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Recovery Strategy for Paxton Lake, Enos Lake, and Vananda Creek Stickleback Species Pairs (Gasterosteus spp.) in Canada [Proposed]
Bell, M.A., and S.A. Foster. 1994. editors. The evolutionary biology of the threespine stickleback. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Bentzen, P., and J.D. McPhail. 1984. Ecology and evolution of sympatric sticklebacks (Gasterosteus): specialization for alternative trophic niches in the Enos Lake species pair. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62:2280-2286.
Boughman, J.W. 2001. Divergent sexual selection enhances reproductive isolation in sticklebacks. Nature 411: 944-947.
Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The birds of British Columbia. Volume I. Nonpasserines. Royal British Columbia Museum and Canadian Wildlife Service, Victoria, British Columbia.
Chilibeck, B., G. Chislett, and G. Norris. 1992. Land development guidelines for the protection of aquatic habitat. Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
Foster, S.A. 1994. Evolution of the reproductive behaviour of threespine stickleback. Pages 381-398 in M.A. Bell and S.A. Foster, editors. The evolutionary biology of the threespine stickleback. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Foster, S.A., J.A. Baker, and M.A. Bell. 2003. The case for conserving threespine stickleback populations: protecting an adaptive radiation. Fisheries 28(5):10-18.
Government of Canada. 2005. Species at Risk Act Policy. Draft policy on the feasibility of recovery. January 06, 2005
Hatfield, T. 2001a. Status of the stickleback species pair, Gasterosteus spp., in Hadley Lake, Lasqueti Island, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115:579-583.
Hatfield, T. 2001b. Status of the stickleback species pair, Gasterosteus spp., in the Vananda Creek watershed of Texada Island, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115:584-590.
Hatfield, T. 2003. Threats to stickleback species pairs. report prepared for the National Recovery Team for Stickleback Species Pairs. Unpublished Manuscript
Hatfield, T. and D. Schluter. 1996. A test for sexual selection on hybrids of two sympatric sticklebacks. Evolution 50: 2429-2434.
Hatfield, T., and J. Ptolemy. 2001. Status of the stickleback species pair, Gasterosteus spp., in Paxton Lake, Texada Island, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115:591-596.
Kliewer, E.V. 1970. Gill raker variation and diet in lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, in northern Manitoba. Pp. 147-165 in C. C. Lindsey and C. S. Woods (eds.), Biology of coregonid fishes. University of Manitoba Press, Winnipeg, Canada.
Kraak, S.B.M., B. Mundwiler, and P.J.B. Hart. 2001. Increased number of hybrids between benthic and limnetic three-spined sticklebacks in Enos Lake, Canada; the collapse of a species pair? Journal of Fish Biology 58:1458-1464.
Larson, G.L. 1976. Social behavior and feeding ability of two phenotypes of Gasterosteus aculeatus in relation to their spatial and trophic segregation in a temperate lake. Canadian Journal of Zoology 54:107-121.
Lavin, P.A., and J.D. McPhail. 1985. The evolution of freshwater diversity in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): site-specific differentiation of trophic morphology. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 2632-2638.
Lavin, P.A., and J.D. McPhail. 1986. Adaptive divergence of trophic phenotype among freshwater populations of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43: 2455-2463.
Lavin, P.A., and J.D. McPhail. 1987. Morphological divergence and the organization of trophic characters among lacustrine populations of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 1820-1829.
Magnuson, J.J. and J.G. Heitz. 1971. Gill raker apparatus and food selectivity among mackerels, tunas, and dolphins. Fisheries Bulletin 69:361-370.
Matthews, B., P. Ramsay and K. Tienhaara. 2000. The Endangered Species Recovery Planning Matrix. Undergraduate Honours Thesis. University of British Columbia. (Available in PDF Format, 550KB)
McPhail, J.D. 1969. Predation and the evolution of a stickleback (Gasterosteus). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26: 3183-3208.
