Skip booklet index and go to page content

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Red Knot in Canada

Acknowledgements

Funding for the preparation of this status report was provided by the Canadian Wildlife Service.

A special thanks to the following for supplying unpublished information, reports, or data on knots: Brian Harrington (Manomet Centre for Conservation Sciences, MA); Gary Page (Long Point Bird Observatory, CA); Dennis Paulson (Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, WA); Joe Buchanan (Department of Fish and Wildlife, WA); Susann Myers (Halifax, NS); Dick Dekker (Edmonton, AB); Bev Gingras (Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton, AB); Richard Lathrop (Centre for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis, Rutgers University, NJ); Nigel Clarke (British Trust for Ornithology, UK); Phil Atkinson (British Trust for Ornithology, UK); Roland Chiasson and Sabine Dietz, Sackville, NB); Stefen Gerriets, Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre, Sackville, NB); Jeanette Goulet, Newfoundland and Labrador Shorebird Survey Program, St. John’s, NL); Joe Brazil (Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Corner Brook, NL); Roger Etcheberry (St. Pierre and Miquelon, France); Paul Linegar (St. John’s NL); Barb Johnston (Parks Canada, Queen Charlotte, BC); Jane Devlin (Parks Canada, Nunavut, Iqaluit, NU); Yves Aubry (Canadian Wildlife Service, Quebec Region, Ste. Foy, QC); Jeff Keith, Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre, Regina, SK); Vicky Johnston (CWS, Yellowknife, NT); Yann Troutet (Parks Canada, Mingan Archipelago, QC).


Authorities Contacted

Federal Departments

Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region. Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Delta, BC (Kevin Fort, Trish Hayes, Rob Butler (Research Scientist, Shorebirds), CWS Whitehorse, YT (Pam Sinclair, Adrian Dorst (Biologist, BC)).

Canadian Wildlife Service, Prairie and Northern Region. CWS Edmonton, AB (Dave Duncan, David Ingstrup, Gerry Beyersbergen, Bev Gingras); CWS Prairie and Northern Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Dr. C.L. Gratto-Trevor); CWS Yellowknife, NT (Bruce A. MacDonald, Kevin McCormick, Vicky Johnston); CWS Iqaluit, NU (Siu-Ling Han).

Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario Region. CWS Downsview (Ken Tuininga, Angela McConnell), CWS Ottawa (Ken Ross, Barbara Campbell).

Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. CWS Sackville, NB (Kevin Davidson, Dianne Amirault, Peter Hicklin, John Chardine, Richard Elliot).

Canadian Wildlife Service, Quebec Region. CWS Ste. Foy, QC (Karine Picard, Isabelle Ringuet, Yves Aubry, Richard Cotter).

Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Biodiversity Science Branch, Ottawa, ON (Lara Cooper, Hugh Bain, Garry Rawn).

Parks Canada. Ecological Integrity Branch: Peter Achuff. Bruce Peninsula NP, ON: Frank Burrows; Fathom Five Marine Park, ON: Scott Parker; Forillon NP, QC: Steve Pronovost; Grasslands NP, SK: Rob Sissons; Gros Morne NP, NF: Peter Deering; Gwaii Haanas NP, BC: Barb Johnston; Ivvavik NP, YT: Ian McDonald; Kouchibouguac NP, NB: Eric Tremblay; Mingan Archipelago NP, QC: Nancy Denommee, Yann Troutet; Prince Albert NP, SK: Dan Frandsen; Prince Edward Island NP, Darlene Upton, Ed Robert, Rick Hawkins; Pt. Pelee NP, ON: Vicki McKay, Sarah Rupert, Alan Wormington; Pacific Rim NP, BC: Heather Holmes, Wayne Michano, Fred Michano; Pukaskwa NP, ON: Robin Heron; Quittinirpaaq NP, NU [Ellesmere I]: Vicki Sahanatien; Saguenay-St .Lawrence Marine Park, QC: Nadia Menard; Sirmilik NP, NU [northern Baffin I]: Vicki Sahanatien; St. Lawrence Islands NP, ON: Jeff Leggo; Ukkusiksalik NP, NU [Wager Bay]: Vicki Sahanatien; Wapusk NP, MB [Churchill]: Bob Reside, Melissa Gibbons; Wood Buffalo NP, AB: Stuart Macmillan; Nunavut Field Unit: Jane Devlin.

Provincial and Territorial Departments

Alberta Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton, AB. (Gordon Court).

British Columbia, Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Biodiversity Branch. (David Fraser).

