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Consultation workbook Bottlenose Whale

Species At Risk Act

Legal listing consultation workbook

Baleine a bec commune

Northern Bottlenose Whale-Scotian Shelf Population (Hyperoodon ampullatus)

Introductory Information

 The Species at Risk Act

The Species at Risk Act (SARA) strengthens and enhances the Government of Canada’s capacity to protect Canadian wildlife species, subspecies and distinct populations that are at risk of becoming Extinct or Extirpated. The Act applies only to species on the SARA list.

Openness and transparency, including

public consultation, is required in making decisions about which species should be included on the SARA list. The process begins with the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assessing a species as being at risk.  Upon receipt of these assessments, the Minister of the Environment, in consultation with the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans,  has 90 days to report on how he or she intends to respond to the assessment and to the extent possible, provide timelines for action.  Subsequent to the consultative process, a recommendation to the Governor in Council on whether to add certain species to the SARA list or to refer them back to COSEWIC is generated. Once a species is added to the SARA list, specific actions must be taken within specified time periods to help ensure that species’ protection and recovery.

Public Consultation

The Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act on June 5, 2003 as part of its strategy for the protection of wildlife species at risk. Attached to

the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species that receive protection under

SARA, commonly referred to as the ‘SARA list’. 

The existing SARA list reflects the

233 species the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) had assessed and found to be at risk at the time of the reintroduction of SARA to the House of Commons on October 9th, 2002.

For more information on Species at Risk  visit www.sararegistry.gc.ca

Role of COSEWIC

COSEWIC comprises experts on wildlifespecies at risk. Their backgrounds are in the fields of biology, ecology, genetics, aboriginal traditional knowledge and other relevant fields, and they come from various communities, including government, academia, Aboriginal organizations and non-government organizations.

Initially, COSEWIC commissions a Status Report for the evaluation of the conservation status of a species. To be accepted, status reports must be peer-reviewed and approved by a subcommittee of species specialists. In special circumstances assessments can be done on an emergency basis.

COSEWIC then meets to examine the status report, discuss the species and determine whether or not the species is at risk, and if so, assess the level of risk.

For more information on COSEWIC visit

www.cosewic.gc.ca

Terms used to define the degree of risk to a species

The degree of risk is categorized according to the terms Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern. A species is assessed by COSEWIC as Extirpated when it is no longer found in the wild in Canada but still exists elsewhere. It is Endangered if it is facing imminent extirpation or extinction. An assessment of

Threatened means that the species is likely to become Endangered if nothing is done to reverse the factors leading to its extirpation or extinction. COSEWIC assesses a species as Special Concern if it may become a Threatened or Endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats.

New Assessments

Since October 9th, 2002, COSEWIC has assessed or reassessed additional species as being at risk, making them eligible for addition to the SARA list.  Of these, aquatic species are the responsibility of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans and terrestrial species are the responsibility of Environment Canada. Responsibility for species that occur in parks administered by the Parks Canada Agency (both terrestrial and aquatic) is shared between the Parks Canada Agency and either Environment Canada or the Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

For more information on the Environment Canada consultations please see the SARA Public Registry:

www.sararegistry.gc.ca

SARA has been designed to conserve Canadian wildlife species and the habitats that support them. Public involvement is integral to the processes of listing species as being at risk and protecting Canadian wildlife. The

best way to secure the survival of species at risk and their habitats is through the active participation of all those concerned. As such, your comments on this document will be given serious consideration.

 Purpose of the consultation

Having received the COSEWIC assessment of the species’ status, the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans must provide the Minister of the Environment with a recommendation to the Governor in Council. This recommendation must be one of the following:

a) that the COSEWIC assessment be accepted and the species be added to the SARA list;

b) that the species not be added to the SARA list; or

c) that the species be referred back to COSEWIC for further information or consideration.

The Government of Canada is required to take one of these actions within nine months of the Governor in Council having received the assessment from the Minister of the Environment.

COSEWIC bases its assessments solely on the biological status of each species. However, consultation with Canadians regarding the potential social and economic impacts of the addition of each species to the SARA list will occur before the Government of Canada arrives at informed decisions on listing. Of particular interest in these consultations is the identification of the benefits and costs of adding each of the species to the list relative to the potential impacts on these species and on society of not adding them.

