Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.

Skip booklet index and go to page content

10. References

Adams, B. W,  G. Ehlert, C . Stone, M. Alexander, D. Lawrence, M. Willoughby, D. Moisey, C. Hincz, and A. Burkinshaw.  2005. Rangeland Health Assessment for Grassland, Forest and Tame Pasture. Public Lands and Forests Division, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. Pub. No. T/044. 112 pp.

Axelrod, D. I. 1985. Rise of the Grassland Biome, Central North America. Botanical Review 51: 163-201.

Bender, D.J., D.L. Gummer, S. Robertson, A. Teucher, P. Knaga, E. Baird, and E. Jochum. 2005. Conservation management of Ord’s kangaroo rats and sandy habitats of the Middle and Hills of Alberta. Report for Canadian Forces Base Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alberta. 33 pp.

Bush, J.K. and O.W. van Auken. 1997. The effects of neighbours and grazing on the growth of Helianthus paradoxus. The Southwestern Naturalist 42:416-422

Cilgi, T. and P.C. Jepson. 1995. The risks posed by deltamethrin drift to hedgerow butterflies. Environmental Pollution 87:1-9.

Clifford, H. T. 1959. Seed dispersal by motor vehicles. Journal of Ecology 47: 311–315.

COSEWIC. 2005. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Verna's Flower Moth Schinia verna in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 19 pp.

COSEWIC. 2006. COSEWIC assessment and status report of the Gold-edged Gem Schinia avemensis in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 26 pp.

COSEWIC. 2010. Status reports definitions and abbreviations. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. Available: (Accessed: November 8, 2011).

Crawford, C. S. 1981. Biology of desert invertebrates. Spring-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York, New York 314 pp.

Curteanu, M. 2011. Gold-edged Gem (Schinia avemensis) and Dusky Dune Moth (Copablepharon longipenne) distribution surveys in Alberta and Saskatchewan, 2010. Unpublished Canadian Wildlife Service report. Edmonton, AB. 28 pp.

David, P.P. 1977. Sand dune occurrences of Canada: a theme and resource inventory study of eolian landforms of Canada. Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, National Parks Branch. Ottawa. 183 pp.

Davis, B.N.K., K.H. Lakhani and T.J. Yates. 1991. The hazards of insecticides to butterflies in field margins. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 36:151-161.

Daubenmire, R. 1968. Ecology of fire in grasslands. Advances in Ecological Research 5 209-266.

Dempster, J.P. 1997. The role of larval food sources and adult movement in the population dynamics of the orange-tip butterfly (Anthocharis cardamines). Oecologia 11:549-556.

EnCana, 2007. EnCanana Shallow Gas Infill Development in CFB Suffield National Wildlife Area, Volume 3: Terrestrial Biophysical Assessment, 332 p.

Felsot, A.S., J.B. Unsworth, J.B.H.J. Linders, G. Roberts, D. Rautman, C. Harris, and E. Carazo. 2011. Agrochemical spray drift; assessment and mitigation – a review. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Pt B. 46:1-23

Forman, R.T, D. Sperling, J.A. Bissonnette, A.P. Clevenger, C.D. Cutshall, V.H. Dale, L. Fahrig, R. France, C. R. Goldman, K. Heanue, J.A. Jones, F.J. Swanson, T. Turrentine, T.C. Winter. 2003. Road ecology science and solutions. Island press, Washington, DC. 481 pp.

Garren, K. H.  1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review 9: 617-654.

Geological Survey of Canada. 2001. Sand dune and climate change studies in the Prairie Provinces. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Available: (Accessed: 15 July 2008).

Gomez, J.M., and Gonzalez-Megias, A. 2002. Asymmetrical interactions between ungulates and phytophagous insects: being different matters. Ecology 83(1):203-211.

Gordon, D. R. 1998. Effects of invasive, non-indigenous plant species on ecosystem processes: lessons from Florida. Ecological Applications 8: 975-989.

Government of Canada. 2009.  Species at Risk Act Policies, Overarching Policy Framework (draft).  Species at Risk Act Policy and Guidelines Series, Environment Canada, Ottawa. 38 pp. 