ManitobaConservation, Biodiversity Conservation Section, Winnipeg, MB. (James Duncan, Ken de Smet, Nicole Firlotte).

New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources, Fredericton, NB. (Maureen Toner).

Newfoundland and Labrador Endangered Species and Biodiversity Section, Corner Brook, NL. (Joe Brazil, Jeanette Goulet).

Northwest Territories, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Yellowknife, NT. (Suzanne Carrière).

Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS. (Sherman Boates).

Nunavut Department of the Environment. Arvial, NU. (Michael Setterington).

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON. (Alan Dextrase).

Prince Edward Island Department of Environment and Energy, Charlottetown, PE. (Rosemary Curley).

Québec Ministère des Ressources naturelles, de la Faune et des Parcs, Québec, QC. (Daniel Banville).

Yukon Department of Environment, Whitehorse, YT. (Thomas Jung).

Conservation Data Centres or Natural Heritage Information Centres

British Columbia Conservation Data Centre, Victoria, BC. (Katrina Stipec, Andy Stewart, Leah Ramsay, Lea French).

Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Edmonton, AB. (Wayne Nordstrom, Simon Nadeau (Fish and Wildlife Division)).

Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre, Regina, SK. (Jeff Keith, Jeanette Pepper).

Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, Winnipeg, MB. (-).

Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Peterborough, ON. (Jim Mackenzie).

Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec, QC

Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre, Sackville, NB. (S. Blaney, Stefan Gerriets).

Wildlife Management Boards

Sahtu Renewable Resources Board, Tulita, NT. (Jody Snortland, Walter Bayha, Richard Popko, Alasdair Veitch).

Gwich’in Renewable Resources Board, Inuvik, NT. (Jari Heikkila, Robert Charlie).

Wildlife Management Advisory Council - Northwest Territories, Inuvik, NT. (Larry Carpenter, Katherine Thiesenhausen).

Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Coordinating Committee (James Bay, northern Quebec), Montreal, QC. (Nicole Gougeon, Johnny Peters).

Wildlife Management Advisory Council - North Slope, Whitehorse, YT. (Lindsay Staples, Aileen Horler).

Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Iqaluit, NU. (Erin Calder, Harry Flaherty).

Yukon Fish and Wildlife Management Board, Whhitehorse, YT. (Christine Cleghorn, Pat Van Bibber).

COSEWIC

COSEWIC Secretariat for information on sources of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge, Gatineau, QC. (Gloria Goulet, also Cecilia Lougheed).

Individuals

Chiasson, Roland. Conservation Biologist, Sackville, NB.

Dietz, Sabine. Conservation Biologist, Sackville, NB.

Dekker, Dick. Biologist, Edmonton, AB.

Etcheberry, Roger. Biologist. St. Pierre and Miquelon, France.

Holohan, Stewart. Naturalist, Dublin, Ireland.

Lapointe, Stephane. (Quebec Hydro, contacted by Yves Aubry, CWS Quebec Region, QC).

Linegar, Paul. Biologist, St. John’s, NL.

MacDonald, John. Research Laboratory Manager (retired), Igloolik, NU.

Myers, Susann. Naturalist, Halifax, NS.

Peck, Mark. Biologist, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON.


Information Sources

ACIA (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment). 2004. Impacts of a warming Arctic. 139 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Araújo, F.A.A., M.Y. Wada, É.V. Silva, G.C. Cavalcante, V.S. Magalhães, G.V. de A. Filho, S.G. Rodrigues, L.C. Martins, C.E. Fedrizzi, A. Scherer, L.V. Mohr, M.C.B. Almeida, B.S. Buna, L.R. de O. Csota, S.B. Scherer, R. da S. Vianna, and V.L. Gattas. 2003. Primeiro Inquérito Sorológico em Aves Migratórias e Nativas do Parque Nacional da Lagoa de Peixe/RS para Detecção di Vìrus do Niolo Ocidental. Boletim eletrónico EPIDEMIOLÓGICO Ano 03, No. 01: 3-12. Ministerio de Saude, Sectretaria de Vigilancia em Saude, Brazilia, Brazil. 

Araújo, F.A.A., R. da S.T. Vianna, M.Y. Wada, É.V. da Silva, L. Doretto, G.C. Cavalcante, S.M.A. Júnior, V.S. Magalhães, J.L. Gomes, P.V.S. Queiroz, M.E. Larrazábal, L.C. Martins, S.G. Rodrigues, and P.F. da C. Vasconcelos. 2004. Inquérito sorológico em aves migratóras e residentes de Galinhos/RN para detecção di vírus de Febre do Nilo Ocidental e outros vírus. Boletim eletrónico EPIDEMIOLÓGICO Ano 04, No. 02: 1-12. Ministerio de Saude, Sectretaria de Vigilancia em Saude, Brazilia, Brazil. 