Therefore, before the government

makes decisions regarding the SARA list, affected Canadians will have the opportunity to express their views and concerns. This consultation allows those affected to contribute to the government decision-making process.

Role and impact of public consultation

The results of this public consultation are of great relevance to the entire process of listing species at risk. The comments received will be carefully reviewed and evaluated. They will then be documented in a Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement (RIAS). The RIAS is an integral part of the federal regulatory process and is published with all regulatory proposals in the Canada

Gazette Part I.

Following initial consultations, a draft Order (an instrument that serves notice of a decision taken by the executive arm of government) proposing to list all or some of the species under consideration will be prepared. This draft Order will be published along with the RIAS in the Canada Gazette Part I for a comment period. Based on the outcome of the comment period, a recommendation to the Governor in Council on whether to add certain species to the SARA list or to refer them back to COSEWIC will be generated.  The final decision will be published in Canada Gazette Part II and on the Public Registry.

 Significance of the addition of a species to the SARA list

 The protection that comes into effect

following the addition of a species to the

SARA list depends upon the degree of risk assigned to that species.

Protection for listed Extirpated,

Endangered and Threatened species

Under the Act, prohibitions protect

individuals of Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species. These prohibitions make it an offence to kill, harm, harass, capture or take an individual of a species listed as Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened, or to damage or destroy the residence of one or more individuals (and the critical habitat, if and when identified) of an Endangered or a Threatened species. The Act also makes it an offence to possess, collect, buy, sell or trade an individual of a species that is Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened or a part or derivative of one.  These prohibitions come into force when a species is listed on Schedule 1 of the SARA.

The focus of protection will be on those species for which the federal government has direct legal authority. The protection will be in force for all listed birds protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994

and for listed aquatic species. The prohibitions will also apply to all listed species on federal lands.

For all other listed Endangered, Threatened and Extirpated species, the provinces and territories have the responsibility to ensure that they receive adequate protection.

Exceptions to the prohibitions on aquatic species may be authorized by the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, provided that the survival or recovery of the species is not jeopardised. The Ministers may enter into agreements or issue permits only for (1) research relating to the conservation of a species or (2) for activities that benefit a listed species or enhance its chances of survival or (3) that incidentally affect a listed species.

Protection for listed species of Special Concern

The prohibitions of SARA for species listed as Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened will not apply to species of Special Concern; however any existing protections and prohibitions, such as those authorized by the Migratory Birds Convention Act or the Canada National Parks Act, continue to be in force.

Recovery strategies and action plans for Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species

The addition of an Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened species to the SARA list triggers the requirement for the preparation of a recovery strategy and action plan which will be the subject of separate consultations.

Recovery strategies will be completed and made available on the SARA Public Registry to allow for public review and comment, within one year for Endangered and within two years for Threatened and Extirpated newly listed species.

Recovery strategies will address the known threats to the species and its habitat. They will identify areas where more research is needed and population objectives that will help ensure the species’ survival or recovery, and will include a statement of the timeframe. Recovery strategies and action plans will identify, to the extent possible, the critical habitat of the species. Action plans will include measures to address threats, help the species recover and protect critical habitat. Measures to implement the recovery strategy will also be identified in the action plan.

Recovery strategies and action plans will be prepared in cooperation with aboriginal organizations, responsible jurisdictions, and relevant management boards directly affected by them. Stakeholders affected by the recovery strategy will also be consulted.

Management plans for Species of Special Concern

For species of Special Concern, management plans will be prepared and

made available on the Public Registry within three years of their addition to the SARA list, allowing for public review and comment.  Management plans will include appropriate conservation measures for the species and for its habitat.

Management plans will be prepared in cooperation with aboriginal organizations, responsible jurisdictions, and relevant management boards directly affected by them. Stakeholders affected by the management plan will also be consulted.

 Public comments on the addition of species to the SARA list

The species described in this workbook has been assessed or reassessed by COSEWIC as a species at risk, and is being considered for addition to the SARA list. Please complete the survey beginning on page 11 and return in person or by regular mail to the address below. In order to consider your comments, responses are required no later than October 29th, 2004.

Species at Risk Coordination Office

Bedford Institute of Oceanography

P.O. Box 1006

1 Challenger Drive

Dartmouth, NS

B2Y 4A2

Alternatively, please e-mail your comments (with the species name in the subject line) to

XMARSARA@mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

or complete the electronic version of this survey at

www.sararegistry.gc.ca

Your comments will be reviewed and used to consider whether or not to place each species on the SARA list.