Hardwick, D.F. 1996. A Monograph to the North American Heliothenthinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Published privately. 281 pp.

Heinrich, B. and P. H. Raven. 1972. Energetics and pollination ecology. Science 176:597-602.

Heiser, C.B. 1969. The North American sunflowers (Helianthus). Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 22:1-212.

Henderson, D.C., and Naeth, M.A. 2005. Multi-scale impacts of crested wheatgrass invasion in mixed-grass prairie. Biological Invasions 7:639-650.

Hugenholtz, C. H. and S. A. Wolfe. 2005. Recent stabilization of active sand dunes on the Canadian prairies and relation to recent climate variations. Geomorphology 68: 131–147.

Jensen, O., M. Curteanu and G. Anweiler. 2009. Occurrence of the endangered Gold-edged Gem (Schinia avemensis) at CFB Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta. Blue Jay 67:50-53.

Kevan, P. G.1999. Pollinators as bioindicators of the state of the environment: species, activity and diversity. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74: 373–393.

Lake Diefenbaker Tourism Destination Area Planning Committee. 2008. Lake Diefenbaker Tourism Destination Area Plan. Elbow, SK, 55 pp.

Lemauviel, S. and F. Roze. 2003. Response of three plant communities to trampling in a sand dune system in Brittany (France). Environmental Management 31: 227-235.

Lesica, P. and Cooper, S. 1999. Succession and disturbance in sandhills vegetation: constructing models for managing biological diversity. Conservation Biology 13: 293-302.

Lloyd, K. M., Pollock, M. L., Mason, N. W. H., and Lee, W. G. 2010. Leaf trait-palatability relationships differ between ungulates species: evidence from cafeteria experiments using naïve tussock grasses. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 34(2): 219-226.

Longley M. and N. W. Sotherton. 1997. Factors determining the effects of pesticides upon butterflies inhabiting arable farmland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 61: 1-12.

McKercher, R. B., and B. Wolfe. 1986. Understanding Western Canada's Dominion Land Survey System. Division of Extension and Community Relations report, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. 26 pp.

Mangan, J. M., J. T. Overpeck, R. S. Webb, C. Wessman and A. F. Goetz. 2004. Response of Nebraska sand hills natural vegetation to drought, fire, grazing and plant functional type shifts as simulated by the Centurymodel. Climatic Change 63:49–90

Merriam-Webster. 2012. Merriam-Webster. An Encyclopeadia Britannica Company. Available.

Moss, E.H. 1994. Flora of Alberta. 2nd ed. University of Toronto Press.

NatureServe. 2011. Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available at: (Accessed: October 10, 2011).

Nilsson, S.G., M. Franzen and E. Jönsson. 2008. Long-term land-use changes and extinction of specialised butterflies.Insect Conservation and Diversity 1: 197-207.

Ouren, D.S., C. Haas, C. P. Melcher, S.C. Stewart, P.D Ponds, N.R.Sexton, L. Burris, T. Fancher and Z.H. Bowen. 2007. Environmental effects of off-highway vehicles on Bureau of Land Management lands: A literature synthesis, annotated bibliographies, extensive bibliographies, and internet resources (PDF; 2.88 MB): U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2007-1353, 225 p. Available at: (Accessed: 8 September 2008).

Packer, L. and R. Owen. 2001. Population genetic aspects of pollinator decline. Conservation Ecology 5: 4.

Peterson, M. A. 1997. Host plant phenology and butterfly dispersal: causes and consequences of uphill movement. Ecology, 78: 167-180.

Pfeiffer, K.E. and A.A. Steuter. 1994. Preliminary response of sandhills prairie to fire and bison grazing. Journal of Range Management 47:395-397

Rao R. S. and M. S. Girish. 2007. Road kills: assessing insect casualties using flagship taxon. Current Science 92: 830-837.

Rowland, J. 2008. Ecosystem Impacts of Historical Shallow Gas Wells within the CFB Suffield National Wildlife Area. Unpublish report, Department of National Defence, Ottawa.