ASMFC (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission). 1998. Horseshoe crab stock assessment report for peer review. Stock Assessment Report No. 98-01 (Supplement), xv + 57 pp. Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, Washington, DC

Atkinson, P.W., A.J. Baker, R.M. Bevan, N.A. Clark, K.B. Cole, P.M. Gonzalez, J. Newton, L.J. Niles, and R.A. Robinson. 2005. Unravelling the migration and moult strategies of a long-distance migrant using stable isotopes: Red Knot Calidris canutus movements in the Americas. Ibis 147: 738-749.

Atkinson, P.W. 2005. Proportion of individually marked cohorts seen in Delaware Bay in 2005. Unpublished results, 3 pp. British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford, UK.

Aubry, Y. and R. Cotter. 2001a. Quebec Shorebird Conservation Plan - Draft version. 230 pp. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service - Quebec Region, Sainte-Foy.

Aubry, Y. and R. Cotter. 2001b. Using trend information to develop the Quebec Shorebird Conservation Plan. Bird Trends 8: 21-24.

Avise, J.C. 1989. A role for molecular genetics in the recognition and conservation of endangered species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4: 279-281.

Avise, J.C. 2000. Phylogeography: the history and formation of species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Baker, A.J., T. Piersma, and L. Rosenmeier. 1994. Unraveling the intraspecific phylogeography of Knots Calidris canutus: a progress report on the search for genetic markers. Journal für Ornithologie 135: 599-608.

Baker, A.J., P.M. Gonzalez, T. Piersma, C.D.T. Minton, J.R. Wilson, H. Sitters, D. Graham, R. Jessop, P. Collins, P. de Goeij, M.K. Peck, R. Lini, L. Bala, G. Pagnoni, A. Vila, E. Bremer, R. Bastida, E. Ieno, D. Blanco, I. de L.S. Nascimento, S.S. Scherer, M.P. Schneider, A. Silva, and A.A.F. Rodrigues. 1998. Northbound migration of Red Knots Calidris canutus rufa in Argentina and Brazil: Report on results obtained by an international expedition in March-April 1997. Wader Study Group Bulletin 88: 64-75.

Baker, A.J., P.M. Gonzalez, C.D.T. Minton, D.B. Carter, L. Niles, I.L.S. Nascimento, and T. Piersma 2001. Hemispheric problems in the conservation of Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa). Pp. 21-28, in Proceedings of the VI Neotropical Ornithological Congress International Shorebird Symposium, Monterrey, Mexico, October 1999. Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, Manomet Centre for Conservation Sciences, Manomet, MA.

Baker, A.J., P.M. Gonzalez, T. Piersma, L.J. Niles, I. de L.S. Nascimento, P.W. Atkinson, N.A. Clark, C.D.T. Minton, M. Peck, and G. Aarts. 2004. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 271: 875-882.

Baker, A.J., P.M. Gonzalez, I.L. Serrano, W.R.T. Júnior, M. Efe, S. Rice, V.L. D'Amico, M. Rocha, and M.A. Echave. 2005a. Assessment of the wintering area of red knots in Maranhão, northern Brazil, in February 2005. Wader Study Group Bulletin 107: 10-18.

Baker, A.J., P.M. Gonzalez, L. Benegas, S. Rice, V.L. D'Amico, M. Abril, A. Farmer, and M. Peck. 2005b. Annual international expeditions to study the Red Knot population in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, 2000-2004. Wader Study Group Bulletin 107: 19-23.

Baker, A.J., P.M. Gonzalez, I.L. Serrano, W.R.T. Júnior, M. Efe, S. Rice, V.L. D'Amico, M. Rocha, and M.A. Echave. 2005a. Assessment of the wintering area of red knots in Maranhão, northern Brazil, in February 2005. Wader Study Group Bulletin 107: 10-18.

Baril, A., pers. comm. 2005. Unpublished Canada and US Shorebird Species Range Maps. 

Bart, J., S. Brown, B. Harrington, and R.I.G. Morrison. 2005. Population trends of North American shorebirds: population declines or shifting distributions? Unpublished manuscript, 30 pp. 

Belton, W. 1984. Aves do Rio Grande do Sul: Distribuição e biologia. 584 pp. Editora USINOS, São Leopoldo, Brazil.

Bent, A.C. 1927. Life histories of North American shore birds. Order Limicolae. (Part 1). United States National Museum Bulletin 142: 1-420.

BirdLife International. 2004. Calidris canutus. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 05 December 2005.

Booth, D.T., D.H. Clayton, and B.A. Block. 1993. Experimental demonstration of the energetic cost of parasitism in free-ranging birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 253: 125-129.

Botton, M.L., R.E. Loveland, and R. Jacobsen. 1994. Site selection by migratory shorebirds in Delaware Bay, and its relationship to beach characteristics and abundance of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs. Auk 111: 605-616.

Boyd, H. and T. Piersma. 2001. Changing balance between survival and recruitment explains population trends in Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica wintering in Britain, 1969-1995. Ardea 89: 301-317.

Brown, S., C. Hickey, B. Harrington, and R. Gill. 2001. United States Shorebird Conservation Plan, Second Edition. 61 pp. Manomet Centre for Conservaton Sciences, Manomet, Massachusetts.

Buchanan, J.B. 2006. A census of spring migrant Red Knot Calidris canutus in coastal Washington, USA: results from 2006. Wader Study Group Bulletin manuscript submitted: 1-5.

Buehler, D.M. 2002. Shorebird counts in Panama in 2002 emphasize the need to monitor and protect the Upper Panama Bay. Wader Study Group Bulletin 99: 41-44.

Buehler, D.M and A.J. Baker. 2005. Population divergence times and historical demography in Red Knots and Dunlins. Condor 107: 497-513.

Burger, J, C. Jeitner, K. Clark, and L. Niles. 2004. The effect of human activities on migrant shorebirds: successful adaptive management. Unpublished Report. New Jersey Division of Fish and Game, Trenton, NJ

Burger, J., M. Gochfield, and L. Niles. 1995. Habitat choice, disturbance, and management of foraging shorebirds and gulls at a migratory stopover. Environmental Conservation 22: 56-65.

Butler, R.W., R.C. Ydenberg, and D.B. Lank. 2003. Wader migration on the changing predator landscape. Wader Study Group Bulletin 100: 130-133.

Castro, G. and J.P. Myers. 1993. Shorebird predation on eggs of Horseshoe Crabs during spring stopover on Delaware Bay. Auk 110: 927-930.

CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). 2005. Fundy tidal power gets fresh look. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Toronto, Ontario.

Clark, K.E., L.J. Niles, and J. Burger. 1993. Abundance and distribution of migrant shorebirds in Delaware Bay. Condor 95: 694-705.

Clark, K.E., L.J. Niles, and A. Doolittle. 2001. Fifteen years of spring shorebird surveys at Delaware Bay. Wader Study Group Bulletin 95: 16-17.

CMS (Convention on Migratory Species). 2005. Proposals for amendment of Appendices I and II of the Convention. Pp. 45-52, in UNEP/CMS/Conf. 8.16 Annex, 5 October 2005. Convention on Migratory Species, Bonn, Germany. 

Collier, M.P., A.N. Banks, G.E. Austin, T. Girling, R.D. Hearn, and A.J. Musgrove. 2005. The Wetland Bird Survey 2003/04: Wildfowl and Wader Counts. BTO/WWT/RSPB/JNCC, Thetford, U.K. (Information on Red Knot trends available at http://www.bto.org/survey/webs/images/webs200304_9.pdf).

Conover, B. 1943. The races of the knot (Calidris canutus). Auk 45: 226-228.

Dahl, T.E. 1990. Wetlands losses in the United States 1780's to 1980's. 13 pp. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 

Dahl, T.E. and C.E. Johnson. 1991. Status and trends of wetlands in the conterminous United States, mid-1970s to mid-1980s. 28 pp. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 

Dahl, T.E. 2000. Status and trends of wetlands in the conterminous United States 1986 to 1997. 82 pp. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC

Davidson, N.C. and P.I. Rothewell. 1993. Disturbance to waterfowl on estuaries: the conservation and coastal management implications of current knowledge. Wader Study Group Bulletin 68: 97-105.

Delaware Riverkeeper Network, American Littoral Society, Delaware Chapter of the Sierra Club Delmarva Ornithological Society, New Jersey Audubon Society, and .2005. Petition to list the Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) as Endangered and request for Emergency Listing under the Endangered Species Act. 52 pp. Delaware RIverkeeper Network, Washington Crossing, PA.

Ducks Unlimited. 2005. Ducks Unlimited's International Conservation Plan - 2005. Ducks Unlimited, Memphis, Tennessee. http://www.ducks.org/conservation/icp/TOC.html.

Escudero, G. and L.W. Niles. 2001. Are there alternative food resources for knots in Delaware Bay? Wader Study Group Bulletin 95: 13.

Figuerola, J. 1999. Effects of salinity on rates of infestation of waterbirds by haematozoa. Ecography 22: 681-685.

Forrester, D.J. and P.P. Humphrey. 1981. Susceptibility of the knot (Calidris canutus) to Plasmodium hermani. Journal of Parasitology 67: 747-748.

Galbraith, H., R. Jones, R. Park, J. Clough, S. Herrod-Julius, B. Harrington, and G. Page. 2002. Global climate change and sea level rise: potential losses of intertidal habitat for shorebirds. Waterbirds 25: 173-183.

Gill, J.A., K. Norris, and W.J. Sutherland. 2001. Why behavioural responses may not reflect the population consequences of human disturbance. Biological Conservation 97: 265-268.

GLCF (Global Land Cover Facility). 2005. Coastal Marsh Project. University of Maryland, College Park, MD. http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/coastalMarsh/ research.shtml.

Godfrey, W.E. 1953. Notes on Ellesmere Island birds. Canadian Field-Naturalist 67: 89-93.

Godfrey, W.E. 1986. The Birds of Canada. Revised Edition. 595 pp. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.

Godfrey, W.E. 1992. Subspecies of the Red Knot Calidris canutus in the extreme north-western Canadian arctic islands. Wader Study Group Bulletin, Supplement 64: 24-25.

Gonzalez, P.M., Carbajal, M., Morrison, R.I.G., and Baker, A.J. 2004. Tendencias poblacionales del playero rojizo (Calidris canutus rufa) en el sur de Sudamerica. Ornitologia Neotropical 15 (Suppl.): 357-365.

Gonzalez, P.M., T. Piersma, and Y. Verkuil. 1996. Food, feeding, and refuelling of Red Knots during northward migration at San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro, Argentina. Journal of Field Ornithology 67: 575-591.

Haramis, G.M., M.A. Teece, and D.B. Carter. 2002. Use of stable isotopes to determine the relative importance of horseshoe crabs in the diet of long-distance migrant shorebirds in Delaware Bay. Unpublished Report. Delaware Coastal Management Programs, Dover, Delaware. 

Haramis, G.M., W.A. Link, P.C. Osenton, D.B. Carter, R.G. Weber, N.A. Clark, M.A. Teece, and D.S. Mizrahi. 2005. The value of horseshoe crab eggs to Red Knots: results from stable isotope, pen feeding trial, and lipid studies. Report in preparation. 

Harrington, B.A., J.M. Hagan, and L.E. Leddy. 1988. Site fidelity and survival differences between two groups of New World Red Knots Calidris canutus. Auk 105: 439-445.

Harrington, B.A. and B. Winn. 2001. Red Knots of southeastern United States: a preliminary report of recent investigations into the insular qualities of the population. Wader Study Group Bulletin 95: 12.

Harrington, B.A. 2001. Red Knot (Calidris canutus). 32 pp. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Harrington, B.A., pers. comm. 2005. Email correspondence, November 2005. 

Hernandez, D. 2005. Foraging efficiency of migratory shorebirds relative to horseshoe crab egg availability. M.A. Thesis. 163 pp. Rutgers University, NJ,

Hicklin, P., pers. comm. 2005. Verbal report to Canadian Wildlife Service Shorebird Committee Meeting, November 2005. 

Hicklin, P.W. 1987. The migration of shorebirds in the Bay of Fundy. Wilson Bulletin 99: 540-570.

Hope, C.E. and T.M. Shortt. 1944. Southward migration of adult shorebirds on the west coast of James Bay, Ontario. Auk 61: 572-576.

Howe, M.A., H. Geissler, and B.A. Harrington. 1989. Population trends of North American shorebirds based on the International Shorebird Survey. Biological Conservation 49: 185-199.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2001. Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Chapter 6. Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems. IPCC Secretariat, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Johnston, V., pers. comm. 2005. Email correspondence, October 2005. 

Johnston, V.H., C.L. Gratto-Trevor, and S.T. Pepper. 2000. Assessment of bird populations in the Rasmussen Lowlands, Nunavut. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 101, 56 pp. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa. 

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.). 824 pp. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.

Manning, T.H. 1952. Birds of the west James Bay and southern Hudson Bay coasts. National Museum of Canada Bulletin No. 125: 1-114.

