Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.
Recovery Strategy for the Seaside Centipede Lichen (Heterodermia sitchensis) in Canada (Proposed)
- 2.1 Recovery feasibility
- 2.2 Recovery goal, objectives and corresponding approaches
- 2.3 Recommended approach for recovery
- 2.4 Action plans
2.1 Recovery feasibility
In consideration of the criteria for determining feasibility (Table 2)--
- Individuals capable of reproduction are currently available;
- Sufficient habitat is likely available and more could be created if necessary via habitat management or restoration--though restoration would be a long term (> 50 year) option;
- While many threats can be dealt with, it is unknown if all threats can be avoided or mitigated. It should be possible to mitigate threats posed by firewood collection, trail building, and seaside development through the establishment and enforcement of forest management and foreshore development guidelines intended to conserve critical habitat. However, potential impacts due to human-influenced weather or climate change are beyond the scope of this recovery strategy and require major social and economic change on a global scale;
- There has not been enough study into specific recovery techniques, such as propagation of this species, and their effectiveness is unknown.
|1. Are individuals capable of reproduction currently available to improve the population growth rate or population abundance?||Yes|
|2. Is sufficient suitable habitat available to support the species or could it be made available through habitat management or restoration?||Yes|
|3. Can significant threats to the species or its habitat be avoided or mitigated through recovery actions?||Unknown|
|4. Do the necessary recovery techniques exist and are they demonstrated to be effective?||Unknown|
There are significant knowledge gaps pertaining to this species. However, recovery decisions should consider the preservation of biodiversity and the principle that a lack of full scientific certainty is not reason to postpone cost-effective measures to prevent the reduction or loss of a species which faces threats of serious or irreversible damage. To act in accord with the assumption that mitigation will assist Seaside Centipede Lichen’s continued presence in Canada may save the species. To assume and act otherwise risks the potentially preventable loss of a component of world biodiversity. Recovery is considered feasible.
2.2 Recovery goal, objectives and corresponding approaches
2.2.1 Recovery goal
The overall goal for the recovery of Seaside Centipede Lichen is to maintain a self-sustaining metapopulation within its historic range in Canada. Quantitative targets are impossible to set because the current population size, distribution, and dynamics are poorly understood. However, a short term goal of no net loss of habitat or population viability should be adopted in the interim while further study is conducted.
2.2.2 Recovery objectives
Recovery objectives for Seaside Centipede Lichen are presented in Table 3.
|Recovery Objective||Threat addressed||COSEWIC criteria addressed|
|1. Protecta habitat at all known occurrences of Seaside Centipede Lichen throughout its Canadian distribution.||Habitat loss|
|2. Implement appropriate site management at all protected occurrences.||Habitat loss and disruption of natural patterns of nutrient distribution|
|3. Protect ecosystem processes critical to Seaside Centipede Lichen.||Disruption of natural patterns of nutrient distribution|
|4. Fill knowledge gaps.|
a Protection includes a variety of mechanisms including stewardship and other voluntary means.
2.2.3 Broad strategy to be taken to address threats
Table 4 lists the broad strategies, general steps, and anticipated effects for recovery of Seaside Centipede Lichen. None of the measures listed in Table 4 should be postponed due to a lack of full scientific certainty. The threat of climate change is not discussed because it requires major social and economic change beyond the scope of this recovery strategy.
|Priority||Obj. No.||Broad Approach / Strategy||Threat Addressed||General Steps||Outcomes or Deliverables(identify measurable targets)|
2.2.4 Effects on other species
Recovery procedures emphasize habitat protection and are thus unlikely to have a negative effect on other species; in fact, protection of Seaside Centipede Lichen habitat is likely to benefit other species. Furthermore, Seaside Centipede Lichen is largely dependant on ecosystem processes mediated by other species and thus requires the protection of those species to maintain a robust and intact coastal ecosystem. Proposed measures will permit natural processes to proceed unimpeded by human activity. The overall potential environmental effect of the proposal after opportunities for mitigation have been incorporated will be positive. Results of implementation of the recovery strategy are expected to yield positive environmental benefits due to retention of coastal old-growth, improved understanding of the ecology of lichens and lichen communities in the Pacific Northwest, and the recovery of Seaside Centipede Lichen.
Performance measures to determine effectiveness of plan implementation are listed in Table 5.
|Objective #||Broad Approach/Strategy||Evaluation measures|
|3||Maintain a healthy coastal ecosystem|
2.3 Recommended approach for recovery
The single species approach was chosen for recovery of Seaside Centipede Lichen due to its distinct habitat requirements and threats. Also, Seaside Centipede Lichen is the only COSEWIC-listed lichen in this area.
The core of the known Seaside Centipede Lichen range is within Pacific Rim National Park Reserve managed by the Parks Canada Agency under the Canada National Parks Act. A key provision of this Act states that “Maintenance or restoration of ecological integrity, through the protection of natural resources and natural processes, shall be the first priority of the Minister when considering all aspects of the management of parks.”
The Province of British Columbia is a partner on the recovery team and will be responsible for ensuring sound management practices on Provincial Crown land.
The Department of Fisheries and Oceans has not been a participant on the recovery team but requirements under the Federal Oceans Act and Fisheries Act demand that marine resource harvesting be conducted in a sustainable manner.
2.4 Action plans
A Recovery Action Plan (RAP) for Seaside Centipede Lichen will be completed by 2009. The RAP is expected to include direction on management of human caused threats, critical habitat identification, a multi-year research strategy to fill key knowledge gaps, monitoring activities and protocols, an education and outreach program, and habitat protection guidelines for Seaside Centipede Lichen.
- Date Modified: