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Recovery Strategy for the Northern and Southern Resident Killer Whale

Table 1: Persistent organic pollutants that may pose a risk to resident killer whales.

Pollutant Use/Source Persistent Bio-accumulate Risk

DDT

(Dichlorodi-phenyl trichloroethane

pesticide used in some countries, banned in North America, persists in terrestrial runoff 30 years post ban, enters atmosphere from areas where still in useyesyesreproductive impairment, immunosuppression, adrenal and thyroid effects

PCBs

Polychlorinated Biphenyl s

electrical transformer and capacitor fluid, limited use in North America but enters environment from runoff, spills and incinerationyesyesreproductive impairment, skeletal abnormalities, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption
Dioxins and Furansby-product of chlorine bleaching, wood product processing and incomplete combustion. Mills less of a source now. Current sources include burning of salt-laden wood, municipal incinerators, and residential wood and wood waste combustion, in runoff from sewage sludge, wood treatmentyesyesthymus and liver damage, birth defects, reproductive impairment, endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity and cancer

PAHs

Persistent Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

by-product of fuel combustion, aluminium smelting, wood treatment, oil spills, metallurgical and coking plants, pulp and paper millsyesnocarcinogenic

flame retardants, esp. PBBs and PBDEs

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

flame retardants; in electrical components and backings of televisions and computers, in textiles and vehicle seats, ubiquitous in environment.  2/3 product PBDEs banned in Europe. Same two products withdrawn from North American marketplace in 2005, but one (deca) product still used globally.yesyesendocrine disruption, impairs liver and thyroid

PFOs

Perfluro-octane sulfonate

stain, water and oil repellent (included in Scotchgard until recently), fire fighting foam, fire retardants, insecticides and refrigerants, ubiquitous in environmentyesyes but in blood, liver, kidney and musclepromotes tumour growth

TBT, DBT

Tributyltin

Dibutyltin

antifoulant pesticide used on vesselsyesYesunknown but recently associated with hearing loss

PCPs

 (Polychlorinated paraffins)

flame retardants, plasticizers, paints, sealants and additives in lubricating oilsyesyes endocrine disruption

PCNs

Polychlorinated napthalenes

ship insulation, electrical wires and capacitors, engine oil additive, municipal waste incineration and chlor-alkali plants, contaminant in PCBs yesYes endocrine disruption

APEs

Alkyl-phenol ethoxylates

detergents, shampoos, paints, pesticides, plastics, pulp and paper mills, textile industry found in sewage effluent and sedimentsmoderatemoderateendocrine disruption

PCTs

Polychlorinated terphenyls

fire retardants, plasticizers, lubricants, inks and sealants, enters environment in runoffyesyesendocrine disruption and reproductive impairment

 

References: Primarily Grant and Ross 2002, but also Lindstrom et al. 1999, Hooper and MacDonald 2000, Kannan et al. 2001, Hall et al. 2003; Van deVijver et al. 2003, Rayne et al. 2004, Song et al. 2005.