Manning, T.H., E.O. Hohn, and A.H. Macpherson. 1956. The birds of Banks Island. Nat. Mus. Canada Bull. 143: 1-144.

Manning, T.H. and A.H. Macpherson. 1961. A biological investigation of Prince of Wales Island, N.W.T. Trans. Royal Canadian Institute 33: 116-239.

McRae, R.D. 1982. Birds of Presqu’ile Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ottawa.

Meltofte, H., T. Piersma, H. Boyd, B.J. McCaffery, B. Ganter, V.V. Golovnyuk, K. Graham, C.L. Gratto-Trevor, R.I.G. Morrison, E. Nol, H-U. Rösner, D. Schamel, H. Schekkerman, M.Y. Soloviev, P.S. Tomkovich, D.M. Tracy, I. Tulp, and L. Wennerberg. 2005. A circumpolar review of the effects of climate variation on the breeding ecology of Arctic shorebirds. Arctic submitted.

Mendes, L., T. Piersma, M. Lecoq, B. Spaans, and R.E. Ricklefs. 2005. Disease-limited distributions? Contrasts in the prevalence of avian malaria in shorebird species using marine and freshwater habitats. Oikos 109: 396-404.

Morrison, R.I.G. 1975. Migration and morphometrics of European Knot and Turnstone on Ellesmere Island, Canada. Bird-Banding 46: 290-301.

Morrison, R.I.G. and B.A. Harrington. 1979. Critical shorebird resources in James Bay and eastern North America. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Natural Resources Conference 44: 498-507.

Morrison, R.I.G., B.A. Harrington, and L.E. Leddy. 1980. Migration routes and stopover areas of North American Red Knot Calidris canutus wintering in South America. Wader Study Group Bulletin 28: 35-39.

Morrison, R.I.G. 1984. Migration systems of some New World shorebirds. Pp. 125-202, in Shorebirds: migration and foraging behavior, ed. by Burger, J. and Olla, B.L. Plenum Press, New York.

Morrison, R.I.G. and A.J. Gaston. 1986. Marine and coastal birds of James Bay, Hudson Bay and Foxe Basin. Pp. 355-386, in Canadian Inland Seas, ed. by Martini, I.P. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Morrison, R.I.G. and R.K. Ross. 1989. Atlas of Nearctic shorebirds on the coast of South America. 325 pp. Canadian Wildlife Service Special Publication, Ottawa.

Morrison, R.I.G. and B.A. Harrington. 1992. The migration system of the Red Knot Calidris canutus rufa in the New World. Wader Study Group Bull. 64, Suppl.: 71-84.

Morrison, R.I.G., C. Downes, and B. Collins. 1994. Population trends of shorebirds on fall migration in eastern Canada 1974-1991. Wilson Bull. 106: 431-447.

Morrison, R I.G., Y. Aubry, R.W. Butler, G.W. Beyersbergen, C. Downes, G.M. Donaldson, C.L. Gratto-Trevor, P.W. Hicklin, V.H. Johnston, and R.K. Ross. 2001a. Declines in North American shorebird populations. Wader Study Group Bull. 94: 34-38.

Morrison, R.I.G., R.E. Gill, Jr., B.A. Harrington, S. Skagen, G.W. Page, C.L. Gratto-Trevor, and S.M. Haig. 2001b. Estimates of shorebird populations in North America. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 104, 64 pp. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa. 

Morrison, R.I.G. and P. Hicklin. 2001. Recent trends in shorebird populations in the Atlantic Provinces. Bird Trends 8: 16-19.

Morrison, R.I.G. 2001. Shorebird population trends and issues in Canada -- an overview. Bird Trends 8: 1-5.

Morrison, R.I.G. and K.A. Hobson. 2004. Use of body stores in shorebirds after arrival on High-Arctic breeding grounds. Auk 121: 333-344.

Morrison, R.I.G., R.K. Ross, and L.J. Niles. 2004. Declines in wintering populations of Red Knots in southern South America. Condor 106: 60-70.

Morrison, R.I.G., N.C. Davidson, and T. Piersma. 2005. Transformations at high latitudes: why do Red Knots bring body stores to the breeding grounds? Condor 107: 449-457.

Morrison, R.I.G. 2005. Body transformations, condition, and survival in the Red Knot calidris canutus: travelling to breed at Alert. Ardea in press.

Morrison, R.I.G., B.J. McCaffery, R.E. Gill, S.K. Skagen, S.L. Jones, G.W. Page, C.L. Gratto-Trevor, and B.A. Andres. 2007. Population estimates of North American shorebirds, 2006. Wader Study Group Bulletin 111: 1-10.

