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Recovery Strategy for the Half-moon Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna) in Canada - 2014 [Proposed]

Part 2: "Recovery Strategy for Half-moon Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna) in British Columbia and Alberta", prepared by the British Columbia Southern Interior Invertebrates Recovery Team for the British Columbia Ministry of Environment

Recovery Strategy for Half-moon Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna) in British Columbia and Alberta

Half-moon Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna)

Prepared by the British Columbia Southern Interior Invertebrates Recovery Team

November 2011

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Document Information

About the British Columbia Recovery Strategy Series

This series presents the recovery strategies or recovery plans that are prepared as advice to the Province of British Columbia on the general strategic approach required to recover species at risk. Recovery strategies are prepared in accordance with the priorities and management actions assigned under the British Columbia Conservation Framework. The Province prepares recovery strategies or recovery plans to ensure coordinated conservation actions and meet its commitments to recover species at risk under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk in Canada, and the Canada - British Columbia Agreement on Species at Risk.

What is recovery?

Species at risk recovery is the process by which the decline of an endangered, threatened, or extirpated species is arrested or reversed, and threats are removed or reduced to improve the likelihood of a species' persistence in the wild.

What is a recovery strategy?

A recovery strategy summarizes the best available science-based knowledge of a species or ecosystem to identify goals, objectives, and strategic approaches that provide a coordinated direction for recovery. These documents outline what is and what is not known about a species or ecosystem, identify threats to the species or ecosystem, and explain what should be done to mitigate those threats.

What's next?

In some cases, one or more action plan(s) will be developed to define and guide implementation of the recovery strategy. Action plans include more detailed information about what needs to be done to meet the objectives of the recovery strategy. However, when sufficient information to guide implementation for the species can be included in the recovery strategy, a separate action plan is not required.

For more information

To learn more about species at risk recovery in British Columbia, please visit the Ministry of Environment Recovery Planning webpage at:
Recovery Planning in British Columbia

To learn more about the British Columbia Conservation Framework, please visit the Ministry of Environment Conservation Framework webpage at:
Conservation Framework

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Recommended citation

B.C. Southern Interior Invertebrates Recovery Team. 2011. Recovery strategy for Half-moon Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna) in British Columbia and Alberta. Prepared for the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC. 33 pp.

Cover illustration/photograph
Denis Knopp (Photo taken in South Okanagan Grassland Protected Area, BC Parks, June 2007).

Additional copies

Additional copies can be downloaded from the B.C. Ministry of Environment Recovery Planning webpage at:
Recovery Planning in British Columbia

Publication information

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

British Columbia Southern Interior Invertebrates Recovery Team

Recovery strategy for half-moon hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna) in British Columbia and Alberta [electronic resource] / prepared by the British Columbia Southern Interior Invertebrates Recovery Team.

"November 2011".
Includes bibliographical references.
Electronic monograph in PDF format.
ISBN 978-0-7726-6542-3

1. Satyrium--British Columbia. 2. Rare butterflies--British Columbia. 3.Wildlife recovery--British Columbia. I. British Columbia. Ministry of Environment II.Title.

QL561 L8 B7 2011
333.95'571609711
C2011-909068-6

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Disclaimer

This recovery strategy has been prepared by the British Columbia Southern Interior Invertebrates Recovery Team, as advice to the responsible jurisdictions and organizations that may be involved in recovering the species. The British Columbia Ministry of Environment has received this advice as part of fulfilling its commitments under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk in Canada, and the Canada -British Columbia Agreement on Species at Risk.

This document identifies the recovery strategies that are deemed necessary, based on the best available scientific and traditional information, to recover Half-moon Hairstreak populations in British Columbia and Alberta. Recovery actions to achieve the goals and objectives identified herein are subject to the priorities and budgetary constraints of participatory agencies and organizations. These goals, objectives, and recovery approaches may be modified in the future to accommodate new objectives and findings.

The responsible jurisdictions and all members of the recovery team have had an opportunity to review this document. However, this document does not necessarily represent the official positions of the agencies or the personal views of all individuals on the recovery team.

Success in the recovery of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that may be involved in implementing the directions set out in this strategy. B.C. Ministry of Environment encourages all Canadians to participate in the recovery of Half-moon Hairstreak.

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Recovery Team Members

Sylvie Desjardins, University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC

Orville Dyer (co-chair), B.C. Ministry of Environment, Penticton, BC

Jennifer Heron (co-chair), B.C. Ministry of Environment, Vancouver, BC

Stephen Hureau, Environment Canada - Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, BC

Dan Shervill, Environment Canada - Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, BC

Ron Casorso, National Research Council - White Lake Observatory, Penticton, BC

Cyndi Smith, Parks Canada Agency, Waterton Lakes National Park, AB

Dennis St. John, Private Entomologist, Willowbrook, BC

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Responsible Jurisdictions

The British Columbia Ministry of Environment is responsible for producing a recovery strategy for Half-moon Hairstreak under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk in Canada. Parks Canada Agency and Environment Canada also participated in the preparation of this recovery strategy.

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Acknowledgements

Many individuals contributed information to this strategy. Jennifer Heron (B.C. Ministry of Environment) wrote the draft recovery strategy, which was then edited according to suggestions from members of the Southern Interior Invertebrates Recovery Team. Orville Dyer (B.C. Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations) contributed significant feedback and editorial suggestions to the recovery strategy. Dennis St. John contributed data and scientific expertise; his collective (over a number of years) and independent research on Half-moon Hairstreak and other butterflies in the southern Okanagan is vital to these species' recovery in British Columbia. Brenda Costanzo provided information about plant communities in the Southern Interior.

Additional reviews were completed by Jeff Brown (B.C. Ministry of Environment), Diane Casimir (Parks Canada Agency), and Norbert Kondla (consultant). B.C. Parks and Protected Areas staff (Sarah Bunge and Andrea Mead, through support of their supervisor Mark Weston) spent time and resources searching for the Half-moon Hairstreak. Norbert Kondla, Jennifer Heron, and Denis Knopp provided photographs. Leah Westereng reformatted this document as per Ministry of Environment's standards (see Ministry of Environment 2010 a) and contributed greatly to editorial revisions and overall document completion.

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Executive Summary

Half-moon Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna) is listed as Endangered in Canada on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA). The butterfly was assessed as Endangered by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) due to a small, restricted range and decline, likely as a result of habitat loss. In British Columbia (B.C.), the conservation status rank of Half-moon Hairstreak is S1 (imperiled) and is on the provincial Red list. The B.C. Conservation Framework ranks Half-moon Hairstreak as a priority 1 under goal 3 (maintain the diversity of native species and ecosystems). Half-moon Hairstreak is identified as a Species At Risk under the Forest and Range Practices Act and is listed as Identified Wildlife under the Identified Wildlife Management Strategy. The Alberta Conservation Information Management System (ACIMS) lists the species provincially as S1 (imperiled; Red-listed). Recovery of Half-moon Hairstreak is considered biologically and technically feasible.

Half-moon Hairstreak (Family Lycaenidae) is a small butterfly with a 2.0 - 3.4 cm wingspan. The dorsal wing surfaces are a uniform brownish-black "sooty" colouration. The flight period is from late May through late June in B.C. and late June through late July in Alberta (AB), with one generation per year in both provinces. The flight period is correlated with the flowering period of nectar host plants, which include yellow buckwheat (Eriogonum flavum) in AB and Missouri goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis) in both B.C. and AB. The flight period usually declines with the senescence (aging) of the larval host plants, which are lupines (Lupinus spp.).

Within Canada, Half-moon Hairstreak is restricted to the dry arid grasslands of southern B.C. and southwestern AB. In total, there are eight locations of the species in Canada: seven locations in the south Okanagan Valley in B.C. and one location within Blakiston Creek fan, Waterton Lakes National Park (WLNP), AB. The combined B.C. and AB area of occurrence is approximately 346 km2. There may be additional locations for the species within unchecked grassland habitats in both southern B.C. and AB.

In B.C., definitive threats to Half-moon Hairstreak are mainly from urban and agricultural land development. Additional potential threats in B.C. that need clarification include competition from introduced plants and animals and the habitat changes that result from introduced species; and impacts to habitat from domestic livestock overgrazing. Potential threats applicable to both B.C. and AB (and need further clarification) include overgrazing from native ungulates, climate change and natural disasters throughout the butterfly's Canadian range; and range-wide changes in ecological dynamics and ecological processes due to the combination of fire suppression, forest encroachment, changing soil chemistry, and water availability.

The population and distribution goal for Half-moon Hairstreak is to ensure the persistence of populations of Half-moon Hairstreak at all known extant locations (and any new locations) within the species' range in Canada.

The recovery objectives are

  1. To establish habitat protection Footnote 1 for the eight known extant Half-moon Hairstreak locations.
  2. To assess and mitigate the extent of known and potential threats at each Half-moon Hairstreak location.
  3. To confirm the distribution of all populations (existing and new locations) of Half-moon Hairstreak in British Columbia and Alberta.
  4. To address knowledge gaps such as life history, dispersal and population information, and habitat requirements.

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Recovery Feasibility Summary

The recovery of Half-moon Hairstreak in Canada is considered feasible based on the criteria outlined by the Government of Canada (2009):

  1. Individuals of the wildlife species that are capable of reproduction are available now or in the foreseeable future to sustain the population or improve its abundance.

    Yes. Half-moon Hairstreak populations are present at seven known locations within B.C. and one location within AB.

  2. Sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species or could be made available through habitat management or restoration.

    Yes. Half-moon Hairstreak occurs in sagebrush grassland habitats in the southern Okanagan in B.C. The AB location within Waterton Lakes National Park is in grasslands naturally dominated by oatgrasses, rough fescue, and junegrass (Achuff et al. 2002). Habitat mapping in both B.C. and AB suggests a substantial amount of potential habitat is available.

    Visually suitable habitat exists in AB on the Sofa Creek and Stoney Creek alluvial fans within WLNP, and adjacent to WLNP. Portions of Sofa Creek alluvial fan have been checked, although additional surveys are needed. The vegetation appears similar to occupied sites at Blakiston Creek fan. Additional work is required to determine whether the species does exist in these areas.

  3. The primary threats to the species or its habitat (including threats outside Canada) can be avoided or mitigated.

    Yes. Significant threats to Half-moon Hairstreak habitat in both B.C. and AB can be mitigated through habitat protection, education, introduced species control, and changes to livestock grazing regimes (when deemed necessary) that consider negative impacts to butterfly host plants. Taking steps to maintain natural grassland environments and connectivity is important to maintain the long-term viability of meta-populations at each location.

  4. Recovery techniques exist to achieve the population and distribution objectives or can be expected to be developed within a reasonable timeframe.

