Grand Bend, Ontario
Bob Woods, Chief Forester, Department of National Defense, Ottawa, Ontario.
Funding for the preparation of this status report was provided by the Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada.
Baird, W.V. and J.L. Riopel. 1985. Surface characteristics of root and haustorial hairs of parasitic Scrophulariaceae. Botanical Gazette 146(1): 63-69.
Brownell, V.R. 1985. Bluehearts (Buchnera americana L.) in Canada: A status report. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 34 pp. (revised in 1983 from a 1981 report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources)
Burns, J.F. and A.W. Cusick. 1984. Buchnera americana L. In McCance, R.M. and J.F. Burns, eds. Ohio Endangered and Threatened Vascular Flora. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.
Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle. Florida State University Press, Tallahassee.
Crabe, T. 1981. Ipperwash/Port Franks blueheart survey. Report to Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham District. 14 pp.
Crabe, T. 1989. Blueheart summary. Report to Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham District. 2 pp.
Crabe, T. and C. Vanden Bygaart. 1994. Blueheart summary. Report to Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham District. 4 pp.
Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Revision: A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. 2nd ed. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 2 vol.
Klinkenburg, R. and T. Crabe. 1980. Life science report - New location for Bluehearts (Buchnera americana L.) in the Port Franks area, August 1980. Ontario, Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham District. 14 pp.
Klinkenberg, R. and J. Edwards. 1979 (edited 1981). A study of the wet meadow communities of Pinery and Ipperwash Provincial Parks (1979). Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham District.
Krause, D. and H.C. Weber. 1990. SEM observations on seeds of Striga spp. and Buchnera americana (Scrophulariaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 170(3‑4): 257‑263.
Musselman, L.J. and W.F. Mann. 1979. Root parasites in culture. New Phytologist.
Oldham, M.J. 1995. Element State Ranking Form for Buchnera americana. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Information Center, Peterborough, Ontario.
Oldham, M.J. 1996. Natural Heritage Resources of Ontario: Rare Vascular Plants. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Information Center, Peterborough.
Oldham, M.J. 1997. Bibliography of Ontario Endangered and Threatened Plant Species. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Information Center, Peterborough.
Ormes, M. 1983. Element Global Ranking Form for Buchnera americana. Biological and Conservation Database (BCD), The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia (revised 1994). 3 pp.
Ostlie, W. 1990. Element Stewardship Abstract for Buchnera americana. The Nature Conservancy, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 12 pp.
Pennell, F.W. 1935. The Scrophulariaceae of Eastern Temperate North America. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Monograph 1.
Radford, A.E., Ahles, H.E. and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Rhoads, A.F. and W.M. Klein Jr. 1993. The Vascular Flora of Pennsylvania: Annotated Checklist and Atlas. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA.
Sutherland, D.A., Bakowsky, W.D., Gratshore, M.E., and P.C. Carson. 1994. Draft. Biological inventory and evaluation of Canadian Forces Camp Ipperwash. Prepared for Department of National Defense, Ottawa, Ontario.
The Nature Conservancy. 1997. State and provincial ranks for Buchnera americana from the BCD. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia.
Thompson, J., Burr, L., Lamb, L. and C. Campbell. 1994. Biological inventory of Camp Ipperwash, Bosanquet Township, Lambton County. Prepared for Department of National Defense, Ottawa, Ontario.
Vincent, K.A. 1982. Scrophulariaceae of Louisiana. Unpublished MS thesis, University od Southwestern Louisiana. 211 pp.
Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Cranbrooke Institute of Science Bulletin 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor.
White, D.J., Maher, R.V. and G.W. Argus. 1983. Buchnera americana L. Two pages in G.W. Argus and D.W. White, eds. Atlas of the rare vascular plants of Ontario. Part 2. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
Vivian R. Brownell received an honours B.Sc. from the University of Guelph in 1978 with a specialization in field botany. After graduating, she worked for several government departments including the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the Canadian Parks Service, Ontario Region. Since 1983, she has worked as a biological consultant for municipalities, conservation authorities and government agencies. Her work primarily involves biological inventory and evaluation, rare species management, evaluation of natural areas and wildlife habitat and natural heritage systems planning. Recently she has developed a computer software program (NADEP) that incorporates a databasing system and facilitates the evaluation of natural areas. She has authored or co-authored many papers in scientific journals and books on the subject of alvars, prairies, savannas, sand and rock barrens, orchid classification and plant geography. A complete list of papers, articles and reports can be obtained from the Canadian biodiversity guide to botanical specialists and literature that is accessible on the internet at http://www.cciw.ca/eman-temp/scientists/botanists/intro.html.
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