Morrison, R I.G., B.J. McCaffery, R.E. Gill, S.K. Skagen, S.L. Jones, G.W. Page, C.L. Gratto-Trevor, and B.A. Andres. 2006. Population estimates of North American shorebirds, 2006. Wilson Journal of Ornithology submitted manuscript: 1-76.

NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 4.6. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed: February 13, 2007).

Niles, L., H. Sitters, A. Dey, A. Baker, R.I.G. Morrison, D. Hernandez, K.E. Clark, B. Harrington, M. Peck, P. Gonzalez, K. Bennett, P. Atkinson, N. Clark, and C. Minton. 2005. Status of the Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) in the Western Hemisphere. 230 pp. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, New Jersey. 

NSDNR (Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources). 2004. Status of Peregrine Falcon (Anatum) in Nova Scotia: A synopsis of recovery efforts. Natural Resources Technical Note. http://www.gov.ns.ca/NATR/wildlife/biodiv/ technote.htm. Last updated August 1998.

Oliver, Stan, pers. comm. 2005. Email correspondence, October 2005 (per Joe Brazil).

Ouellet, H. 1969. Les oiseaux de l’île Anticosti, province de Québec, Canada.  Musées nationaux du Canada, Musée national des sciences naturelles, Ottawa.  Publications en zoologie no. 1, 79 pp.

Page, G.W., L.E. Stenzel, and J.E. Kjelmyr. 1999. Overview of shorebird abundance and distribution in wetlands of the Pacific coast of the contiguous United States. Condor 101: 461-471.

Page, G.W. and D. Paulson, pers. comm. 2005. Email correspondence, November 2005. 

Parmelee, D.F., H.A. Stephens, and R.H. Schmidt. 1967. The birds of southeastern Victoria Island and adjacent small islands. Nat. Mus. Canada Bull. 222: 1-229.

Paulson, D. 1993. Shorebirds of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Pfister, C., M.J. Kasprzyk, and B.A. Harrington. 1998. Body fat levels and annual return in migrating Semipalmated Sandpipers. Auk 115: 904-915.

Piersma, T. and N. Davidson. 1992. The Migration of Knots. Wader Study Group Bulletin 64, Supplement: 209 pp.

Piersma, T. 1997. Do global patterns of habitat use and migration strategies co-evolve with relative investments in immunocompetence due to spatial variation in parasite pressure? Oikos 80: 623-631.

Piersma, T., G.A. Gudmundsson, and K Lilliendahl. 1999. Rapid changes in the size of different functional organ and muscle groups during refueling in a long-distance migrating shorebird. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 72: 405-415.

Piersma, T. and A.J. Baker. 2000. Life history characteristics and the conservation of migratory shorebirds. Pp. 105-124, in Behaviour and conservation, ed. by Gosling, L.M. and Sutherland, W.J. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Piersma, T. 2003. "Coastal" versus "inland" shorebird species: interlinked fundamental dichotomies between their life- and demographic histories? Wader Study Group Bulletin 100: 5-9.

Piersma, T. and B. Spaans. 2004. Inzicht uit vergelijkingen: ecologisch onderzoek aan wadvogels wereldwijd. Limosa 77: 43-54.

Roberge, B., C. Buidin, and Y. Rochepsult.2001. Les limicoles à la réserve de parc national de l'Archipel-de-Mingan et dans les zones importantes pour la conservation des oiseasux (ZICO) en Minganie 2000. 38 pp. Parcs Canada, Unité de gestion de Mingan et L'Association le Balbuzard, Mingan, QC

Ross, R.K., K. Abraham, R. Clay, B. Collins, J. Iron, R. James, and D. Weeber, R. McLachlin. 2003. Ontario Shorebird Conservation Plan. 48 pp. Environment Canada, Downsview, ON

Salomonsen, F. 1950. The Birds of Greenland. Munksgaard, Kobenhaven.

Sandercock, B.K. 2003. Estimation of survival rates for wader populations: a review of mark-recapture methods. Wader Study Group Bulletin 100: 163-174.

Scheffer, M., S. Carpenter, and B. de Young. 2005. Cascading effects of overfishing marine systems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 579-581.

Sitters, H. 2001. Behavioural evidence that shorebirds may suffer shortages of available horseshoe crabs' eggs in Delaware Bay. Wader Study Group Bulletin 95: 14.

