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COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Bluehearts in Canada
- Assessment Summary
- Executive Summary
- COSEWIC Mandate, Membership and Definitions
- Lists of Figures and Appendices
- Species Information
- Population Sizes and Trends
- Limiting Factors and Threats
- Special Significance of the Species
- Evaluation and Proposed Status
- Technical Summary
- Acknowledgements, Literature Cited, and The Author
- Appendix 1: Population Size and Trend of Bluehearts in Ontario
COSEWIC Status Report
Kartez (1996) treats B. americana as including B. floridana Gand. which is a relatively common entity in the southern United States (North Carolina to Mississippi). Most southern floras and Pennell (1935), however, recognize B. floridana as a distinct species. B. americana has a larger corolla (tube 10-12 mm long, the lobes 5-8 mm long) and prominently 3-veined, lance-ovate leaves (Clewell 1985). B. floridana has corolla lobes less than 5 mm long and lanceolate-elliptic leaves which are obscurely, or not at all, 3-veined (Radford et al. 1968). Vincent (1982) developed the following key to separate the two taxa:
- Corolla tubes mostly 10-14 mm long; calyces mostly 6-7 mm long, pubescent throughout with short or long, straight to antrorsely-appressed, simple or minutely callous-based hairs; capsules mostly 6-8 mm long, equalling or slightly longer than calyses; mid-stem leaves mostly ovate-lanceolate, irregularly and coarsely toothed, widest at or below middle…. B. americana
- Corolla tubes mostly 6-10 mm long; calyces mostly 4-5(6) mm long, pubescent throughout or only on upper 1/3 with short, crisped, antrorse, callous-based hairs; capsules mostly 4-6(6.5) mm long, longer than calyses; mid-stem leaves mostly oblong to oblanceolate, entire or remotely and finely toothed, widest at or above middle…..B. floridana
The author of this report uses B. americana in the strict sense for purposes of North Americana distribution and status.
Bluehearts is a perennial, ranging in height from 40 to 80 cm. It is a facultative parasite on the roots of a variety of trees. Plants are usually unbranched, have hairy stems and sessile, opposite leaves. A flowering spike of deep purple, stalkless flowers is produced at the top of the plant (Figure 1). In Ontario, flowering begins in mid-July and lasts until early September. Fruits are oblong capsules about 7 mm long.
Photo by Dan Tenaglia, taken at Dorris Creek Prairie Cons. Area,Barton County, MO.
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