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COSEWIC Annual Report 2003

Appendix I.

 

COSEWIC Status Assessments, November 2002.

Results are grouped by taxon and then by status category. A reason for designation is given for each species. A short history of status designations follows. The Canadian range of each species (by province / territory / ocean) is provided.

Mammals

 
Northern Bottlenose WhaleHyperoodon ampullatusEndangered
 Scotian Shelf population
 Reason for Designation
 This population totals about 130 individuals and appears to be currently stable. Oil and gas development in and around the prime habitat of this population poses the greatest threat and will likely reduce the quality of their habitat. However, there is little information as to how this species is, or is not, affected by oil and gas development activities.
 OccurrenceAtlantic Ocean 
 Status History
 Designated Special Concern in April 1996. Status re-examined and uplisted to Endangered in November 2002. Last assessment based on an existing status report with an addendum.
 
Polar BearUrsus maritimusSpecial Concern
 Reason for Designation
 This very large carnivore plays a key role in Canada's Arctic ecosystem and is of tremendous importance to northern native peoples. The wealth of long-term information available for this species indicates that most populations appear stable. A few populations have declined, and corrective measures are being taken to reverse those trends. This species, however, has a slow reproductive rate and is highly vulnerable to overharvest of adult females. Its conservation is therefore heavily dependent on appropriate management strategies. Polar bears are also affected by climate change. In the southern part of their distribution, a trend towards longer ice-free seasons has affected their life history. Additionally, as top predators, the bears concentrate a number of pollutants in their bodies, which could increase mortality if the levels become toxic.
 OccurrenceYT NT NU MB ON QC NL 
 Status History
 Designated Not at Risk in April 1986. Status re-examined and uplisted to Special Concern in April 1991. Status re-examined and confirmed as Special Concern in April 1999 and in November 2002. Last assessment based on an existing status report with an addendum.
 

Birds

 
Long-billed CurlewNumenius americanusSpecial Concern
 Reason for Designation
 The species is associated with prairie habitat that has declined and is projected to decline further. The global population is in decline.
 OccurrenceBC AB SK 
 Status History
 Designated Special Concern in April 1992. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 

Reptiles

 
Eastern MassasaugaSistrurus catenatus catenatusThreatened
 Reason for Designation
 The Massasauga has undergone a large decline in distribution and abundance because of persecution by humans, mortality on the expanding road system in southern Ontario, loss of habitat via drainage of wetlands and destruction of hibernacula and fragmentation of habitat by roads. Recent efforts by the Recovery Team have reduced persecution by people, but expanding road systems, and cottage and urban development continue to reduce the range and abundance of this species.
 OccurrenceON 
 Status History
 Designated Threatened in April 1991. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 

Amphibians

 
Northern Leopard FrogRana pipiensSpecial Concern
 Western Boreal/Prairie populations
 Reason for Designation
 This species remains widespread but has experienced a severe contraction of range and loss of populations, particularly in the west. This has been accompanied by increased isolation of remaining populations, which fluctuate widely in size. The species is adversely affected by habitat conversion, including wetland drainage and eutrophication, game fish introduction, collecting, pesticide contamination, and fragmentation, which curtails recolonization and rescue of declining populations.
 OccurrenceNT AB SK MB 
 Status History
 Designated Special Concern in April 1998. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2002. Last assessment based on an existing status report.
 
Western ToadBufo boreasSpecial Concern
 Reason for Designation
 This species has suffered population declines and population extirpations, at least one of which is well documented. It is relatively intolerant of urban expansion and the conversion of habitat for agricultural use. Dependent upon oligotrophic and fishless ponds and small lakes for breeding, it is also sensitive to habitat deterioration, introduced exotic predators and competitors, and disease. This species remains widespread and locally abundant throughout most of its historic range in Canada despite its known vulnerabilities to urban expansion, conversion of habitat for agriculture, habitat deterioration, introduced exotic predators and competitors, and disease, all of which have severely reduced its abundance and range further south.
 OccurrenceYT NT BC AB 
 Status History
 Designated Special Concern in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 

Fishes

 
Benthic Enos Lake SticklebackGasterosteus sp.Endangered
 Reason for Designation
 These fish are restricted to a single, small lake on Vancouver Island and are experiencing severe decline in numbers due to deteriorating habitat quality and the introduction of exotics.
 OccurrenceBC 
 Status History
 Original designation (including both Benthic and Limnetic species) was Threatened in April 1988. Split into two species when re-examined: the Benthic Enos Lake Stickleback was designated Endangered in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Limnetic Enos Lake SticklebackGasterosteus sp.Endangered
 Reason for Designation
 These fish are restricted to a single, small lake on Vancouver Island are experiencing severe decline in numbers due to deteriorating habitat quality and the introduction of exotics.
 OccurrenceBC 
 Status History
 Original designation (including both Benthic and Limnetic species) was Threatened in April 1988. Split into two species when re-examined: the Limnetic Enos Lake Stickleback was designated Endangered in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Northern MadtomNoturus stigmosusEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 This species has a very restricted Canadian range (two extant locations), which is impacted by deterioration in water quality and potential negative interactions with an exotic species. One population (Sydenham River) has been lost since 1975.
 OccurrenceON 
 Status History
 Examined in April 1993 and placed in the Data Deficient category. Re-examined in April 1998 and designated Special Concern. Status re-examined and uplisted to Endangered in November 2002. Last assessment based on an existing status report with an addendum.
 