McPhail, J.D. 1984. Ecology and evolution of sympatric sticklebacks (Gasterosteus): morphological and genetic evidence for a species pair in Enos Lake, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62: 1402-1408.
McPhail, J.D. 1989. Status of the Enos Lake stickleback species pair, Gasterosteus spp. Canadian Field-Naturalist 103:216-219.
McPhail, J.D. 1992. Ecology and evolution of sympatric sticklebacks (Gasterosteus): evidence for a species-pair in Paxton Lake, Texada Island, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70: 361-369.
McPhail, J.D. 1993. Ecology and evolution of sympatric sticklebacks (Gasterosteus): origin of the species pairs. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:515-523.
McPhail, J.D. 1994. Speciation and the evolution of reproductive isolation in the sticklebacks (Gasterosteus) of southwestern British Columbia. Pages 399-437 in M. A. Bell and S. A. Foster, editors. The evolutionary biology of the threespine stickleback. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Nagel, L. and D. Schluter. 1998. Body size, natural selection, and speciation in sticklebacks. Evolution 52: 209-218.
National Recovery Working Group. 2003. Working Draft Recovery Handbook. April 2003. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife, Ottawa, Ontario. 40+ pp. plus appendices.
Province of British Columbia. Water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Available at: http://srmwww.gov.bc.ca/risc/pubs/aquatic/interp/index.htm
Reimchen, T.E. 1989. Loss of nuptial color in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Evolution 43: 450-460.
Reimchen, T.E. 1992. Injuries on stickleback from attacks by a toothed predator (Oncorhynchus) and some implications for the evolution of lateral plates. Evolution 46: 1224-1230.
Rowland, W.J. 1989. The effects of body size, aggression and nuptial coloration on competition for territories in male threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Animal Behaviour 37: 282-289.
Sanderson, S.L., J.J. Cech, and M.R. Patterson. 1991. Fluid dynamics in suspension-feeding blackfish. Science 251: 1346-1348.
Schluter, D. 1994. Experimental evidence that competition promotes divergence in adaptive radiation. Science 266: 798-801.
Schluter, D. 1995. Adaptive radiation in sticklebacks: trade-offs in feeding performance and growth. Ecology 76: 82-90.
Schluter, D. 2003. Frequency dependent natural selection during character displacement in sticklebacks. Evolution 57: 1142–1150.
Schluter, D., and J.D. McPhail. 1992. Ecological character displacement and speciation in sticklebacks. The American Naturalist 140:85-108.
Schluter, D. and J.D. McPhail. 1993. Character displacement and replicate adaptive radiation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8: 197-200.
Seehausen, O., J.J.M. van Alphen and F. Witte. 1997. Cichlid fish diversity threatened by eutrophication that curbs sexual selection. Science 277: 1808-1811.
Stockner, J.G., E. Rydin, and P. Hyenstrand. 2000. Cultural oligotrophication: causes and consequences for fisheries resources. Fisheries 25(5):7-14.
Taylor, E.B., and J.D. McPhail. 1999. Evolutionary history of an adaptive radiation in species pairs of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus): insights from mitochondrial DNA. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66:271-291.
Taylor, E.B. and J.D. McPhail. 2000. Historical contingency and ecological determinism interact to prime speciation in sticklebacks, Gasterosteus. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 267: 2375-2384.
Vamosi, S.M. 2003. The presence of other fish species affects speciation in threespine sticklebacks. Evolutionary Ecology Research 5: 717–730.
Vamosi, S.M., T. Hatfield, and D. Schluter. 2000. A test of ecological selection against young-of-the-year hybrids of sympatric sticklebacks. Journal of Fish Biology 57: 109-121.
Wetzel, R.G. 2001. Limnology. Lake and river ecosystems, 3rd Edition. Academic Press, San Diego.
Wood, P., J. Oosenbrug, and S. Young. 2003. Vananda Creek Stickleback Species Pair Managing Identified Wildlife Account (draft).
Wooton, R.J. 1976. The biology of the sticklebacks. Academic Press, London, UK.
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