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Species Information

Northern bottlenose whale – Scotian Shelf Population

The northern bottlenose whale is a 6-9 m long member of the beaked whale family. A bulbous or melon-like forehead rises abruptly from the short beak in adult females; in young and older males the forehead is less prominent and appears flat. The whale is variable in colour, ranging from blackish in young animals, to light brown in older animals, to yellowish brown or grey (with whitish beaks and heads) in very old males. The small dorsal fin is situated about two-thirds of the length of the body from the nose.  Adult females give birth once every two years after a gestation period of one year.

The northern bottlenose whale is found only in the North Atlantic. In the areas where they are found, the water is deeper than 800 metres and they are rarely seen in shallower areas.  Although there have been few systematic marine mammal surveys in the offshore waters of Atlantic Canada, there are several known centres of abundance, two of which are found off Canada – the edge of the Scotian Shelf and the Davis Strait. The Scotian Shelf population is described as largely or totally distinct from the Labrador population.  For example, the whales of the Scotian Shelf population are approximately 0.7 m shorter than the population seen off northern Labrador. At the edge of the Scotian Shelf, the whales have been seen regularly in three submarine canyons: the Gully, Shortland Canyon, and Haldimand Canyon.  These areas are described as the “primary habitat” of the whales with year-round observations.  The Scotian Shelf represents the most southerly location where the whales are seen regularly in the North Atlantic.

Bottlenose whales feed primarily on deep-living squid from the genus Gonatus. These squid appear to be the most important component of their diet, but the whales also feed on other animals.  Northern bottlenose whales observed in the Gully appear to spend most of their time at great depths foraging for food.

Once whales dive deeper than the reach of sunlight, vision is of little use for navigation.  Bottlenose whales have highly developed vocalizing and hearing abilities that permit them to communicate, navigate, and locate prey in canyons and other deep areas.

Northern bottlenose whales are social animals.  They are most frequently seen in small groups of up to four whales and occasionally in larger groups of up to twenty whales.  They are curious animals who may investigate slow-moving or stationary vessels.

COSEWIC assessment

COSEWIC provides the following rationale for designating the Scotian Shelf population of the northern bottlenose whale as endangered:

This population totals about 130 individuals and appears to be currently stable. Oil and gas development in and around the prime habitat of this population poses the greatest threat and will likely reduce the quality of their habitat. However, there is little information as to how this species is, or is not, affected by oil and gas development activities.

Threats to the northern bottlenose whale – Scotian Shelf Population

The Scotian Shelf population of northern bottlenose whales was targeted by whalers in the 1960s. This whaling effort is thought to have led to a decline in the population size.

 Current threats to the northern bottlenose whale are poorly understood. However, because of the small size of the population, even activities that may impact only one or two whales each year may pose a threat to the overall health of the population.

Noise

 There are a variety of potential sources of anthropogenic noise in the marine waters of the Scotian Shelf that produce underwater sounds within the frequency range detectable by northern bottlenose whales.  These include commercial shipping, hydrocarbon exploration and development, military activity, underwater detonations, fishing, and research.  Based on the global experience with other marine mammals, responses to high levels of anthropogenic noise are mixed and may include habituation, behavioural changes (including displacement), temporary or permanent hearing impairment, and mortality.  Evidence of these impacts on marine mammals in the wild is lacking.  Other species of beaked whales have experienced harmful effects from loud noise, suggesting that the northern bottlenose whale may be particularly susceptible.  The cumulative effects of multiple noise exposure may have long-term population-level effects for marine mammals such as the northern bottlenose whale.

Seismic exploration

The oil and gas industry uses compressed air guns that emit sound pulses to map areas of subsea hydrocarbon deposits.  Research geologists also use airgun technology to study the seabed.  The behavioural and physical responses of northern bottlenose whales to airgun sounds are not understood, but seismic surveys are thought to be a threat to this species.  For example, surveys could cause the displacement of northern bottlenose whales from preferred habitat.  The likelihood and severity of biological effects that might result from being exposed to seismic sounds are thought to vary with the duration and intensity of exposure.  In recent years, seismic exploration has occurred near the whale’s “primary habitat”, with the potential for future activities in or near these areas.

Noise is also created by oil and gas exploratory drilling and production activities, with unknown impacts on the northern bottlenose whale.