Pugnose ShinerNotropis anogenusEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 The Pugnose Shiner has a limited, fragmented Canadian distribution, being found only in Ontario where it is subject to declining habitat quality. The isolated nature of its preferred habitat may prevent connectivity of fragmented populations and may prevent gene flow between existing populations and inhibit re-colonization of other suitable habitats. Two out of five localities have been lost.
 OccurrenceON 
 Status History
 Designated Special Concern in April 1985. Status re-examined and uplisted to Endangered in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Salish SuckerCatostomus sp.Endangered
 Reason for Designation
 The Salish Sucker has a very restricted Canadian range within which populations are in decline as a result of habitat loss and degradation resulting from urban, agriculture and industrial development.
 OccurrenceBC 
 Status History
 Designated Endangered in April 1986. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Speckled DaceRhinichthys osculusEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 The Speckled Dace has a very restricted Canadian range where it is subject to deteriorating water quality as a result of urban and industrial development, as well as to loss of preferred habitat and fragmentation due to construction of a proposed dam.
 OccurrenceBC 
 Status History
 Designated Special Concern in April 1980. Status re-examined and uplisted to Endangered in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
BocaccioSebastes paucispinisThreatened
 Reason for Designation
 A combination of low recruitment and impact by harvest has resulted in severe declines and low spawning abundance of this Canadian species.
 OccurrencePacific Ocean 
 Status History
 Designated Threatened in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Bering WolffishAnarhichas orientalisData Deficient
 Reason for Designation
 Information to establish any COSEWIC risk category with assurance is not available. Data on distribution, abundance and specific habitat, including any observed changes over time, are especially needed.
 OccurrenceArctic Ocean 
 Status History
 Designated Special Concern in April 1989. Status re-examined in November 2002 and changed to Data Deficient. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 

Molluscs

 
Puget Oregonian SnailCryptomastix deviaExtirpated
 Reason for Designation
 In Canada, the species was known previously (1850 - 1905) from only three old records from Vancouver Island and southwestern mainland of British Columbia. In spite of surveys of 38 forested localities in 1986 and 450 localities since 1990 for terrestrial gastropods and 142 localities specifically to locate C. devia (total of about 110 person hours) no specimens have been found. Regions in which known localities for C. devia were said to have occurred have been heavily impacted by urbanization and agricultural use.
 OccurrenceBC 
 Status History
 Designated Extirpated in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Lake WinnipegPhysa SnailPhysa sp.Endangered
 Reason for Designation
 Populations of this Canadian endemic are confined to Lake Winnipeg where there are continuing declines in extent of occurrence, area of occupancy and extent of habitat due to habitat alteration, human disturbance and quality of habitat. Evidence suggests that nutrients and contaminants from sewage lagoons, industries, waste storage facilities and/or landfills are contributing to the declines.
 OccurrenceMB 
 Status History
 Designated Endangered in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Oregon ForestsnailAllogona townsendianaEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 The species is restricted to a very small area of the extreme southwestern British Columbia mainland and southern Vancouver Island. Populations are severely fragmented with continuing declines observed in extent of occurrence, area of occupancy and area, extent and quality of habitat due mainly to urban development. Even though there may be other locations, the species is still very uncommon.
 OccurrenceBC 
 Status History
 Designated Endangered in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 