    Yes. Effective recovery techniques exist to restore habitat for Half-moon Hairstreak in both B.C. and AB. Techniques focus on protecting habitat (in B.C.), removing and controlling introduced plants (in B.C. and AB), and managing unsuitable livestock grazing regimes (in B.C. and if new locations are found in AB, outside of WLNP).

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1 COSEWIC Footnote * Species Assessment information

Date of Assessment:
April 2006
Common Name (population):
Half-moon Hairstreak
Scientific Name:
Satyrium semiluna
COSEWIC Status:
Endangered
Reason for Designation:
The butterfly occurs as disjunct populations in two small, restricted areas at the northern extreme of the species' range. The species' population has likely declined in the past as a result of habitat loss. Both populations continue to be threatened by habitat loss and degradation. In British Columbia the species occurs in an area under severe pressure for development. In both Alberta and British Columbia, invasive weeds also pose a serious threat.
Canadian Occurrence:
British Columbia, Alberta
COSEWIC Status History:
Designated Endangered in April 2006. Assessment based on a new status report.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

Return to footnote * referrer

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2 Species Status Information

Half-moon Hairstreak Species Status Footnote a

Legal Designation:
Identified Wildlife (B.C.):Species Status Footnote b
Yes
B.C. Wildlife Act:Species Status Footnote c
No
SARA Schedule :1
(2007)
Conservation StatusSpecies Status Footnote d
B.C. List:
Red
B.C. Rank:
S1 (2006)
AB List:
Red
AB Rank:
S1 (2006)
National Rank :
N1 (2009)
Global Rank:
G4 (2007)
USA Subnational Ranks :Species Status Footnote e
California:
SNR;
Colorado:
S3;
Idaho:
SNR;
Montana:
S4;
Nevada:
SNR;
Oregon:
SNR;
Utah:
SNR;
Washington:
S4;
Wyoming:
SNR
B.C. Conservation Framework (CF)Species Status Footnote f
Goal 1: Contribute to global efforts for species and ecosystem conservation.
PrioritySpecies Status Footnote g: 3 (2009)
Goal 2: Prevent species and ecosystems from becoming at risk.
Priority: 6 (2009)
Goal 3: Maintain the diversity of native species and ecosystems.
Priority: 1 (2009)
CF Action Groups :
Compile Status Report; Planning; List under Wildlife Act; Send to COSEWIC; Habitat Protection; Habitat Restoration; Private Land Stewardship

Footnotes

Footnote a

Data source: B.C. Conservation Data Centre (2010) unless otherwise noted.

Return to Species Status footnote a referrer

Footnote b

Identified Wildlife under the Forest and Range Practices Act, which includes the categories of species at risk, ungulates, and regionally important wildlife (Province of British Columbia 2002).

Return to Species Status footnote b referrer

Footnote c

Not designated as wildlife under the B.C. Wildlife Act (Province of British Columbia 1982).

Return to Species Status footnote c referrer

Footnote d

S = subnational; N = national; G = global; B = breeding; X = presumed extirpated; H = possibly extirpated; 1 = critically imperiled; 2 = imperiled; 3 = special concern, vulnerable to extirpation or extinction; 4 = apparently secure; 5 = demonstrably widespread, abundant, and secure; NA = not applicable; NR = unranked; U = unrankable. U.S. data from NatureServe (2009).

Return to Species Status footnote d referrer

Footnote e

Data source: NatureServe (2009).

Return to Species Status footnote e referrer

Footnote f

Data source: Ministry of Environment (2010b).

Return to Species Status footnote f referrer

Footnote g

Six-level scale: Priority 1 (highest priority) through to Priority 6 (lowest priority).

Return to Species Status footnote g referrer

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3 Species Information

3.1 Species Description

Half-moon Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna, family Lycaenidae) was described as a subspecies of S. fuliginosum until recently when Warren (2005) provided reasons for designating semiluna to species status. It has been suggested populations in British Columbia (B.C.) (Figure 1 and 2) and Alberta (AB) (Figure 3 and 4) may be separate subspecies based on noted multiple visual differences (N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2008). Until further taxonomic and/or genetic studies confirm otherwise, both B.C. and AB populations of Half-moon Hairstreak are considered a single species. There are no subspecies of S. semiluna identified in Canada at this time.

Half-moon Hairstreak (Figures 1 - 4) is a small butterfly with a wingspan from 2.0 to 3.4 cm (Guppy and Shepard 2001; N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2008). Adults do not have 'tails', which are evident on most other hairstreak species in B.C. and AB; this morphological feature makes this species distinguishable from other hairstreaks. The dorsal wing surfaces are a uniform brownish-black 'sooty' colouration (Figure 1 for B.C.; Figure 3 for AB) with white fringe scales that vary in colour from grey to tan to white, depending on light conditions. Females tend to have 'paler' fringe scales (N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2009). The ventral wing surfaces (Figure 2 for BC; Figure 4 for AB) are a greyish brown, have a faint white fringe, and have two rows of black spots towards the outer half of the wing. White fuzzy-edged rings surround these black spots, and some spots are solid white. In many specimens, these spots are indistinct. The body is sooty grey on the dorsal surface and lighter whitish grey on the ventral surface. Overall, females tend to be larger and paler than males in a given population (N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2008). For further information on the species' appearance, refer to Bird et al. (1995), Layberry et al. (1998), Mattoon and Austin (1998), Guppy and Shepard (2001), Warren (2005), and the COSEWIC status report (2006).

When multiple B.C. and AB specimens are compared, B.C. males tend to be measurably larger than AB males (COSEWIC 2006). In addition, the overall colouration of AB specimens is a lighter grey than B.C. specimens and without pronounced dots on the wings. For a further description of Half-moon Hairstreak, see Bird et al. (1995), Layberry et al. (1998), Guppy and Shepard (2001), and COSEWIC (2006).

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Figure 1. Dorsal wing surfaces of B.C. specimen of Half-moon Hairstreak. Specimen from Anarchist Mountain (location #2), near Osoyoos, B.C. (collected June 21, 1975, by J.L. Gordon) and housed at the Beaty Biodiversity Museum Spencer Entomological Collection at the University of B.C. Photo: J. Heron

Dorsal wing surfaces of B.C. specimen of Half-moon Hairstreak

Photo: J. Heron © Environment Canada

Long description for Figure 1

Figure 1 shows dorsal wing surfaces of a B.C. specimen of Half-moon Hairstreak. Specimen from Anarchist Mountain (location #2), near Osoyoos, B.C. (collected June 21, 1975, by J.L. Gordon) and housed at the Beaty Biodiversity Museum Spencer Entomological Collection at the University of B.C. Photo: J. Heron.

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Figure 2. Ventral wing surfaces of Half-moon Hairstreak. The discal spot on this specimen is not typical, and usually darker in other specimens (see arrow). Specimen from Anarchist Mountain (location #2), near Osoyoos, BC (collected June 21, 1975, by J.L. Gordon) and housed at the Beaty Biodiversity Museum Spencer Entomological Collection at the University of B.C. Photo: J. Heron.

Ventral wing surfaces of Half-moon Hairstreak

Photo: J. Heron © Environment Canada

Long description for Figure 2

Figure 2 shows ventral wing surfaces of a Half-moon Hairstreak. The discal spot on this specimen is not typical, and usually darker in other specimens (see arrow). Specimen from Anarchist Mountain (location #2), near Osoyoos, BC (collected June 21, 1975, by J.L. Gordon) and housed at the Beaty Biodiversity Museum Spencer Entomological Collection at the University of B.C. Photo: J. Heron.

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Figure 3. Dorsal wing surfaces of AB male specimen of Half-moon Hairstreak from Blakiston Fan, AB. Note this specimen looks darker than the B.C. male, however this is just due to photographic quality. In order to compare B.C. and AB specimens (e.g. size, colour, etc.) numerous specimens would need to be compared. Photo: N. Kondla.

Dorsal wing surfaces of AB male specimen of Half-moon Hairstreak

Photo: N. Kondla © Environment Canada

Long description for Figure 3

Figure 3 shows dorsal wing surfaces of an AB male specimen of Half-moon Hairstreak from Blakiston Fan, AB. Note this specimen looks darker than the B.C. male, however this is just due to photographic quality. In order to compare B.C. and AB specimens (e.g. size, colour, etc.) numerous specimens would need to be compared. Photo: N. Kondla.

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Figure 4. Ventral wing surfaces of AB male specimen of Half-moon Hairstreak. Specimen from Blakiston Fan, AB. Photo: N. Kondla.

Ventral wing surfaces of AB male specimen of Half-moon Hairstreak

Photo: N. Kondla © Environment Canada

Long description for Figure 4

Figure 4 shows ventral wing surfaces of an AB male specimen of Half-moon Hairstreak. Specimen from Blakiston Fan, AB. Photo: N. Kondla.

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Similar Species: Half-moon Hairstreak adults may be confused with the Lycaenid butterfly, Boisduval's Blue (Plebejus icarioides). Half-moon Hairstreak and Boisduval's Blue have overlapping flight periods in both B.C. and AB (Bird et al. 1995; Layberry et al. 1998; Guppy and Shepard 2001; Kondla 2003a). The ventral wing surfaces of both species are similar in colouration, and neither species has a tail. However, unlike Half-moon Hairstreak, the dorsal wing surfaces of Boisduval's Blue males are blue and females' light blue (not pictured). Boisduval's Blue females that overlap with Half-moon Hairstreak in Canadian locations are typically brown on the dorsal surfaces, with limited blue scaling. Half-moon Hairstreak perches and nectars with its wings closed, while Boisduval's Blue often opens its wings while at rest or nectaring (N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2008).

Eggs: Half-moon Hairstreak eggs are greenish white and occasionally tan-brown (Scott 1986a, 1986b, 1992); the tan colouration is a factor with egg age (D. Jones, pers. comm., 2008). Egg descriptions are further detailed in Scott (1986a, 1986b, 1992) and have been observed by Jones (pers. comm., 2008). There is one documented observation of an egg from the B.C. location at White Lake (location #3, see map in Figure 6; D. St. John, pers. comm., 2008). There are no documented observations of eggs from AB.

Larvae: Half-moon Hairstreak larvae have a brown head and a light green body with white chevrons on the lateral surface (Scott 1986a, 1986b, 1992; G. Pratt, pers. comm., 2008). Larval descriptions are further detailed in Ballmer and Pratt (1988). There are no documented observations of larvae from B.C. or AB locations.

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3.2 Populations and Distribution

The global range of Half-moon Hairstreak is restricted to western North America from south-central B.C., east to Waterton Lakes National Park (WLNP) in AB; south through eastern Washington and Oregon, Idaho, northeastern California, northern Nevada, andeast to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado (Figure 5). Occurrences within B.C. and AB are the northernmost records in the species' global range (COSEWIC 2006; B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2010) and the locations within these two provinces are separated by more than 400 km of apparently unsuitable habitat.