Sitters, H.P., P.M. Gonzalez, A.J. Baker, and D.J. Price. 2001. Day and night feeding habitat of red knots in Patagonia: profitability versus safety. Journal of Field Ornithology 72: 86-95.

Sitters, H.P. 2005. Preliminary report on observations during May 2005 of red knots in the Atlantic marshes near Stone Harbor New Jersey and radio-tracking red knots in Delaware Bay. Unpublished Report. Endangered and Nongame Species Program, New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife, Trenton, NJ

Skagen, S.K., P.B. Sharpe, and R.G. Waltermire. 1999. Biogeographical profiles of shorebird migration in midcontinental North America. U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins, Colorado. 

Slatkin, M. and R.R. Hudson. 1991. Pairwise comparisons of mitochondrial DNA sequences in stable and exponentially growing populations. Genetics 129: 555-562.

Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study. 2002. Influenza viruses in gulls, terns, and shorebirds of the United States Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Unpublished Report. University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. 

Spaans, A.L. 1978. Status and numerical fluctuations of some North American waders along the Surinam coast. Wilson Bulletin 90: 60-83.

Sprandel, G.L., J.A. Gore, and D.T. Cobb. 1997. Winter Shorebird Survey. Final performance report. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, FL

Stillman, R.A., P.W. Atkinson, N.A. Clark, I. Gillings, I.G. Henderson, S.E. Love, R.A. Robinson, R.G. Weber, and S.L. Bardsley. 2003. Functional responses of shorebird feeding on horseshoe crab eggs. British Trust for Ornithology Research Report No. 38, Chapter 2, 41 pp. British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford, Norfolk.

Tomkovich, P.S. 1992. An analysis of the geographical variability in knots Calidris canutus based on museum skins. Wader Study Group Bulletin 64, Supplement: 17-23.

Tomkovich, P. S. 2001. A new subspecies of Red Knot Calidris canutus from the New Siberian Islands. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 121: 257-263.

TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission). 2005. Rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. [Accessed 15 December 2005].

Truitt, B.R., B.D. Watts, B.L. Brown, and W. Dunstan. 2001. Red Knot densities and invertebrate prey availability on the Virginia barrier islands. Wader Study Group Bulletin 95: 12.

Tsipoura, N. and J. Burger. 1999. Shorebird diet during spring migration stopover on Delaware Bay. Condor 101: 635-644.

U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan. 2004. High Priority Shorebirds - 2004. Unpublished Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Dr., MBSP 4107, Arlington, VA, 22203 U.S.A. 5 pp.

van Gils, J.A., T. Piersma, A. Dekinga, B. Spaans, and C. Kraan. 2006. Shellfish-dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a Marine Protected Area. Public Library of Science Biology: manuscript submitted for publication.

Wash Wader Ringing Group. 2005. British Wader Longevity Records. Wash Wader Ringing Group, Norfolk, UK.

Webster, P.J., G.J. Holland, J.A. Curry, and H.-R. Chang. 2005. Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment. Science 309: 1844-1846.

Weir, R.D. 1989. Birds of the Kingston Region. Kingston Field Naturalists and Quarry Press Inc., Kingston, ON.

West, A.D., J.D. Goss-Custard, R.A. Stillman, R.W.G. Caldow, S.E.A. le V. dit Durrell, and S. McGrorty. 2002. Predicting the impacts of disturbance on shorebird mortality using a behavior-based model. Biological Conservation 106: 319-328.

Wetlands International. 2002. Waterbird Population Estimates - Third Edition. Wetlands International Global Series No. 12. Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Wetlands International. 2005. Waterbird Population Estimates - Fourth Edition. Wetlands International Global Series, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 

Wetlands International 2005b. Population trend of Red Knot Calidris canutus in the Northwest Europe region estimated using TRIM. Web report posted 22-12-2005. Available at http://www.wetlands.org/publication.aspx?id=c887e56e-783c-42e2-baee-cb7203eee090.

Widener, J.W. and R.B. Barlow. 1999. Decline of a horseshoe crab population on Cape Cod. Biological Bulletin 197: 300-302.

Woodward, J.C., D.J. Forrester, F.H. White, and N.P. Thompson. 1977. An Epizootic among knots (Calidris canutus) in Florida. I. Disease syndrome, histology, and transmission studies. Veterinary Pathology 14: 338-350.

Ydenberg, R.C., R.W. Butler, D.B. Lank, B.D. Smith, and J. Ireland. 2004. Western sandpipers have altered migration tactics as peregrine falcon populations have recovered. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 271: 1263-1269.