Plants

 
Forked Three-awned GrassAristida basirameaEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 Few disjunct and fragmented populations found in very small habitats within populated areas subject to further habitat disruption and loss through activities such as sand extraction, recreational use and urban development.
 OccurrenceON QC 
 Status History
 Designated Endangered in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Small-flowered LipocarphaLipocarpha micranthaEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 A disjunct species occurring in only three sites with the largest population at risk from potentially significant habitat and population losses.
 OccurrenceBC ON 
 Status History
 Designated Threatened in April 1992. Status re-examined and uplisted to Endangered in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Small-flowered Sand-verbenaTripterocalyx micranthusEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 An annual of a few widely dispersed sand hill habitats where populations occupy very small sites and consist of low numbers that fluctuate greatly with precipitation levels.
 OccurrenceAB SK 
 Status History
 Designated Threatened in April 1992. Re-examined and uplisted to Endangered in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Streambank LupineLupinus rivularisEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 A highly restricted species with very few populations extant and extremely low numbers of plants remaining. Populations are all close to industrial and other development and at risk from impacts such as habitat loss, herbicide spraying, predation by exotic slugs and subject to genetic swamping through hybridization with a non-native lupine species.
 OccurrenceBC 
 Status History
 Designated Endangered in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Common HoptreePtelea trifoliataThreatened
 Reason for Designation
 A species of restricted range in Canada and small population size occurring primarily along sandy shoreline habitats. It has experienced substantial losses at some sites from cottage land development, damage to habitats by increasing numbers of nesting cormorants and other unknown factors. A newly recognized potential threat of unknown impact is posed by a recently discovered twig-boring beetle, which is causing damage to flowers and large portions of the tree crown.
 OccurrenceON 
 Status History
 Designated Special Concern in April 1984. Status re-examined and uplisted to Threatened in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Van Brunt's Jacob's LadderPolemonium vanbruntiaeThreatened
 Reason for Designation
 Few extant populations occupying very small habitats at risk from agricultural impacts, logging and other development pressures, and recreational activities.
 OccurrenceQC 
 Status History
 Designated Threatened in April 1994. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
Western SpiderwortTradescantia occidentalisThreatened
 Reason for Designation
 A perennial restricted to four disjunct sand dune habitats where the species is at risk from invading leafy spurge, cattle grazing and dune stabilization.
 OccurrenceAB SK MB 
 Status History
 Designated Threatened in April 1992. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 
White Wood AsterEurybia divaricataThreatened
 Reason for Designation
 Geographically restricted and fragmented populations at risk from continued habitat loss, invasive species, deer browsing and recreational activities impacting populations along trails.
 OccurrenceON QC 
 Status History
 Designated Threatened in April 1995. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2002. Last assessment based on an update status report.
 

Mosses

 
Macoun's Shining MossNeomacounia nitidaExtinct
 Reason for Designation
 This robust, conspicuous moss belongs to a monotypic genus, endemic to Canada. It was first found in 1864 in elm and cedar swamps near Belleville, and has only ever been known from those original collections. The original site had been cleared by 1892, and the species has never been found again despite searches in 1972 and 2001.
 OccurrenceON 
 Status History
 Designated Extinct in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Incurved Grizzled MossPtychomitrium incurvumExtirpated
 Reason for Designation
 A small moss that is widely distributed in the eastern deciduous forests of eastern North America, and whose frequency of occurrence attenuates toward the northern portion of its range. In Canada, the only known location for the species is a single record from a boulder in southern Ontario in 1828. Despite many years of collection made in the region, the species has never been rediscovered.
 OccurrenceON 
 Status History
 Designated Extirpated in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Margined Streamside MossScouleria marginataEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 This moss is a large, showy species that occurs just above water's edge along small montane streams. A rare North American endemic, its northern-most and single occurrence in Canada is in southern British Columbia. Although the species was not relocated at this station in recent surveys, the species may be present in nearby watersheds.
 OccurrenceBC 
 Status History
 Designated Endangered in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Silver Hair MossFabronia pusillaEndangered
 Reason for Designation
 Silver hair moss is a small species that typically grows among other mosses as an epiphyte on trees. In Canada, it is known from two locations: one that is now submerged, and a second associated with a cliff in southwestern British Columbia. The latter is the northernmost location for this species. Although the species was not relocated at its extant site during recent surveys, the expanse of available habitat at the only known sites combined with small stature of the moss, suggest that the species may still be present in Canada.
 OccurrenceBC 
 Status History
 Designated Endangered in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 

Lichens

 
Flexuous Golden StubbleChaenotheca servitiiData Deficient
 Reason for Designation
 A globally rare stubble lichen. In Canada, it has been found only once, on a decomposing yellow birch log in an old growth forest stand in Nova Scotia. In Europe, it is known from only three sites, and no longer occurs at one of these sites. More information and study are required.
 OccurrenceNS 
 Status History
 Designated Data Deficient in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 
Red Oak StubblePhaeocalicium minutissimumData Deficient
 Reason for Designation
 A tiny fungus parasitic on red oak that is related to genera that resemble or are parasitic on lichens. It is known from four localities worldwide, all from northeastern North America, but turns up about once in every five red oak stands in which it is sought. Its extreme small size (fruiting stalks less than 0.5 mm tall, and barely visible thallus) makes it highly likely that it has been overlooked.
 OccurrenceQC NB 
 Status History
 Designated Data Deficient in November 2002. Assessment based on a new status report.
 

Note: The report on the Frosted Glass-whiskers (Sclerophora peronella) was withdrawn for inclusion of additional information. The report on the Anatum Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum) was withdrawn so that a combined report for all Peregrine Falcons in Canada could be brought to COSEWIC at a later date.