Surveys for Half-moon Hairstreak from 2003 to 2010 (see Section 6.1, Actions Completed or Underway) confirm eight extant locations Footnote 2 within Canada: seven within B.C. Footnote 3 (COSEWIC 2006; B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2010) and one within AB (COSEWIC 2006; Poll and Poll 2008; Table 1). Populations in B.C. and AB are considered disjunct due to the extensive separation distance (> 400 km) and unsuitable habitat between locations (COSEWIC 2006). The AB location is considered disjunct from the main U.S. populations (Figure 5) and rescue effect is not likely to occur.

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Figure 5. Global range of Half-moon Hairstreak (COSEWIC 2006).

Global range of Half-moon Hairstreak
Long description for Figure 5

Figure 5 shows the global range of Half-moon Hairstreak (COSEWIC 2006). Further details can be found in the preceding/next paragraph(s).

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Current quantified population estimates at each Half-moon Hairstreak location in both B.C. and AB are unavailable. Population estimates are difficult to calculate and the population numbers fluctuate from year to year. Half-moon Hairstreak is often detected in low numbers, and may not be detected yearly at some sites. Due to weather fluctuations and the natural fluctuations in butterfly populations, it is difficult to estimate a trend. For example, in 2003 Kondla (COSEWIC 2006) detected a population at the West White Lake (location #3) (Table 1); in 2005, St. John (pers. comm., 2008) did not find one specimen there despite intensive surveys throughout the flight period; in 2006, St. John detected one specimen in late June at the location; and in 2007, St. John detected numerous individuals nearby, although not in the exact same host plant area as 2003 or 2006. Although population estimates have been reported previously (Kondla 2003a, 2004b; COSEWIC 2006), these numbers are not based on any mark-recapture work or scientific data, and the validity of the population estimate is questionable.

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Table 1a. Known locationsTable 1a Footnote a of Half-moon Hairstreak in Canada as of 2010. - Alberta
LocationLocation nameLand tenureElevation (m)Most recent year observed
1Waterton Lakes National Park Table 1a Footnote bNational park12902009 (Kondla 2009)
Table 1b. Known locationsTable 1b Footnote a of Half-moon Hairstreak in Canada as of 2010. - British Columbia
LocationLocation nameLand tenureElevation (m)Most recent year observed
2Anarchist Mountain Table 1b Footnote bPrivate land8002003 (COSEWIC 2006)
33a. East, White Lake Table 1b Footnote bNRC Table 1b Footnote e6152007 (Scott et al. 2007).
33b. West, White Lake Table 1b Footnote cNRC5952010 (EC-CWS,Table 1b Footnote g unpubl. data)
44a. Richter Pass Table 1b Footnote bPrivate (multiple landowners)7002003 (COSEWIC 2006)
44b. Mount Kobau Site b and Kilpoola Site Table 1b Footnote c,Table 1b Footnote dSouth Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area Table 1b Footnote f7652009 (B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2010)
5Blind Creek Table 1b Footnote bPrivate9842010 (EC-CWS, unpubl. data)
6Kilpoola Lake Table 1b Footnote b,Table 1b Footnote dPrivate7002010 (EC-CWS, unpubl. data)
7Near Keremeos Columns Provincial Park Table 1b Footnote bPrivate11402003 (COSEWIC 2006)
8Chopaka East Site Table 1b Footnote cSouth Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area Table 1b Footnote funknown2007 (Knopp et al. 2008)

Footnotes

Footnote a

No information is available for population size or area of occupancy at each location.

Return to Table 1 footnote a referrer

Footnote b

Location previously reported in COSEWIC (2006) status report on page 9 and/or page 16.

Return to Table 1 footnote b referrer

Footnote c

New location (or site within a location) not previously reported in COSEWIC (2006).

Return to Table 1 footnote c referrer

Footnote d

Despite similar names, Kilpoola Lake (private land) and Kilpoola Site (South Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area) are two separate locations. The distance between these locations is large and the populations are not likely connected.

Return to Table 1 footnote d referrer

Footnote e

NRC = National Research Council

Return to Table 1 footnote e referrer

Footnote f

South Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area (provincial park) is a vast expanse of land that has multiple and fragmented areas throughout the south Okanagan (e.g., it is not a contiguous piece of property). The distance between the two locations listed here is extensive and without suitable habitat for Half-moon Hairstreak.

Return to Table 1 footnote f referrer

Footnote g

EC-CWS: Environment Canada - Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, B.C.

Return to Table 1 footnote g referrer

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There may be additional locations for Half-moon Hairstreak within unsurveyed grassland habitats in southern B.C., including unknown potential habitats between the southern Okanagan Valley and WLNP. Half-moon Hairstreak individuals are likely overlooked by the non-lepidopterist due to the species' small size, non-descript grey colouration and low numbers. Priority B.C. areas for surveys include east of the Okanagan region, the dry grasslands from Rock Creek to Grand Forks, and portions of the southern Rocky Mountain trench.

There may be additional locations for the species within unsurveyed grassland habitats in southern AB. Additional surveys in 2009 in other habitats within WLNP (i.e., Sofa Creek and Stoney Creek alluvial fans Footnote 4) did not reveal new occurrences (Kondla 2009) and additional search effort in suitable habitats surrounding WLNP has yielded no further records for Half-moon Hairstreak (N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2008). Further surveys in the sage slopes in the South Castle River Valley in AB may have suitable habitat for Half-moon Hairstreak (N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2008).

The B.C. extent of occurrence for Half-moon Hairstreak is 341 km2 within the southern Okanagan River Valley (Figure 6; B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2010). The B.C. range extent is calculated and updated based on new information, and is less than previously calculated in the COSEWIC (2006) assessment report. The northernmost location is within the White Lake basin, southwest of Penticton (most recent observation by St. John, 2008) and the southernmost location is along the U.S. border about 6 km west of Osoyoos (Knopp et al. 2008).

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Figure 6. Range (shaded) and distribution (location numbers Footnote 5) of Half-moon Hairstreak in B.C. (B.C. Ministry of Environment 2010).

Range (shaded) and distribution
Long description for Figure 6

Figure 6 shows the range (shaded) and distribution (location numbers) of Half-moon Hairstreak in B.C. (B.C. Ministry of Environment 2010). Further details can be found in the preceding/next paragraph(s).

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In AB, both the AB range extent and the AB area of occurrence for Half-moon Hairstreak are the same and calculated at < 5 km2 (COSEWIC 2006). This single known location within AB is from Blakiston fan, WLNP (Figure 7; COSEWIC 2006).

Figure 7. Range (solid black area) of Half-moon Hairstreak in AB.

Range (solid black area) of Half-moon Hairstreak
Long description for Figure 7

Figure 7 shows the range (solid black area) of Half-moon Hairstreak in AB. Further details can be found in the preceding/next paragraph(s).

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3.3 Needs of the Half-moon Hairstreak

Half-moon Hairstreak flight period is different for B.C. and AB, and flight periods can both peak and vary with weather patterns in both provinces. In B.C., Half-moon Hairstreak records are from late May through early July (COSEWIC 2006; D. St. John, pers. comm., 2008; N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2008; B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2010), with one generation per year (Guppy and Shepard 2001; Layberry et al. 1998) and a flight period that peaks during the last two weeks of June (B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2010). In B.C., Half-moon Hairstreak adults likely live less than two weeks (D. St. John, pers. comm., 2008). In AB, Half-moon Hairstreak records are from July (COSEWIC 2006) with one generation per year (Layberry et al. 1998; Guppy and Shepard 2001) and a peak in the last two weeks of July (COSEWIC 2006).

Half-moon Hairstreak flight period is correlated with the onset of the flowering period and senescence of the species larval host plants (see Section 3.3.1, Habitat and Biological Needs) (COSEWIC 2006). Adult females lay eggs on the larval host plants or in the leaf litter at the base of the larval host plant (Scott 1986b, 1992; G. Pratt, pers. comm., 2008). Oviposition has not been observed in B.C. or AB and thus the exact location of egg placement on the host plant (e.g. top, middle, or bottom of the plant stalk) is unknown. Eggs overwinter until the following spring when larvae hatch. Pratt (pers. comm., 2008) remarks that the larvae (within California) likely begin feeding under the protection of snow cover, and before snow melt, as the shoots of the larval host plant grow. Larvae (elsewhere within the species global range) have been observed to be quite large and well developed before host plant flowering (G. Pratt, pers. comm., 2008). Larvae feed until late April/early May when they enter a short pupation period before emerging as adults in early to mid-June. Larval feeding has not been observed in B.C. or AB.

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3.3.1 Habitat and Biological Needs

B.C. habitat and biological needs

In B.C., Half-moon Hairstreak habitat includes dry bunchgrass-sagebrush ecosystems with larval and nectar host plants and shrub vegetation for perching. Ants (species unknown) appear to be associated with hairstreak populations, although the biological role of ants in the species' life cycle is unclear.

Within B.C., Half-moon Hairstreak habitat occurs in the Southern Interior Okanagan River Valley in sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass ecosystem type. Locations 2, 4 and 8 are within the Okanagan very dry hot grassland phase variant of the Interior Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zone (IDFxh1a) and Okanagan very dry hot grassland phase variant of the Ponderosa Pine biogeoclimatic zone (PPxh1a). The vegetation types include big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata), bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis), prairie junegrass (Koeleria cristata), and pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens) as common associates. Location 3 (White Lake location) is in the PPxh1a variant with common plant associates: bluebunch wheatgrass, needle-and-thread grass (Hesperostipa comata), and big sagebrush. This ecosystem classification is based on standards set by the B.C. Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations (2011). The remaining locations (2, 4a, 5, 6, 7) have not had vegetation assessment completed. However, it is likely the vegetation at these locations is similar to the other locations described.

Half-moon Hairstreak flight period is correlated with the flowering period of nectar host plants, which include Missouri goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) (COSEWIC 2006), parsnip-flowered buckwheat(Eriogonum heracleoides) (Figure 8; COSEWIC 2006; Knopp et al. 2008) and grey horsebrush (Tetradymia canescens) (Figure 9; Knopp et al. 2008; D. St. John, pers. comm., 2008). Nectar plants are likely chosen opportunistically, as opposed to specifically (D. St. John., pers. comm., 2008).

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Figure 8. Half-moon Hairstreak nectaring on parsnip-flowered buckwheat at Chopaka East Site (location #8), South Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area location in B.C., 2008. Photo: D. Knopp.

Half-moon Hairstreak nectaring on parsnip-flowered buckwheat

Photo: D. Knopp © Environment Canada, 2008

Long description for Figure 8

Figure 8 shows Half-moon Hairstreak nectaring on parsnip-flowered buckwheat at Chopaka East Site (location #8), South Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area location in B.C., 2008. Photo: D. Knopp.