Sonars

Sonars have been developed for military, research, and commercial purposes (e.g., fish-finding).  Strandings and deaths of several species of beaked whales after the use of military sonars have been reported in other parts of the world in recent years.  The precise mechanisms that might cause such strandings are unknown, but it has been suggested that sonars may cause disorientation after which the whales surface too quickly.

Explosives

Explosives, such as those used in well-severance and other underwater demolition operations, can cause physiological damage to whales and other marine life close to the source.  Hearing damage is a concern for whales that use sound to navigate or to find food.  Explosions that occur at a distance may change the behaviour of whales.

Commercial shipping

The propellers of large commercial vessels can produce relatively high levels of underwater sound.  This sound may disturb the northern bottlenose whales resulting in displacement or reduced feeding efficiency until the vessel moves away.

Entanglement in Fishing Gear

A small number of northern bottlenose whales have been seen entangled or interacting with fishing gear. In addition, there have been observations of scars and marks on the beaks and backs of this species that are similar to entanglement marks on other whale species.  These marks suggest that interactions, particularly with gear that deploy lines, may happen more frequently than has been observed.

Ship Strikes

Many vessels transit areas occupied by northern bottlenose whales.  Ship strikes are a source of injury and death for some species of endangered and threatened whales and may be a threat to this species as well.  There are some scars or marks on the whales that may be due to interactions with vessels, but there have been no reported cases of injury or death.

Contaminants

Increased levels of contaminants in areas typically frequented by whales can lead to elevated levels of organo-chlorine and heavy metal contaminants in their body tissues.  High levels of contaminants due to industrial development have negatively affected the health of some whale populations in Canada, for example, the beluga whale population in the St. Lawrence River. However, there is no published information specific to contaminants in northern bottlenose whales.

Concerns have been raised about the potential for contaminants from activities such as oil and gas installations and shipping traffic affecting northern bottlenose whales.  Ingestion of marine debris, such as plastics, has also been identified as a potential concern.

Protecting the northern bottlenose whale – Scotian Shelf population

The Marine Mammal Regulations (SOR 93-56) of the Fisheries Act govern many aspects of the management of the northern bottlenose whale.

 Several additional management measures are already in place to protect this species. In 1994, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans designated a "Whale Sanctuary" in the Gully for the northern bottlenose whale in the Canadian Notices to Mariners, providing guidelines for all marine vessels operating in the area.

In the mid-1990s, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans began consultations and studies to evaluate a marine protected area for the Gully.  Interim protection was put in place at that time, including restrictions on petroleum activities in the area.  As well, enhanced environmental assessment requirements for activities potentially affecting northern bottlenose whales were put in place to identify and minimize potential impacts.

Some oil and gas operators have instituted their own “Codes of Practice”for the Gully in order to minimize operational impacts on the whales.

In May 2004, the Gully was designated a Marine Protected Area (MPA) under the Oceans Act.  The regulations limit the type of activities permitted in the Gully.  The MPA provides full ecosystem protection in the central portion of the canyon, an area of known importance to the northern bottlenose whale.  No extractive activities are permitted in this portion of the MPA, but research activities may be approved.

Potential Impacts on Stakeholders

Once added to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk, the Scotian Shelf population of the northern bottlenose whale will be protected.  If particular activities are assessed to be a threat to the survival and recovery of a listed species, management measures will be put in place to limit those activities and ensure the protection of species at risk.

 These measures may lead to a variety of impacts on stakeholders, including additional costs.  The following list is not exhaustive, and would be developed further during the recovery planning process in consultation with other government departments and the public.  Please use this consultation as an opportunity to comment on omissions.

Aboriginal

Aboriginal peoples will be invited to participate in the development of a recovery strategy for the northern bottlenose whale.  Management strategies that could affect aboriginal people fishing for commercial species inareas inhabited by northern bottlenose whales may be considered.

Fishing Industry

 If a particular fishing activity is identified to be a threat to the survival and recovery of a listed species, management measures will be taken to address the threat.  These measures could include increased observer coverage in certain areas, closed areas, gear modifications, or other measures developed in collaboration with industry that will help prevent and minimize the effects of potential entanglements and interactions.

Oil and Gas Industry

Certain oil and gas activities, such as seismic exploration activity, have been identified as potential threats to the recovery of this species.  Such activities will be reviewed and may be restricted in areas defined as critical habitat (if and when identified).  The recovery process could identify a range of operational requirements and guidelines for exploration.  These guidelines might include time and area exclusions, requirements for marine mammal observers, and other measures deemed appropriate.  Proposed oil and gas activities that fall under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) will need to address the impacts on SARA listed species in accordance with this legislation.

Military Operations

 Maritime Forces Atlantic may be asked to prepare guidelines for exercises or underwater site remediation in areas of northern bottlenose whale habitat.  They may be asked to refrain from undertaking specific types of exercises in these areas or in areas that could impinge on critical habitat (if and when identified).  As identified in SARA, these requirements would be waived in emergencies or if national security were affected.

Research Activity

Those wishing to carry out research on the northern bottlenose whale or in areas of their critical habitat (if and when identified) will be required to comply with strict guidelines.  This may limit the types and/or durations of research permitted and may lengthen the preparation time required for planning research projects.  All research activity will be subject to a rigorous review process.  Research activities in the Gully require additional approvals under the MPA regulations.

Marine Transport

The marine transport industry and regulators may be asked to develop guidelines for vessel traffic, similar to those currently in place for the Gully.  The industry may be asked to monitor and report on their activities in northern bottlenose whale areas.

Eco-tourism/Whale Watching

Although ecotourism activities in the offshore have been limited to date, there may be future interest in regularly visiting areas frequented by northern bottlenose whales.  This activity may require specific guidelines or may be restricted or limited in areas identified as critical habitat. 

 

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References

References

COSEWIC 2002. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the northern bottlenose whale Hyperoodon ampullatus (Scotian Shelf population) in Canada.  Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa.  vi + 22 pp.

The Gully Marine Protected Area Regulations, Canada Gazette Vol. 138, No. 10 (SOR/2004-112 May, 2004)

Canadian Coast Guard, 2004 Annual Edition - Notices to Mariners (Ottawa: Department of Fisheries and Oceans)

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Consultation Workbook

Consultation Workbook Survey

Northern Bottlenose Whale (Scotian Shelf Population)

The government's decision on whether or not to list a species under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) will be based on a full description and understanding of the costs and benefits of the impacts of protection and recovery on individuals, organizations, First Nations, industries, and Canadian society in general.

This survey form can be used to provide your opinions about listing the Scotian Shelf population of northern bottlenose whale under SARA. It also begins with some general questions about conservation priorities and your awareness of other aquatic species at risk.

Comments are welcome from individuals of all backgrounds, whether you are engaged in activities that may be affected by northern bottlenose whale conservation efforts or are a citizen with an interest in northern bottlenose whales.

You should read the consultation workbook before completing these questions.

About the Consultation Workbook Survey

The consultation workbook survey asks you to answer a series of questions that require reflection about your views relating to the conservation and recovery of the Scotian Shelf population of northern bottlenose whale. There are a variety of question formats in this survey. There are also numerous opportunities for personal responses to further explain your views. If you would like to keep the introductory sections of this workbook, please feel free to detach this section and return only the survey.

Please return your workbook to:

Species at Risk Coordination Office

Bedford Institute of Oceanography

P.O. Box 1006

1 Challenger Drive

Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2

Alternatively, you may email comments toXMARSARA@mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca or visit http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca to complete an electronic version of this survey. In addition to this survey, public meetings will be held in the Maritimes during the consultation period. For specific times and locations of public meetings, please check http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca.

The information that you provide is important! We very much appreciate the time and effort you take to complete this survey!

Return to Table of Contents

Your opinion

Your Opinion On Government Priorities

Commercial fishing, sport fishing, First Nation food and ceremonial fishing, industrial use and conservation needs are all considered when the government makes decisions about conservation policies and programs. How would you rate the importance of these considerations if you were making decisions about the management of aquatic species at risk?

Please choose an option that reflects your rating of the importance of these considerations in ocean management
 Very Low PrioritySomewhat Low PriorityModerate PrioritySomewhat High PriorityVery High Priority
Recreational Fishing     
Commercial Fishing      
Marine Industries     
Conservation     
First Nations Food and Ceremonial Fishing     

Do you have any other comments about how conservation priorities should be determined? If so, please use the space below.

Your Awareness about Aquatic Species at Risk in the Maritimes

This table shows a number of listed and proposed species at risk in the Maritimes (COSEWIC designations are provided). For each, please indicate your knowledge of this species.

 Iam not familiar with this speciesI am somewhat familiar with this speciesI am very familiar with this species
Inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic Salmon (current SARA status: endangered)   
Atlantic Whitefish (current SARA status: endangered)   
LakeUtopiaDwarf Smelt (current SARA status: threatened)   
Leatherback Turtle (current SARA status: endangered)   
Atlantic Wolffish (current SARA status: special concern)   
North Atlantic Right Whale (proposed SARA status: endangered)   
Blue Whale (proposed SARA status: endangered)   
Northern Bottlenose Whale (proposed SARA status: endangered)   
Cusk (proposed SARA status: threatened)   
Porbeagle Shark (proposed SARA status: endangered)   
Yellow Lampmussel (proposed SARA status: special concern)   

Your Opinions about Conservation Priorities for Aquatic Species at Risk in Atlantic Canada

Please choose an option that reflects your rating of what level of priority should be placed on conservation efforts for this species.

 Very Low Conser-vation PrioritySomewhat Low Conser-vation PriorityModerate Conser-vation PrioritySomewhat High Conser-vation PriorityVery High Conser-vation PriorityI am not Familiar with this Species so Cannot Say
Inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic Salmon (current SARA status: endangered)      
Atlantic Whitefish (current SARA status: endangered)      
Lake Utopia Dwarf Smelt (current SARA status: threatened)      
Leatherback Turtle (current SARA status: endangered)      
Atlantic Wolffish (current SARA status: special concern)      
North Atlantic Right Whale (proposed SARA status: endangered)      
Blue Whale (proposed SARA status: endangered)      
Northern Bottlenose Whale (proposed SARA status: endangered)      
Cusk (proposed SARA status: threatened)      
Porbeagle Shark (proposed SARA status: endangered)      
Yellow Lampmussel (proposed SARA status: special concern)      

Your Opinions about Threats to Northern Bottlenose Whales

For each factor, please indicate your opinion about how important a threat that factor is to northern bottlenose whales.

 Very LowSomewhat LowModerateSomewhat HighVery HighI Have No Opinion On This Factor
Entanglement in Fixed Fishing Gear (e.g., traps, gillnets, longlines)      
Entanglement in Mobile Fishing Gear (e.g., trawl nets)       
Vessel Strikes      
Sonar and other Vessel Noise      
Noise Caused by Seismic Testing      
Noise Caused by Oil and Gas Drilling      
Disturbance by Scientific Researchers      
Pollutants      
Disruption of the Northern Bottlenose Whale Food Chain      
Climate Change and Effects on Marine Ecosystems      

Do you have any comments about other possible factors that may threaten northern bottlenose whale survival and recovery? If so, please use the space below.

Your Opinions about Possible Interventions to Help Northern Bottlenose Whale Conservation and Recovery

For each factor, please indicate what level of impact you think this measure will have on northern bottlenose whale recovery.

 Very LowSomewhat LowModerateSomewhat HighVery HighI Have No Opinion On This Factor
Develop and Fund Whale Disentanglement Teams      
Develop Guidelines for Vessel Traffic      
Divert Vessel Traffic Around Areas where Northern Bottlenose Whale Live      
Develop Low-Impact Fishing Gear      
Impose Fishing Closures where Northern Bottlenose Whales Live      
Conduct Scientific Research to Better Understand Northern Bottlenose Whale Behaviour and Impacts      
Increase the Size of Fines for Harming Northern Bottlenose Whales      
Increase Public Awareness about Northern Bottlenose Whale Conservation      
Increase Awareness within Marine Industries about Northern Bottlenose Whale Conservation      
Develop Pollution Response and Control Strategies      
Develop Guidelines for Military Activities      

Do you have any other comments about how other interventions might help northern bottlenose whale conservation and recovery? If so, please use the space below.

Your Opinion about the Potential Direct or Indirect Costs of Northern Bottlenose Whale Conservation and Recovery

Please choose an option that reflects your rating of the likely economic impacts (direct and indirect) of northern bottlenose whale conservation and recovery to this industry or group.