Ruthven, D.C., J.F. Gallagher and D.R. Synatzshe. 2000. Effect of fire and grazing on forbs in the western south Texas plains. The Southwestern Naturalist 45:89-94.

Saskatchewan Prairie Conservation Action Plan Greencover Committee. 2008.  Native Grassland and Forest, Rangeland Health Assessment, 62 pp.

Thorpe, J., S. Wolfe, J. Campbell, J. LeBlanc, and R. Molder. 2001. An ecological approach for evaluating land use management and climate change adaptation strategies on sand dune areas in the Prairie Provinces. Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network. Prairie Adaptation Research Collaborative Project, Regina. Issue 07.

Tscharntke, T., I. Steffan-Dewenter, A. Kruess and C. Thies. 2002. Characteristics of insect populations on habitat fragments: A mini review. Ecological Research 17: 229–239.

Schykulski, K. and J. Moore. 1996. Spruce Woods Provincial Park: Prairie Management Plan. Winnipeg: Manitoba Department of Natural resources 3 vols.

Sousa, W.P. 1984. The role of disturbance in natural communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15: 353-391.

Sustainable Resource Development. 2012. Alberta Ord’s Kangaroo Rat Recovery Plan, 2012-2017. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species at Risk Recovery Plan No. XX. Edmonton, AB. XX pp.

Wallis, C. and Wershler, C. 1988. Rare wildlife and plant conservation studies in sandhill and sand plain habitats of southern Alberta. Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, Edmonton, Alberta. Pub. No. T/176.

White, P. S. 1979. Pattern, process, and natural disturbance in vegetation. Botanical Review 45: 229-299.

Wolf, T.M. and A.A. Cessna. 2004. Protecting aquatic and riparian areas from pesticide drift. Pp 59-70 in: Proceedings of an International Conference on Pesticide Application Drift Management, Oct. 27-29, 2004, Waikoloa, Hawaii.

Wolfe, S. A. 1997. Impact of increased aridity on sand dune activity in the Canadian Prairies. Journal of Arid Environments 36:421-432.

Wolfe, S.A., D.J. Huntley, and J. Ollerhead. 1995. Recent and late Holocene sand dune activity in southwestern Saskatchewan. Pp. 131-140 in Current research 1995-B. Geological Survey of Canada.

Wolfe, S.A., D.R. Muhs, P.P. David and J.P. McGeehin. 2000. Chronology and geochemistry of late Holocene eolian deposits in the Brandon sand hills, Manitoba, Canada. Quaternary International 67:61-74.

Wolfe, S.A. 2010. An inventory of active sand dunes and blowouts in the Prairie Provinces, Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6680, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6680, 21 pp.

Personal Communications

Andrew Taylor – Range Biologist, Canadian Forces Base Suffield, Alberta

Chuck Harp - Season Summary Coordinator, Rocky Mountain Region, Colorado

Gary Anweiler – Associate, University of Alberta, Strickland Entomology Museum, Alberta

Joel Perry – Park Supervisor - Douglas Provincial Park, Saskatchewan

Sharilyn Westworth – Wildlife Technician, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Alberta

Top of Page

Appendix A – Maps of Gold-edged Gem critical habitat in Canada

Figure A1 is a map showing areas of critical habitat for Gold-edged Gem, marked by a star, in Alberta and Western Saskatchewan.

Top of Page

Critical habitat for the Gold-edged Gem in the Empress Meander (Dune Point) (near Bindloss), Pakowki Lake (near Manyberries) and Middle sand hills (in Suffield NWA) of Alberta, and the Burstall, and Tunstall (near Golden Prairie) sand hills of Saskatchewan.

Figure A2 is a map showing an area of critical habitat for Gold-edged Gem, marked by a star, in Abbey, Saskatchewan.

Top of Page

Critical habitat for the Gold-edged Gem in the Cramersburg (near Abbey) sand hills of Saskatchewan.

Figure A3 is a map showing areas of critical habitat for Gold-edged Gem, marked by a star, in Elbow, Saskatchewan.

Top of Page

Critical habitat for the Gold-edged Gem in the Elbow sand hills, Saskatchewan.