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Figure 9. Half-moon Hairstreak nectaring on grey horsebrush at Mount Kobau (location #4b), within the South Okanagan Grasslands Protected area location in B.C., 2008. Photo: D. Knopp.

Half-moon Hairstreak nectaring on grey horsebrush

Photo: D. Knopp © Environment Canada, 2008

Long description for Figure 9

Figure 9 shows Half-moon Hairstreak nectaring on grey horsebrush at Mount Kobau (location #4b), within the South Okanagan Grasslands Protected area location in B.C., 2008. Photo: D. Knopp.

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Half-moon Hairstreak flight period usually declines with the senescence of the larval host plants, which are lupines (Lupinus spp.), although the specific lupine species in B.C. are unclear. At the White Lake location (location #3), sulfur lupine (Lupinus sulphureus) and silky lupine (Lupinus sericeus) may be larval host plants (D. St. John, pers. comm., 2008). Elsewhere within the species' global range, silky lupine and spurred lupine (Lupinus arbustus) are known larval host plants. However, spurred lupine is likely not a host plant in B.C. because the plant is provincially Red-listed and thought to be extirpated from the province (B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2010).

Half-moon Hairstreak has been found in B.C. at elevations between 600 and 1100 m.

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AB habitat and biological needs

The AB location (Table 1, Figure 7) is within the grasslands of the Foothills Parkland Ecoregion in WLNP. Specifically, the AB location is within the Blakiston Creek alluvial fan (COSEWIC 2006), which is one of the largest in the Canadian Rocky Mountains (Scott and Suffling 2000). The Blakiston Ecosection is dry grassland on soils that were formed on rapidly to moderately well-drained, coarse-textured fluvial landforms (Achuff et al. 2002).

The vegetation type at the AB location is naturally dominated by oatgrasses (Danthonia spp.), rough fescue (Festuca scabrella), and junegrass (Koeleria macrantha) (Achuff et al. 2002) with dominant component of bunchgrasses. Silky lupine composed up to 15% cover in general vegetation plots in the mid-1990s (Achuff et al. 2002) and 14% (range 0-63%) in plots within habitat where hairstreak butterflies were present (Kondla 2004b). Yellow buckwheat (Eriogonum flavum) also composed up to 25% (range 0-25%) cover on the same plots (Kondla 2004b).

Half-moon Hairstreak flight period in AB is correlated with the flowering period of nectar host plants, which include yellow buckwheat and Missouri goldenrod. The flight period usually declines with the senescence of the larval host plants, lupines (mostly silky lupine) but possibly also silvery lupine (Lupinus argenteus), which intergrades with silky lupine (Kuijt 1982). The grassland ecosystems of the AB location are not assigned conservation status ranks by the ACIMS (Government of Alberta 2011).

Half-moon Hairstreak has been found at Blakiston Fan in AB at elevations ranging from 1290 to 1300 m.

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Biological information applicable to B.C. and AB

Larval and nectar host plants may provide mating sites for Half-moon Hairstreak. Mating pairs in B.C. have been observed on the flowers of yellow buckwheat, Missouri goldenrod (D. St. John, pers. observation, 2008), prairie sagewort(Artemisia frigida), and various species of lupines. In addition, big sagebrush may also be important for mating sites in B.C., as observed four times (D. Knopp, pers. comm., 2008). In B.C., big sagebrush shrubs may be important for male perching (COSEWIC 2006). In WLNP, mating pairs have been observed on goldenrod species (Solidago spp.), buckwheat species (Eriogonum spp.), prairie sagewort, and various species of lupines (N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2008).

Ants may play a role in the presence of Half-moon Hairstreak, as ants were observed in close association with the lupine plants where Half-moon Hairstreak occurs at the White Lake location (location #3) (D. St. John, pers. comm., 2008). Ants and larvae may have a mutualistic relationship, where the ants protect larvae from predators and parasitoids, and the larvae secrete liquid containing amino acids and carbohydrates, which the ants consume (Pierce 1987; Leimar and Axén 1993 in COSEWIC 2006). Alternately, hairstreak larvae may "give" sugar packets to prevent ants from eating the larvae, and thus minimize predation by ants. Pratt (pers. comm., 2008) has reared numerous different populations of Lycaenid butterflies and observed that these butterflies rely heavily on ants, so much so that ants may determine whether the butterfly species is present in some habitats and not in others. Pratt (pers. comm., 2008) found Wood Ants (Formica spp.) and Carpenter Ants (Camponotus spp.) associated with Half-moon Hairstreak larvae in California.

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3.3.2 Ecological Role

Half-moon Hairstreak is not likely an essential pollinator of its larval host plant or adult nectar plants, nor is it known to have other crucial ecological roles such as food-web dynamics. Small mammals, invertebrate predators, and birds likely predate upon Half-moon Hairstreak.

Half-moon Hairstreak may have a mutualistic association with various ant species (e.g., Wood Ants and/or Carpenter Ants), which are an important ecological component of arthropod fauna within grassland environments,.

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3.3.3 Limiting Factors

Host plant specificity

Half-moon Hairstreak depends on larval host plants and without these plants the butterfly cannot complete its life cycle (see Section 3.3.1, Habitat and Biological Needs). The butterfly likely chooses nectar (adult) host plants opportunistically and preference may appear limited to the few plant species flowering during the flight period and not the specific biological preference by the butterfly (D. St. John, pers comm., 2008).

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Limited dispersal capability

Half-moon Hairstreak does not likely have high dispersal capabilities although it has not been documented how far the species will travel between host plant patches. Isolation due to dispersal limitations may lead to decreased genetic diversity within a population, greater genetic differences among locations, inbreeding depression, and no rescue effect.

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Myrmecophily

Myrmecophily in butterflies is the close association or mutualistic relationship between the butterflies' larval life stage and the adult life stage of ant species (see Section 3.3.1, Habitat and biological needs). It may be that the presence of ants at a host plant may define whether the adult butterfly oviposits at that specific plant (D. St. John, pers. obs., 2008).

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Habitat specificity

The presence of sagebrush may be an important habitat requirement for Half-moon Hairstreak in B.C., as it is present at most locations where the species has been found in B.C. (D. St. John, pers. observation, 2008). It may not be the sagebrush plant itself, but the structural function of the plant that is important for perching and mating: this information needs to be clarified with further research. Adults may use this plant for roosting sites and are well camouflaged among sage leaves. Larvae may gain some protection at the base of these perennial plants. Alternatively, it may be restricted habitat availability in Canada that limits Half-moon Hairstreak, and not specific habitat requirements beyond host plant availability and ant relationships. The presence of sagebrush at a location and the butterfly's use of the plant as a resting site may be an opportunistic relationship, and the structural aspects and size of a habitat patch of sagebrush (and not the plant species itself) may be the limiting factor. The males use a combination of perching and patrolling mate locating behaviour, as has been observed in both B.C. and AB (N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2008). Half-moon Hairstreak has been observed using Chrysothamnus spp., various lupine species, and pine trees, for perching (Warren 2005). Additional research is needed to clarify potential relationships in both B.C. and AB.

In AB, sagebrush is not present on Blakiston Creek fan in WLNP where Half-moon Hairstreak is known to occur. Half-moon Hairstreak butterflies on Blakiston Creek fan in WLNP don't appear to perch on vegetation; they fly close to the ground and perch on low-lying herbaceous vegetation, mainly the lupines growing within the area (N. Kondla, pers. comm., 2011). In 2009, surveys were conducted at the only known location of sagebrush in the park (nearly 6 km away and 200 m higher in elevation), and no Half-moon Hairstreak were observed (Kondla 2009).

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Short adult life cycle

Half-moon Hairstreak has a short flight season, with individual butterflies living approximately two weeks (D. St. John, pers. comm., 2008). Inclement weather and the premature senescence of host plants, combined with the short flight period and declining habitat quality and quantity, may limit growth of the population.

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Native Grazers

Native ungulates in both B.C. and AB habitats (in WLNP) range throughout Half-moon Hairstreak habitat and are known to graze on larval and nectar plants. In B.C., native ungulate grazers likely do not have significant impacts. The Blakiston Creen Fan in AB is currently grazed by native species during the winter, including elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus); 700 to 1,000 elk have been observed gathering on the Fan (C. Smith, pers. comm., 2008). It is unknown how native grazers limit Half-moon Hairstreak. The impacts from other grazers (e.g. herbivorous insects, rodents, etc.) are also unknown.

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4 Threats

Threats are defined as the proximate (human) activities or processes that have caused, are causing, or may cause the destruction, degradation, and/or impairment of biodiversity and natural processes. Threats can be past (historical), ongoing, and/or likely to occur in the future. Threats do not include intrinsic biological features of the species or population such as inbreeding depression, small population size, and genetic isolation, which are considered limiting factors.

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4.1 Threat Assessment

The threat classification (Table 2) is based on the IUCN-CMP (World Conservation Union-Conservation Measures Partnership) unified threats classification system and is consistent with methods used by the B.C. Conservation Data Centre and the B.C. Conservation Framework. For a detailed description of the threat classification system see the CMP website (CMP 2010). For information on how the values are assigned or overall impact is calculated see (http://www.natureserve.org/publications/ConsStatusAssess_StatusFactors.pdf) Master et al. (2009) and table footnotes for details. Threats for the Half-moon Hairstreak were assessed for B.C. and AB (Table 2).

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Table 2. Threat classification table for Half-moon Hairstreak in B.C. and AB.
Threat #Threat descriptionImpactTable 2 Footnote aScopeTable 2 Footnote bSeverityTable 2 Footnote cTimingTable 2 Footnote dLocationsStressTable 2 Footnote e

Footnotes

Footnote a

Impact - The degree to which a species is observed, inferred, or suspected to be directly or indirectly threatened in the area of interest. The impact of each stress is based on Severity and Scope rating and considers only present and future threats. Threat impact reflects a reduction of a species population or decline/degradation of the area of an ecosystem. The median rate of population reduction or area decline for each combination of scope and severity corresponds to the following classes of threat impact: Very High (75% declines), High (40%), Medium (15%), and Low (3%).

Return to Table 2 footnote a referrer

Footnote b

Scope - Proportion of the species that can reasonably be expected to be affected by the threat within 10 years. Usually measured as a proportion of the species' population in the area of interest (Pervasive = 71-100%; Large = 31-70%; Restricted = 11-30%; Small = 1-10%).

Return to Table 2 footnote b referrer

Footnote c

Severity - Within the scope, the level of damage to the species from the threat that can reasonably be expected to be affected by the threat within a 10-year or three-generation timeframe. Usually measured as the degree of reduction of the species' population (Extreme = 71-100%; Serious = 31-70%; Moderate = 11-30%; Slight = 1-10%).

