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10. References

BirdLife International. 2008. Pagophila eburnea. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. Downloaded on 25 January 2010.

Braune, B. M., M. L. Mallory, and H. G. Gilchrist. 2006. Elevated mercury levels in declining population of Ivory Gulls. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:969-987

Braune, B. M., M. L. Mallory, H. G. Gilchrist, R. J. Letcher, and K. G. Drouillard. 2007. Levels and trends of organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Ivory Gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976-2004. Science of the Total Environment 378: 403-417.

Buckman, A. H., R. J. Norstrom, K. A. Hobson, N. J. Karnovsky, J. Duffe, and A. T. Fisk. 2004. Organochlorine contaminants in seven species of Arctic seabirds from northern Baffin Bay. Environmental Pollution 128: 327–338.

Camphuysen, C. J. 1998. Beached bird surveys indicate decline in chronic oil pollution in the North Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36: 519-526.

COSEWIC. 2006. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. [online] URL:

Fisk, A. T., C. A. de Wit, M. Wayland, Z. Z. Kuzyk, N. Burgess, R. Letcher, B. Braune, R. Norstrom, S. Polischuk Blum, C. Sandau, E. Lie, H. J. S. Larsen, J. U. Skaare, and D. C. G. Muir. 2005. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Science of the Total Environment 351-352: 57-93.

Gabrielsen, G. W. 2007. Levels and effects of persistent organic pollutants in arctic animals. Pp 377 – 412 in: Arctic-Alpine Ecosystems and People in a Changing Environment (Orbaek, J. B., R. Kallenborn, I. Tombre, E. N. Hegseth, S. Falk-Petersen, and A. H. Hoel, eds.). Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Gilchrist, H. G., and M. L. Mallory. 2005. Declines in abundance and distribution of the Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea) in Arctic Canada. Biological Conservation 121:303-309.

Gilchrist, H. G., H. Strøm, M. V. Gavrilo, and A. Mosbech. 2008. International Ivory Gull conservation strategy and action plan. CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group (CBird), CAFF Technical Report No. 18.

Gilg, O., H. Strøm, A. Aebischer, M. V. Gavrilo, A. E. Volkov, C. Miljeteig, and B. Sabard. 2010. Post-breeding movements of northeast Atlantic ivory gull Pagophila eburnea populations. Journal of Avian Biology 41: 532-542.

Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 2010. NLR Regulation 57/02.

Government of Canada. 2011. Wild species – the general status of species in Canada. Environment Canada, Ottawa.

Haney, J. C., and S. D. MacDonald. 1995. Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea). In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. Birds of North America, Number 175. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C., USA.

MacDonald, S. D. 1976. Phantoms of the polar pack ice. Audubon 7:2–19.

MacDonald, S.D. and A.H. Macpherson. 1962. Breeding places of the Ivory Gull in arctic Canada. National Museum of Canada Bulletin. 183: 111-117.

Mallory, M. L., H.G. Gilchrist, A. J. Fontaine, and J. A. Akearok. 2003. Local ecological knowledge of Ivory Gulls in Nunavut, Canada. Arctic 56:293–298.

Mallory, M. L., I. J. Stenhouse, H. G. Gilchrist, and G. J. Robertson. 2008. Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea). The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology; Retrieved from The Birds of North America.

Miljeteig, C., H. Strom, M. V. Gavrilo, A. Volkov, B. M. Jenssen, and G. W. Gabrielsen. 2009. High levels of contaminants in Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea eggs from the Russian and Norwegian Arctic. Environmental Science and Technology 43: 5521-5528.

Orr, C. D., and J. L. Parsons. 1982. Ivory Gulls Pagophila eburnea and ice-edges in Davis Strait and the Labrador Sea. Canadian Field-Naturalist 96: 323–328.

NatureServe. 2012.  NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Accessed August 15, 2013.

Nielsen, C.O., and R. Dietz. 1989. Heavy metals in Greenland seabirds. Meddr Gronland, Bioscience 29: 3-26.

Priest, H., and P. J. Usher. 2004. The Nunavut Wildlife Harvest Study. Final Report, August 2004. Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Iqaluit, NU. 822 pp.

Robertson, G. J., H. G. Gilchrist, and M. L. Mallory. 2007. Colony dynamics and persistence of Ivory Gull breeding in Canada. Avian Conservation and Ecology 2: 8.

Ryan, P. C., M. J. Robertson, J. T. Sutton, and G. J. Robertson. 2006. Local ecological knowledge of Ivory Gulls in Newfoundland and Labrador. Canadian Wildlife Service Technical Report No. 469, Mount Pearl, NL.

Stenhouse, I. J., G. J. Robertson, and H. G. Gilchrist. 2004. Recoveries and survival rate of Ivory Gulls banded in Nunavut, Canada, 1971-1999. Waterbirds 27: 486-492.

Stirling, I., and C. L. Parkinson. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59: 261-275.

Thomas, V. G., and S. D. MacDonald. 1987. The breeding distribution and current population status of the Ivory Gull in Canada. Arctic 40:211–218.

Wiese, F. K., and G. J. Robertson. 2004. Assessing seabird mortality from chronic oil discharges at sea. Journal of Wildlife Management 68: 627-638.