Figure A4 is a map showing an area of critical habitat for Gold-edged Gem, marked by a star, in Dundurn, Saskatchewan.

Top of Page

Critical habitat for the Gold-edged Gem in the Dundurn sand hills, Saskatchewan.

Figure A5 is a map showing areas of critical habitat for Gold-edged Gem, marked by a star, in Manitoba.

Critical habitat for the Gold-edged Gem in the Brandon sand hills, Manitoba.

Top of Page

Appendix B – Quarter sections containing Gold-edged Gem critical habitat in Canada[8]

Quarter sections containing Gold-edged Gem critical habitat Canada.

Dune fieldQuarter sectionSectionTownshipRangeMeridian
Tunstall sand hillsNW614283
Tunstall sand hillsNE614283
Tunstall sand hillsSE614283
Tunstall sand hillsNE314283
Tunstall sand hillsNW214283
Burstall sand hillsNE1420293
Cramersburg sand hillsNE922193
Cramersburg sand hillsSE1222203
Elbow sand hillsSE232443
Elbow sand hillsSW242443
Elbow sand hillsNW132443
Elbow sand hillsNE142443
Elbow sand hillsNE152443
Elbow sand hillsNW142443
Elbow sand hillsNW152433
Elbow sand hillsNE152433
Elbow sand hillsSE152433
Dundurn sand hillsNW303253
Dune fieldQuarter sectionSectionTownshipRangeMeridian
Pakowki Lake sand hillsSE21574
Pakowki Lake sand hillsSW22574
Pakowki Lake sand hillsNW22574
Pakowki Lake sand hillsNE22574
Pakowki Lake sand hillsSE22574
Middle sand hillsNE61654
Middle sand hillsNW111844
Middle sand hillsSW141844
Middle sand hillsNE111844
Middle sand hillsSE111844
Middle sand hillsSW311834
Middle sand hillsNW271934
Middle sand hillsSW271934
Middle sand hillsNE102034
Middle sand hillsSW141934
Middle sand hillsSE151934
Middle sand hillsNW141934
Middle sand hillsNW231934
Middle sand hillsNE191934
Middle sand hillsNW191934
Middle sand hillsSW191934
Empress Meander (Dune Point) sand hillsNE122344
Empress Meander (Dune Point) sand hillsSW72334
Dune fieldQuarter sectionSectionTownshipRangeMeridian
Brandon sand hillsNW228141
Brandon sand hillsNE218141
Brandon sand hillsSE218141
Brandon sand hillsSW228141
Brandon sand hillsSE228141
Brandon sand hillsNE158141
Brandon sand hillsNW158141

Top of Page

Appendix C - Effects on the Environment and Other Species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

Sand dune ecosystems support a wide range of rare and highly specialized plants and animals, many of which are at risk of extinction in Canada. As such, it is anticipated that the activities identified in this recovery strategy will benefit several species and the environment. In particular, the endangered Ord’s Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys ordii) that sometimes occurs in the same habitat as Gold-edged Gem, would benefit from management and research activities identified in this strategy. Several at risk plants occur in sand dunes including the endangered Small-flowered Sand-verbena (Tripterocalyx micranthus) and Tiny Cryptantha (Cryptantha minima), as well as the threatened Hairy Prairie-clover (Dalea villosa var. villosa), Smooth Goosefoot (Chenopodium subglabrum) and Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis). Several rare moths are also found in association with Gold-edged Gem habitat including the endangered White Flower Moth (Schinia bimatris), Aweme Borer Moth (Papaipema aweme) and Dusky Dune Moth (Copablepharon longipenne), as well as the special concern Pale Yellow Dune Moth (Copablepharon grandis).

Accordingly, management and conservation measures aimed at Gold-edged Gem recovery will benefit many of these rare and sensitive species and overall, will contribute to the future conservation of active dune ecosystems.

8 As described in Section 7.1, critical habitat is identified at each Gold-edged Gem location as the active open sand dunes and/or blowouts, encompassing the area from the crest of the dune to the edge where native vegetation grows and the dune is stabilized.

Page 3