Return to Table 2 footnote c referrer

Footnote d

Timing - High = continuing; Moderate = only in the future (could happen in the short term [< 10 years or 3 generations]) or now suspended (could come back in the short term); Low = only in the future (could happen in the long term) or now suspended (could come back in the long term); Insignificant/Negligible = only in the past and unlikely to return, or no direct effect but limiting.

Return to Table 2 footnote d referrer

Footnote e

Stress - the condition or aspect (key ecological, demographic, or individual attribute) of the conservation target that is impaired or reduced by a threat (e.g., directly or indirectly results from human activities).

Return to Table 2 footnote e referrer

1Residential & commercial developmentMediumRestrictedExtremeHigh - Moderate--
1.1Housing & urban areasMediumRestrictedExtremeHighLocation 2, 4a, 5, 6, 7 (B.C.)Local extirpation; decreased population viability; decreased host plant resources; dispersal sinks
1.2Commercial & industrial areasMediumRestrictedExtremeHighLocation 2, 4a, 5, 6, 7 (B.C.)Local extirpation; decreased population viability; decreased host plant resources; dispersal sinks
2Agriculture & aquacultureMediumPervasiveModerateHigh--
2.3Livestock farming & ranchingMediumPervasiveModerateHigh7 of the 8 locations are subject to domestic livestock grazing.Changes in plant species and plant community structure due to selective domestic grazers; increased trampling of host plants and plant communities in B.C. decreased populations at some locations where there is an incompatible grazing regime; dispersal sink where adult Half-moon Hairstreaks may oviposit on plants within the overgrazed habitats; reduced host plant availability (larval and nectar plants); increased egg and larval mortality (trampling).
6Human intrusions & disturbanceLowLargeSlightHigh--
6.1Recreational activitiesLowLargeSlightHighAll 8 locations, especially at location #1 in AB.Decreased host plant resources; direct mortality of host plant resources (e.g. trampling by hiking and horseback riding); direct mortality of eggs and larvae (e.g. trampling by hiking and horseback riding).; decreased population numbers.
7Natural system modificationsMediumPervasiveModerateLow--
7.1Fire & fire suppressionMediumPervasiveModerateLowAll 8 locationsIncreased fuel load thus changing soil structure and nutrient composition, leading to changes in plant community; decreased host plant resources; decreased population numbers; decreased number of locations.
8Invasive & other problematic species & genesLowPervasiveSlightHigh--
8.1Invasive non-native/alien speciesLowPervasiveSlightHighAll 8 locationsIncreased competition for resources (e.g., to host plants); increased predation pressure to Half-moon Hairstreak individuals (from alien species such as Tachinid flies); increased consumption of host plant(s) by invertebrate herbivores. Leads to reduction in overall host plant resources and direct mortality to individuals. Potential habitat alteration by knapweed in Half-moon Hairstreak habitat in Alberta
9PollutionUnknownRestrictedUnknownModerate--
9.3Agricultural & forestry effluentsUnknownRestrictedUnknownModeratePossible at 5 locations on private land (B.C.)Reduced larval and nectar host plant resources; direct mortality of larvae and adults; reduced survival of larvae and adults.
11Climate change & severe weatherMediumPervasiveModerateLow--
11.1Habitat shifting & alterationMediumPervasiveModerateLowAll 8 locationsReduced survival of larvae that reach diapause; decreased population numbers; reduction in host plant resources due to changes to host plant phenology and grassland ecosystem structure.
11.4Storms and floodingMedium-LowRestrictedSerious - ModerateLow1 location (AB)Direct loss of host plant; reduced survival of larvae that reach diapause; decreased population numbers; reduction in host plant resources due to changes to host plant phenology and grassland ecosystem structure.

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4.2 Description of Threats

The primary threat to Half-moon Hairstreak in B.C. is direct habitat loss or conversion to agricultural or urban development Footnote 6 (Table 2, Medium Threat Impact). The low elevation grassland ecosystems of the south Okanagan, that include Half-moon Hairstreak habitat, are considered one of the four most endangered ecosystems in Canada (Schluter et al. 1995) due to conversion as a result of agricultural or urban development.

In AB, the primary threat to Half-moon Hairstreak in WLNP is from recreational users (e.g., horseback riding, hiking, trail development) immediately within habitat. A secondary threat, but a threat that is not immediate, is potential loss of habitat from catastrophic flooding. Further threats include invasive plant species.

The overall Canadian-wide Threat Impact for Half-moon Hairstreak is High Footnote 7. Details are discussed below under the Threat Level 1 headings.

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4.2.1 Existing Threats Footnote 8

IUCN-CMP Threat 1. Residential and commercial development (1.1 Housing and urban areas; 1.2 Commercial and industrial areas)

This threat applies to five locations in B.C. that are on private land and subject to possible landowner development in some form (not possible to differentiate commercial from urban). This is a potential and widespread threat within unchecked potential habitat in AB (outside of WLNP) and in B.C. There is a significant amount of potential Half-moon Hairstreak habitat outside of WLNP that is protected by the Nature Conservancy of Canada through conservation easements on their Waterton Park Front Project (C. Smith, pers. comm., 2011).

In B.C., the predominant threats to Half-moon Hairstreak are habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation of sagebrush and bunchgrass plant communities and ecosystems both at the known private sites and within potential habitat on private land. Direct and complete irreversible physical destruction of grassland habitat (e.g., construction of housing or commercial developments) is ongoing throughout the Okanagan River Valley. Increased fragmentation of sagebrush communities reduces re-occupancy rates after natural stochastic events. Indirect effects of habitat conversion include fragmentation of species populations and inability to disperse across boundaries established due to development.

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IUCN-CMP Threat 2. Agriculture and aquaculture (2.3 Livestock farming and ranching)

Domestic livestock grazing is known to occur at all seven locations in B.C. It has occurred throughout most of the southern Okanagan River Valley for over 100 years. COSEWIC (2006) identified livestock grazing as a potential threat to Half-moon Hairstreak in B.C. Grazing leads to changes in plant species and plant community structure due to selective domestic grazers, choosing to forage on some plants and not others. Livestock grazing may alter vegetation through trampling and feeding, and alter leaf litter through trampling. Grazing may impact host plants for egg laying and larval feeding, leaf litter for larval development, and nectar and perching plants for adults.

Known occupied habitat within WLNP, AB had domestic grazing by cattle and horses under permit until the 1960s. However, livestock grazing is not considered a potential threat to Half-moon Hairstreak in AB. This is because unlike the western inter-montane bunchgrass ecosystems of B.C., short-steppe grasslands of the Canadian prairies evolved with bovid grazers, Caespitose grasses (Milchunas et al. 1988), and the influences of overgrazing. As such, the Canadian prairies do not change dramatically as a result of grazing (Milchunas et al. 1988).

Grazing, whether by livestock or native ungulates involves defecation and urination, may increase bare soil through repeated trampling or disturbance to vegetation, alters the microbiotic crust, and has the potential to destroy larval and nectar host plants for Half-moon Hairstreak. Grazing regimes alter natural vegetation, potentially increasing the establishment of non-native introduced plants and competition from non-native species (see above). Impacts vary dramatically with grazing intensity, livestock numbers, and season of use.

The overall impact of grazing within Half-moon Hairstreak habitat has not been studied. The cumulative impacts from defecation and trampling are likely to affect the Half-moon Hairstreak habitat by trampling and grazing of host plants, thus reducing host plant availability. It is possible that light grazing may benefit Half-moon Hairstreak at some sites (D. St. John, pers. comm., 2008) since, for example, lupines and yarrow increase in abundance with cattle grazing (Aleksoff 1999). Conversely, impacts may be negative through the loss of eggs and larvae by trampling host plants and leaf litter at times of the year when these life stages are most active and vulnerable to mortality.

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IUCN-CMP Threat 6. Human intrusions and disturbance (6.1 Recreational activities)

Recreational activities (at various levels) threaten Half-moon Hairstreak habitats at all locations in B.C. and AB. The provincial park locations have recreational hiking but no all-terrain vehicle use (although illegal use could occur, but at present is not a high concern). The five private land locations could experience all terrain vehicle use, as well as other recreational use, although the specifics of this threat are not known.

In B.C., the South Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area locations and the White Lake basin location are both high use hiking areas. Although minimal, there is some all terrain vehicle use at the South Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area, Chopaka East Site (location #8), which has the potential to adversely impact host plant resources by driving over them.

In AB, recreational activities are thought to be the primary threat to Half-moon Hairstreak and the species habitat. WLNP is a popular park known for hiking and recreational opportunities including horseback riding throughout Blakiston Creek fan. Two roads cross the fan. Recreational activities potentially increase erosion along trails and increase movement of introduced plants along trails and roads. The erosion along and adjacent to recreational trails and roads may not impact Half-moon Hairstreak habitat as long as additional roads and trails are not created, and recreational users stay to these roads and trails. The dust created from recreational use may threaten developing larvae on host plants immediately next to the road/trail.

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4.2.2 Potential Threats Footnote 9

The threats listed below have been identified as potential threats based on existing research and threat information from other species at risk within B.C. and AB and inhabiting similar habitats.

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IUCN-CMP Threat 7. Natural system modifications (7.1 Fire and fire suppression)

Fire suppression by wildfire protection programs within both B.C. and AB are a potential threat at all eight Half-moon Hairstreak locations in Canada. Fire suppression appears to have increased potential fire intensity, which would result in large intense fires, rather than small less intense fires that leave part of the plant community intact.

In B.C., tree encroachment, in the absence of regularly occurring fires, may have reduced the size and extent of sagebrush plant communities at some sites due to shading and competition (e.g., Kilpoola Site (location #4b) of the South Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area). Fire suppression has been ongoing for > 100 years within the region. Slow natural succession of pines (Pinus spp.) and other native trees into open areas is ongoing due to long-term fire suppression. A controlled burn that includes part of Blakiston Fan in WLNP is on the park's 10-year burn plan (C. Smith, pers. comm., 2009). Additional research is needed to determine if prescribed fire is a possibility for habitat restoration, or if surrogates such as mowing and vegetation removal can be applied.

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IUCN-CMP Threat 8. Invasive and other problematic species and genes (8.1 Invasive non-native/alien species)

Introduced species potentially threaten Half-moon Hairstreak habitat and associated ecosystems at all locations in B.C. and AB.