 NegligibleSomewhat LowModerateSomewhat HighVery HighI Have No Opinion On This Factor
Costs to the Commercial Vessels      
Costs to Fixed Gear Fishers (e.g., traps, gillnets, longlines)       
Costs to Mobile Gear Fishers (e.g., trawl nets)       
Costs to Pelagic Longline Fishers      
Costs to Oil and Gas Drilling and Production Companies      
Costs to Seismic Exploration Companies      
Costs to the Military      
Costs to my Personal Household      
Costs to Scientific Researchers      

Do you have any other comments about how conservation interventions might lead to costs on other people or industry sectors, or about what your suggestions are to minimize costs? Costs might be direct (e.g., increasing the cost of doing business) or they might be indirect (e.g., lost opportunities for commercial activities). If so, please use the space below.

Your Opinion about the Potential Benefits of Northern Bottlenose Whale Conservation and Recovery to Canadian Society

Please choose an option that reflects your rating of the likely benefits (economic or social) of northern bottlenose whale conservation and recovery to this industry or segment of society.

 NegligibleSomewhat LowModerateSomewhat HighVery HighI Have No Opinion On This Impact
Benefits to Maritime Coastal Communities      
Benefits to the Tourism Industry      
Benefits to Canadian Society as a Whole      
Benefits to First Nations      
Benefits to the Scientific Community      

Your Opinion about Other Potential Benefits of Northern Bottlenose Whale Conservation and Recovery

Please choose an option that reflects your level of agreement or disagreement with the following statements.

 Strongly DisagreeSomewhat DisagreeNeither Agree Nor DisagreeSomewhat AgreeStrongly AgreeI Have No Opinion On This Impact
I think that northern bottlenose whales are valuable because they play an important role in maintaining healthy marine ecosystems.      
I think that northern bottlenose whales will be valuable to future generations.      
I think that many people in Canada value northern bottlenose whales even though they may never personally see a northern bottlenose whale.      

Do you have any other comments about who might benefit from northern bottlenose whale conservation and how important this benefit might be? If so, please use the space below.

Comments about the Proposed Listing Status of the Scotian Shelf Population of Northern Bottlenose Whale

Have you read the COSEWIC status report for the Scotian Shelf population of northern bottlenose whale?

Yes

No

Please choose an option that reflects your level of support for the Government of Canada listing northern bottlenose whale as an endangered species under the Species at Risk Act.

I Strongly Disagree with listing northern bottlenose whale as an endangered species
I Somewhat Disagree with listing northern bottlenose whale as an endangered species
I Neither Agree nor Disagree with listing northern bottlenose whale as an endangered species
I Somewhat Agree with listing northern bottlenose whale as an endangered species
I Strongly Agree with listing northern bottlenose whale as an endangered species

If you disagree with listing northern bottlenose whale as an endangered species, could you please tell us why?

 

 

 

If you agree with listing northern bottlenose whale as an endangered species, could you please tell us why?

 

 

 

How can you as an individual, or your industry, organization or community, participate in the recovery of this species? Please give examples of particular activities if you can.

 

 


Do you have any other comments about this survey or SARA that you would like to share with us? If so, please use the space below.

 

 

 

 

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Information About You

What is Your Age Category?

< 20 Years

20-29 Years

30-39 Years

40-49 Years

50-59 Years

60-69 Years

> 70 Years

What is Your Gender?

Female

Male

Where do you live?

Nova Scotia

New Brunswick

Prince Edward Island

Newfoundland and Labrador

Quebec

Ontario

Western Canada or Territories

Outside Canada but I am a Canadian Citizen or Permanent Resident

Outside Canada - I am not a Canadian Citizen or Permanent Resident


In which sector are you employed?

Retired

Full-Time Homemaker

Student

Commercial Fishing/Processing

Farming

Forestry

Oil and Gas

Professional Services

Private Sector – Other

Academic

Government

Non-Governmental Organization

I am Between Jobs

I am Employed in another Field

If you work in the commercial fishing or processing industry, what types of commercial fishing activities have you engaged in over the past 5 years? Please check all the applicable boxes.

Work in a Processing Plant

Fish for Groundfish on a Fixed Gear Vessel (<45')

Fish for Groundfish on a Fixed Gear Vessel (>45')

Fish for Groundfish on a Mobile Gear Vessel

Fish for Lobster

Fish for Scallops

Fish for Snow Crab

Fish for Large Pelagics on a Longline Vessel

Work in the Aquaculture Industry

Fish for Other Species or Using Other Methods

Industry Association Representative or Consultant

You've now finished the survey – thank you very much for your help

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