In B.C., the dominant invasive plants that occur in Half-moon Hairstreak habitats and known locations include cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), sulphur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta), Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria vulgaris), and diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa). In AB, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) is the predominant introduced plant. Although unstudied within the ecosystems where Half-moon Hairstreak occurs in B.C. and AB, elsewhere the structure and diversity of plant communities is known to change through competition for resources and release of allelopathic compounds by Knapweed (e.g., Kelsey and Locken 1987; Tyser and Key 1988). Other studies suggest increases in soil sedimentation and surface water runoff are linked to Knapweed (Lacey et al. 1989). Overall, these introduced weeds likely compete with larval and nectar host plants for resources, and change the soil chemistry and invertebrate ground fauna. This potential threat is widespread and ongoing throughout both B.C. and AB.

Introduced tachinid flies (family Tachinidae) used as a biological control agents for European Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) and other agricultural pests are potential threats to Half-moon Hairstreak. Beginning in 1906 and over a span of the next fifty years, greater than 45 species of tachninid flies were introduced to North America (Elkinton 2004; Mahr 1999). Tachinid flies such as Compsilura concinnata are known to parasitize more than 200 host species of lepidoptera in the United States (Elkinton 2004; Mahr 1999) including non-pest species. The distribution of this species, and other non-native tachinid flies is unknown in western North America. The potential threats from this biological control mechanism are unknown.

The impacts from invasive plant species on Half-moon Hairstreak habitat leads to increased resource competition (e.g. to host plants) or predation (e.g. consuming eggs, larvae or adults) from invasive insects. More studies are needed to determine the severity of this threat; however invasive species are expected to have some impact.

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IUCN-CMP Threat 9. Pollution (9.3 Agriculture and forestry effluents)

Herbicide application is possible at locations on private land in B.C.

Herbicide drift from adjacent agricultural areas may detrimentally affect Half-moon Hairstreak through direct mortality at localized sites, but impacts are unknown and have not been documented. Herbicide treatments for introduced plants (if applied broad scale) may impact non-target larval and nectar host plants by killing both the plant and/or the potential Half-moon Hairstreak larvae that are present on the plant. Impacts are localized and likely being reduced through improved Integrated Pest Management techniques. The locations in B.C. that are within provincial parks or national properties are not adjacent to agricultural spray areas.

Pesticide application by spot-spraying of target species does occur on Blakiston Fan within WLNP. Herbicides may be used within B.C. parks and protected areas to manage invasive plants (and if the specific park management plan allows for the application of herbicides). Application would be done with consideration of the protection of the ecosystem, and would involve provisions to protect any Half-moon Hairstreak occurrences nearby. The threat of broad pesticide application may be applicable if locations of Half-moon Hairstreak are found outside of WLNP

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IUCN-CMP Threat 11. Climate change and severe weather (11.1 Habitat shifting and alteration)

Climate change is considered a potential, but poorly understood, threat to Half-moon Hairstreak habitat at all locations in both B.C. and AB.

In B.C., the south Okanagan Valley is considered one of the warmest climates in the province, and with climate change these areas may experience further drought and a shift in host plant phenology. Leaf and bloom growth on host plants may also be shortened due to increased temperature extremes within the region. This is speculative but possible over the long term.

A shift in timing of host plant growth in spring (larval host plant) could result in premature senescence of host plant prior to larvae reaching a biomass that allows for enough energy for overwintering survival or reduced survival of larvae that reach diapauses.

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IUCN-CMP Threat 11. Climate change and severe weather (11.4 Storms and Flooding)

The threat of increased frequency, severity or timing of storms and flooding applies to the one Half-moon Hairstreak location in the WLNP (AB). A large increase in precipitation is projected for both winter and spring seasons in WLNP, which will likely result in increasing peak flows in the park, in turn increasing the frequency and severity of spring floods (Scott and Suffling 2000). Floods would be expected to cause increased erosion damage, and larger sediment transport to the alluvial fans of Blakiston Creek which hosts populations of Half-moon Hairstreak. In potential habitat (with no confirmed occurrences of Half-moon Hairstreak) at Sofa Fan and Stoney Creek fan (Scott and Suffling 2000) this threat also applies. The annual flooding that does occur in Blakiston Fan generally does not produce sheets of water across the entire habitat. In general, flooding breaks through in separate channels. Catastrophic flooding may bring sediment deposits across the fans, which could bury host plants and cause further soil erosion. Further research is needed to determine if flooding is a threat and/or benefit to Half-moon Hairstreak habitat.

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Potential threats to unsurveyed Half-moon Hairstreak habitat outside of WLNP, AB.

Intensive land uses, conversion of native grasslands to agriculture, and development for recreation or oil and gas development are likely the most significant threat to potential butterfly habitats outside of WLNP.

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5 Recovery Goal and Objectives

5.1 Population and Distribution Goal

The population and distribution goal for Half-moon Hairstreak is to ensure the persistence of populations of Half-moon Hairstreak at all known extant locations (and any new locations) within the species' range in Canada.

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5.2 Rationale for the Population and Distribution Goal

There are few locations of Half-moon Hairstreak in Canada, and overall the population and distribution goal aims ensure no populations become extirpated in Canada. Historical abundance and distribution information for this species show only a few confirmed extant populations and historic museum records. There is no information to indicate that the species was previously more widespread, therefore an objective to actively increase the number of populations, which may allow for downlisting of the species, is not appropriate.

The population and distribution goal for Half-moon Hairstreak cannot be quantified due to knowledge gaps: population numbers are unknown, insufficient information is available to complete minimum population viability analysis, dispersal and re-colonization capabilities are unknown, and habitat requirements are unclear.

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5.3 Recovery Objectives

  1. To establish habitat protection Footnote 10 for the eight known extant Half-moon Hairstreak locations.
  2. To assess and mitigate the extent of known and potential threats at each Half-moon Hairstreak location.
  3. To confirm the distribution of all populations (existing and new locations) of Half-moon Hairstreak in British Columbia and Alberta.
  4. To address knowledge gaps such as life history, dispersal and population information, and habitat requirements.

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6 Approaches to Meet Objectives

6.1 Actions Already Completed or Underway

Compile Status Report (complete)

  • COSEWIC report completed (COSEWIC 2006).

Send to COSEWIC (complete)

  • Half-moon Hairstreak assessed as Endangered (COSEWIC 2006). Re-assessment due 2016.

Planning (in progress)

  • BC Recovery Strategy completed (this document, 2011).

Habitat Protection and Private Land Stewardship (in progress)

British Columbia
  • Two locations of Half-moon Hairstreak are found in the South Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area which is afforded protection through the legal provisions of the BC Parks Act.
  • Half-moon Hairstreak is identified as a Species At Risk under the Forest and Range Practices Act and is listed as Identified Wildlife under the Identified Wildlife Management Strategy. Nine Wildlife Habitat Areas, with associated General Wildlife Measures, have been proposed (not yet approved) to protect habitat from range use impacts.
  • Surveys in the range of Half-moon Hairstreak in B.C. (Kondla 2003b; Knopp et al. 2008; B.C. Ministry of Environment, 2009; S. Hureau, pers. comm., 2010).
  • Surveys at White Lake (location #3) federal lands (National Research Council)(D. St. John, pers. comm., 2004-2008; S. Hureau, pers. comm., 2010).
  • Surveys throughout south Okanagan and confirming population at Kilpoola site (location #4b) of the South Okanagan Grasslands Protected Area and other areas in the South Okanagan (B.C. Ministry of Environment 2007, 2009).
Alberta
  • Half-moon Hairstreak is found on federal land in Waterton Lakes National Park, AB. This habitat is afforded protection through the legal provisions of the Canada National Parks Act.
  • Surveys for Sooty [Half-moon] Hairstreak in WLNP (Kondla 2003ab; 2004b; N. Kondla, unpubl. data, pers. comm., 2008).
  • Half-moon Hairstreak monitoring transects in Waterton Lakes National Park (Poll and Poll 2008, Kondla 2009).
  • Conservation overview of butterflies in the southern headwaters at risk project (SHARP) area report (Kondla 2004a).
  • Introduced plant species surveys in WLNP, mapping of Half-moon Hairstreak host plants (C. Smith, pers. comm., 2008).
  • Surveyed 3 potential sites outside of WLNP - no Half-moon Hairstreak were observed (Kondla 2009).

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6.2 Recovery Planning Table

Table 3a. Recovery planning table for Half-moon Hairstreak. - CF Action Group: Habitat Protection; Land Stewardship
Obj. no.Actions to meet objectivesThreatFootnote a or concern addressedPriorityFootnote b
3

Habitat Protection:

  • Confirm species distribution at known locations
Knowledge gap; 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 8.1, 9.3Essential
1

Habitat Protection:

  • In B.C., develop a habitat protection plan, including work with South Okanagan-Similkameen Conservation Program to identify priority locations for habitat protection (giving consideration to habitat needs of other species at risk) on private land, and working with lands managers with parks and protected areas (and other government owned federal/provincial properties).
Knowledge gap; 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 8.1, 9.3Essential
1, 2

Habitat Protection:

  • In B.C., identify appropriate protection measures and threat mitigation for all locations through legislative protection (e.g., Protected Areas, Wildlife Habitat Areas, landscape management plans) and non-legislative protective means (e.g., best management practices, stewardship agreements).
Knowledge gap; 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 8.1, 9.3Essential
2

Habitat Protection:

  • In B.C. develop specific Half-moon Hairstreak guidelines for land managers, developers, owners, and residents; include options for managing grassland habitat for invertebrates under different land-use practices, including grazing and recreational use.
Knowledge gap; 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 8.1, 9.3Essential
1,2

Habitat Protection:

  • In B.C. establish tenure appropriate protection measures and threat mitigation for all locations.
Knowledge gap; 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 8.1, 9.3Essential
2, 3, 4
  • Clarify broad-scale comparisons of distribution patterns of the species among urban developments (in B.C.), agricultural edges (in B.C.), recreational areas (in B.C. and AB), and undisturbed (control) grassland habitats (in B.C. and AB). The outcome will allow for clarification of threats and amount of disturbance tolerable by the species within sites that potentially could be survival/recovery habitat.
Knowledge gap; 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 9.3Necessary
4
  • Determine the effects of grazing on Half-moon Hairstreak habitat, both from domestic livestock and native ungulates (to both native and non-native plant species).
  • Define various types of grazing regimes (using existing definitions, if possible) and monitor grazing use using the Grassland Monitoring Manual for B.C. (Grasslands Conservation Council of BC 2009), which provides one method for determining alteration from a reference condition (based on loss of plant layers, biological crusts, etc). Determine if this monitoring regime is useful as a risk management tool for protecting Half-moon Hairstreak locations and/or habitat.
Knowledge gap; 2.3Necessary
2

Increase awareness of species

  • In B.C. Work with South Okanagan-Similkameen Conservation Program and other conservation agencies to include this species in landowner contact programs to increase landowners' awareness of the species and its needs, as well as threats to the species depending on the landowner (e.g. agricultural pesticide use).
1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 8.1, 9.3Beneficial
3

Map and survey potential habitat:

  • Map polygons (using GIS applications, terrestrial ecosystem mapping, and photo-interpretation) with potential habitat outside of known locations of Half-moon Hairstreak (e.g., the southern Okanagan, lower Similkameen, Thompson, and lower Kootenay Valleys, outside WLNP).
  • Use existing habitat information from known localities to prioritize polygons for surveys. For example, complete vegetation assessments at existing locations and where there are similar habitat attributes in both unchecked habitat and known locations, prioritize those habitats for future surveys, compare host plant density between habitats, etc.
  • Determine land ownership of prioritized sites and work with stewardship groups (e.g. South Okanagan-Similkameen Conservation Program, Nature Conservancy Canada, MULTISAR) to complete landowner contact to request permission to survey on private lands.
  • Conduct surveys to determine presence of Half-moon Hairstreak in potential habitat.
1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1Beneficial
2, 4
  • Establish a monitoring program and standardized methodology for collecting location information (including habitat characterization) and quantifying/identifying the highest threats at known locations.
1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1Necessary
4
  • Determine quality and quantity of habitat required to ensure persistence of a population in a given location or within a given large habitat patch. Information gathering will include host plant densities, host plant health (e.g. disease), area of extent of host plants at each location, possible ant associations (e.g. which ant species occur on host plants), systematic threat assessments so comparisons between sites can be drawn (e.g. grazing intensity, etc), and other information as necessary.
Knowledge gap; 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1Essential
Table 3b. Recovery planning table for Half-moon Hairstreak. - CF Action Group: Compile Status Report
Obj. no.Actions to meet objectivesThreatFootnote a or concern addressedPriorityFootnote b
4
  • Encourage research about the species by academic institutions in priority areas
Knowledge gapsBeneficial

Footnotes

Footnote a

Threat numbers according to the IUCN-CMP classification (see Table 2 for details).

Return to footnote a referrer

Footnote b

Essential (urgent and important, needs to start immediately); Necessary (important but not urgent, action can start in 2-5 years); or Beneficial (action is beneficial and could start at any time that was feasible)

Return to footnote b referrer

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6.3 Description of the Recovery Planning Table

Recommended actions have been categorized by the action groups of the B.C. Conservation Framework.

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6.3.1 Habitat Protection and Private Land Stewardship

Habitat protection and management of known locations are considered essential, particularly in B.C. where five of the locations are on private land and additional unchecked potential habitat exists. In B.C., working with the South Okanagan-Similkameen Conservation Program to identify priority sites for habitat protection and combining the information with the habitat needs for other species at risk will assist with determining priority sites for stewardship and protection opportunities. In AB, working with conservation agencies to bring awareness of potential unknown locations for Half-moon Hairstreak both in B.C. and outside of WLNP, AB will be important for confirming distribution.

In B.C., it is important to identify and establish tenure appropriate protection measures and threat mitigation for all locations (e.g., Wildlife Habitat Areas, landscape management plans, best management practices). Further review of existing federal, provincial, regional, and municipal legislation is important to identify gaps in protection that can be addressed through non-legislative protective means such as stewardship agreements and best management practises guidelines.

Most of the threats to Half-moon Hairstreak habitat are unclear and require further clarification. Research is needed to examine the extent to which these butterflies can coexist with urban development and whether they can use agricultural edges.

Introduced plants and animals are widespread within the range of Half-moon Hairstreak and may pose problems to this species through habitat modification and/or predation. Knowing whether habitat quality is compromised by introduced species is important. For example, efforts to secure a property that contains suitable habitat may be in vain if introduced species that are harmful to Half-moon Hairstreak are prevalent.

A long-term monitoring program could be implemented because Half-moon Hairstreak is often detected in low numbers, and may not be detected yearly at some sites. Surveys of localities at the periphery of the species' Canadian range are also required to determine if Half-moon Hairstreak occurs in these habitats, to establish null data for range limits, and measure possible range expansion due to climate change over time.

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6.3.2 Compile Status Report

Further research into the threats, biology and symbiotic relationship with ant species, host plant requirements, and structural habitat requirements are needed to confirm the habitat needed to maintain a population of Half-moon Hairstreak at a known location. This information will help to mitigate threats at other locations. Research into habitat use, life history, and demography of the species is also necessary and will help fill in gaps in our knowledge about these butterflies, their ecological role, and their habitat requirements.

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7 Information on Habitat Needed to Meet Recovery Goal

Threats to Half-moon Hairstreak habitat have been identified for this species. To meet the population and distribution goal of ensuring the persistence of populations of Half-moon Hairstreak within the species' range in Canada, it is recommended that specific habitat attributes be identified for Half-moon Hairstreak and known locations of habitat are geospatially described on the landscape to facilitate management to mitigate habitat threats.

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7.1 Description of Survival/Recovery Habitat

A geospatial description of habitat for survival and recovery of Half-moon Hairstreak in Canada is not being proposed in this recovery strategy.

Currently only general habitat requirements are known for Half-moon Hairstreak (see Section 3.3.1). However, biophysical attributes of survival/recovery habitat for Half-moon Hairstreak should include a minimum density of larval and nectar host plants (Lupinus spp.), sagebrush shrub cover used as perching and roosting sites (sagebrush in B.C. only), and habitat components that ensure the presence of potential obligate ant species (note the specifics of the latter habitat components are unknown and unclear). It is recommended that outstanding work required to quantify specific habitat requirements for the species be completed and that the survival/recovery habitat be geospatially described at each known location to facilitate the actions for meeting the population and distribution goal. Currently habitat mapping is underway for the WLNP location (C. Smith, pers. comm., 2011).

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7.2 Studies Needed to Describe Survival/Recovery Habitat

Table 4. Studies needed to describe survival/recovery habitat to meet the population and distribution goal for Half-moon Hairstreak for both B.C. and AB.
Description of activityOutcome/rationaleStart Date

1. Create an inventory strategy for Half-moon Hairstreak to:

  • document current range and describe habitat use at each location (including potential mutual relationships with other species. e.g. ants and host plants); and
  • guide mapping potential habitat and potential range
  • Standardized habitat information gathered and the comparison of location and location attributes across the range of the species.
  • A prioritized list of habitat polygons to inventory in unsurveyed habitat.
2012
2. Implement the inventory strategy to describe the current and potential range (e.g., collect data, create maps, etc.).
  • Searching known and potential habitat will enable comparisons of occupied versus unoccupied habitats, and help to clarify survival/recovery habitat attributes.
2014
3. Map Half-moon Hairstreak habitat using information gained through surveys (e.g. using standard protocol for gathering habitat information).
  • Maps of survival/recovery habitat.
2014
4. Define habitat use by life history stage
  • Clarify and quantify components of habitat that are used at different life stages, and thus survival/recovery habitat for different life stages.
2012

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8 Measuring Progress

The performance indicators presented below provide a way to define and measure progress toward achieving the population and distribution goal and recovery objectives. Performance measures are listed for each objective.

Objective 1 - Habitat Protection

  • A detailed habitat protection plan is developed for all known (and any new) Half-moon Hairstreak locations by 2016.
  • Stewardship agreements and/or covenants are developed for known (and any new) Half-moon Hairstreak locations on private lands by 2016.
  • Where appropriate, protection measures and threat mitigation has been initiated for all locations through existing legislative protection (e.g., Protected Areas, Wildlife Habitat Areas, landscape management plans) and local government bylaws and planning (e.g. official community plans, development permit areas, etc.) by 2016.

Objective 2 - Threats

  • Best management practices guidelines for Half-moon Hairstreakare drafted for each landowner or land manager, specific to the threats of the location (e.g. ranching and grazing; horseback riding, etc) by 2016.
  • Impact of the main threats (direct habitat loss or conversion to agricultural or urban development in B.C., recreation activities in AB) to the populations has been mitigated by 2016.

Objective 3 - Distribution

  • An inventory schedule for unsurveyed potential Half-moon Hairstreak habitat in B.C. and AB is drafted by 2012.
  • A standardized inventory protocol for population monitoring and habitat assessment of Half-moon Hairstreak is developed by 2012.
  • Potential habitat for Half-moon Hairstreak in B.C. and AB is inventoried by 2016.

Objective 4 - Knowledge Gaps

  • Studies addressing knowledge gaps (e.g. life history, habitat requirements, threat mitigation and other information) are initiated by 2012.

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9 Effects on Other Species

The ranges of several other species of endangered or threatened animals and plants overlap the range and habitat of Half-moon Hairstreak. The conservation actions to restore and protect grasslands ecosystems for Half-moon Hairstreak are likely beneficial to all species that rely on these threatened ecosystems. Likewise, conservation actions underway or proposed to protect the other species at risk are likely beneficial to Half-moon Hairstreak - a multi-species approach to conservation planning is recommended.

Federally listed species at risk that may overlap with Half-moon Hairstreak habitat in B.C. include Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus); American Badger (Taxidea taxus); Blotched Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium); Great Basin Spadefoot (Spea intermontana); Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus); Gopher Snake deserticola subspecies (Pituophis catenifer deserticola); Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis); and Racer (Coluber constrictor).

Federally listed species at risk found within grassland habitat in AB that may overlap with Half-moon Hairstreak include Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii), Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus), and Northern Leopard Frog Western Boreal/Prairie Population (Lithobates pipiens).

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10 References

Achuff, P.L., R.L. McNeil, M.L. Coleman, C. Wallis, and C. Wershler. 2002. Ecological land classification of Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Vol. I: integrated resource description. Parks Canada, Waterton Park, AB. 226 pp.

Aleksoff, K.C. 1999. Achillea millefolium. In: Fire Effects Information System [online]. U.S. Dep. Agric. For. Serv., Rocky Mountain Res. Stn., Fire Sci. Laboratory. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [Accessed Jan. 23, 2008]

Ballmer, G.R. and G.F. Pratt. 1988. A survey of the last instar larvae of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) of California. J. Res. Lepidoptera 27:1-81.

B.C. Conservation Data Centre. 2011. BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer. B.C. Min. Environ., Victoria, BC. BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer website [Accessed Nov. 14, 2011]

B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2007. Half-moon Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna) inventory South Okanagan BCCC invertebrate crew. Internal working report prepared by B.C. Conservation Corp., Penticton, BC. 12 pp.

B.C. Ministry of Environment, 2009. Half-moon Hairstreak (Satyrium semiluna) inventory in the Southern Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, 2009. Internal working report prepared by B.C. Conservation Corp., Penticton, BC. 20 pp.

B.C. Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations. 2011. Biogeoclimatic Classification System/Plant Ecology. Biogeoclimatic Classification System/Plant Ecology website [Accessed April 8, 2011]

Bird, C.D., G.J. Hilchie, N.G. Kondla, E.M. Pike, and F.A.H. Sperling. 1995. Alberta butterflies. Prov. Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB. 349 pp.

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 2006. COSEWIC assessment and status report of Half-moon Hairstreak Satyrium semiluna in Canada. Ottawa, ON. vi + 26 pp. http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status_e.cfm

Conservation Measures Partnership. 2010. Threats taxonomy. Threats taxonomy website [Accessed Feb. 8, 2011]

Elkinton, J.S., and G.H. Boettner. 2004. The effects of Compsilura concinnata, an introduced generalist tachinid, on non-target species in North America: a cautionary tale. Pp. 4-14. In: Van Driesche, R.G. and Reardon, R., eds., Assessing host ranges for parasitoids and predators used for classical biological control: a guide to best practice. United States Deptartment of Agriculture Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Morgantown, West Virginia. Fhtet-2004-03.

Folgarait, P.J. 1998. Ant biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem functioning: a review. Biodivers. Conserv. 7:1221-1244.

Government of Alberta. 2011. Alberta Conservation Information Management System (ACIMS). http://www.tpr.alberta.ca/parks/heritageinfocentre/default.aspx [Accessed November 3, 2011]

Government of Canada. 2009. Species at Risk Act policies, overarching policy framework - draft. Min. Environ., Ottawa, ON. 38 pp. (PDF; 644KB) [Accessed May 3, 2010]

Grasslands Conservation Council of British Columbia. 2009. Grasslands Monitoring Manual for British Columbia: A Tool for Ranchers. written by Delesalle, B.P., B.J. Coupe, B.M.

Wikeem, S.J. Wikeem. Available at http://www.bcgrasslands.org/docs/grassland_monitoring_manual_chapter1.pdf Accessed August 18, 2011.

Guppy, C.S. and J.H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia. Univ. British Columbia Press, Vancouver, BC. 414 pp.

Hölldobler, B. and E.O. Wilson. 1990. The ants. Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA.

Kelsey, R.G. and L.J. Locken. 1987. Phytotoxic properties of cnicin, a sesqiterpene lactone from Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed). Journal of Chemical Ecology 13: 19-33.

Knopp, D., L. Larkin, O. Dyer, and J. Heron. 2008. Half-moon hairstreak Satyrium semiluna, South Okanagan inventory. Reported prepared for Min. Environ., Ecosystem Branch, Vancouver, BC. 45 pp.

Kondla, N.G. 2003a. Preliminary field survey for the Sooty Hairstreak (Satyrium fuliginosum) in Waterton Lakes National Park. Report prepared for Parks Canada Agency. 17 pp.

Kondla, N.G. 2003b. The Sooty Hairstreak in British Columbia. Boreus 23(2):10-12. http://esbc.harbour.com/boreus23_2.pdf

Kondla, N.G. 2004a. Conservation overview of butterflies in the southern headwaters at risk (SHARP) area. Alberta Fish and Wildlife, Alberta Species at Risk Report No. 80. 40 pp. http://www3.gov.ab.ca/srd/fw/speciesatrisk/pdf/SAR_80.pdf

Kondla, N.G. 2004b. Waterton Lakes National Park Sooty Hairstreak survey, 2004. Report prepared for Parks Canada Agency. 24 pp.

Kondla, N.G. 2009. Waterton Lakes National Park - 2009 Half-moon Hairstreak Project Report. Report prepared for Parks Canada Agency. 17 pp.

Kuijt, J. 1982. A flora of Waterton Lakes National Park. Univ. Alberta Press, Edmonton, AB. 684 pp.

Lacey, J.R., C.B. Marlow, and J.R. Lane. 1989. Influence of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) on surface runoff and sediment yield. Weed Technology 3: 627-631.

Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. Lafontaine. 1998. The butterflies of Canada. Univ. Toronto Press, Toronto, ON. 354 pp. + 32 pls.

Leimar, O. and A.H. Axén. 1993. Strategic behaviour in an interspecific mutualism: interactions between Lycaenid larvae and ants. Anim. Behav. 46:1177-1182.

Mahr, S. 1999. Know your friends, Compsilura concinnata, parasitoid of gypsy moth. Midwest Biological Control News Online September 1999. Volume VI, Number 9. Know your friends website [Accessed Aug. 5, 2011]

Master, L., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Bittman, G.A. Hammerson, B. Heidel, J. Nichols, L. Ramsay, and A. Tomaino. 2009. NatureServe conservation status assessments: factors for assessing extinction risk. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. http://www.natureserve.org/publications/ConsStatusAssess_StatusFactors.pdf [Accessed Feb. 8, 2011]

Mattoon, S.O. and G.T. Austin. 1998. Review of Satyrium fuliginosum (W.H. Edwards) with the description of three new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Pages 681-690 in T.C. Emmel, ed. Systematics of western North American butterflies. Mariposa Press, Gainesville, FL. xxviii + 878 pp.

Meidinger, D. and J. Pojar. 1991. Ecosystems of British Columbia. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, BC.

Milchunas, D.G., W.K. Lauenroth, P.L. Chapman, and M.K. Kazempour. 1989. Effects of grazing, topography, and precipitation on the structure of a semiarid grassland. Vegetation 80:11-23.

Milchunas, D.E., O.E. Sala, and W.K. Lauenroth. 1988. A generalized model of the effect of grazing by large herbivores in grassland community structure. Am. Nat. 132:87-106.

Ministry of Environment. 2010a. British Columbia guide to recovery planning for species and ecosystems. B.C. Min. Environ., Victoria, BC. 32 pp. Recovery Planning in British Columbia website [Accessed Feb. 2011]

Ministry of Environment. 2010b. Conservation framework. B.C. Min. Environ., Victoria, BC. Conservation framework website [Accessed Nov. 23, 2010]

NatureServe. 2009. NatureServe explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Arlington, VA. NatureServe Explorer [Accessed Nov. 23, 2010]

Pierce, N.E. 1987. The evolution and biogeography of associations between lycaenid butterflies and ants. Oxford Surv. Evol. Biol. 4:89-116.

Province of British Columbia. 1982. Wildlife Act. [RSBC 1996]: Chapter 488. Queen's Printer, Victoria, BC. Wildlife Act. [RSBC 1996]: Chapter 488

Province of British Columbia. 2002. Forest and Range Practices Act. RSBC2002, c.69. Queen's Printer, Victoria, BC. British Columbia Legislation & Regulations website

Schluter, A., T. Lea, S. Cannings, and P. Krannitz. 1995. Antelope-brush ecosystems. Min. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC. Ecosystems at risk in British Columbia Series.

Scott, D. and R. Suffling. 2000. Climate change and Canada's national park system: a screening level assessment. Environment Canada, Cat. No. En56-155/2000E, ISBN 0-662-28976-5. 183 pp.

Scott, J.A. 1986a. The butterflies of North America. A natural history and field guide. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA. 583 pp.

Scott, J.A. 1986b. Larval hostplant records for butterflies and skippers (mainly from western U.S.), with notes on their natural history. Papilio (New Series) 4:1-37.

Scott, J.A. 1992. Hostplant records for butterflies and skippers (mostly from Colorado) 1951-1991, with new life histories and notes on oviposition, immatures, and ecology. Papilio (New Series) 6:1-171.

Scott, L., D. St. John, D. Lalonde, and H. Baumbrough. 2007. Assessment report on Showy Phlox Phlox speciosa and Half-moon Hairstreak Satyrium semiluna in the White Lake Basin. Unpublished report prepared for Andrew Gray, National Research Council Canada, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Penticton, BC. 20 pp.

Tyser, R.W. and C.H. Key. 1988. Spotted knapweed in natural area fescue grasslands: an ecological assessment. Northwest Science 62: 151-160.

United States Geological Survey. 2011. United States Geological Survey Glossary website Accessed August 10, 2011

Warren, A.D. 2005. Lepidoptera of North America 6. Butterflies of Oregon: their taxonomy, distribution, and biology. Contributions of the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, Colo. 408 pp.

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Personal Communications

Stephen Hureau, Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, BC. Personal communication to Orville Dyer and Jennifer Heron.

David Jones. Personal communication to Dennis St. John.

Norbert Kondla, private entomologist, Calgary, AB. Personal communication to Cyndi Smith and Jennifer Heron.

Gordon Pratt, University of California Riverside, San Diego, CA. Personal communication to Jennifer Heron.

Cyndi Smith, conservation biologist, Waterton Lakes National Park. Personal communication to Jennifer Heron.

Dennis St. John, private entomologist, Willowbrook, BC. Personal communication to Jennifer Heron and Orville Dyer.

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Footnotes

Footnote 1

Protected habitat is habitat (see Section 3.3.1, Habitat and Biological Needs) managed to maintain Half-moon Hairstreak over a long time period (i.e., 100 years). Protection can be achieved through various mechanisms including: voluntary stewardship agreements, conservation covenants, sale by willing vendors on private lands, land use designations, and protected areas with appropriate management plans.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Locations are based on the biological parameters of the butterfly (e.g., dispersal distance and habitat connectivity between known occurrences, and whether the individuals mix between locations). The definition of location for recovery of the species is defined as a stand-alone population that does not mix with other locations. Sites within a location may mix.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

The COSEWIC status report (2006) for Half-moon Hairstreak states six locations in B.C., however, since the status report was written, one additional location has been recorded in B.C. (B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2008; Knopp et al. 2008).

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

An alluvial fan is a low, outspread, relatively flat to gently sloping mass of alluvium that is shaped like an open fan. Commonly deposited by a stream at the place where it issues from a narrow mountain valley upon a plain or broad valley. (United States Geological Survey, 2011).

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Footnote 5

The numbers on the map correspond to locations of the species and are listed in Table 1. See footnote 2 for the definition of a location.

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Footnote 6

Although natural system modifications and climate change also have a Threat Impact value of Medium, these threats are only considered potential threats that may happen in the future.

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Footnote 7

The overall threat impact was calculated following Master et al. (2009) using the number of Level 1 Threats assigned to this species: 4 Medium, 2 Low, and 1 Unknown (Table 2).

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Footnote 8

This includes Level 2 Threats where value for Timing is High (Table 2; CMP 2010).

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Footnote 9

This includes Level 2 Threats where value for Timing is Medium, Low, or Unknown; or the Impact is Unknown (Table 2; CMP 2010).

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Footnote 10

Protected habitat is habitat (see Section 3.3.1, Habitat and Biological Needs) managed to maintain Half-moon Hairstreak over a long time period (i.e., 100 years). Protection can be achieved through various mechanisms including: voluntary stewardship agreements, conservation covenants, sale by willing vendors on private lands, land use designations, and protected areas with appropriate management plans.

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