Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.

Skip booklet index and go to page content

Recovery Strategy for the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus) in Canada [Proposed] 2007

1         References

Adams, B.W., J. Carlson, D. Milner, T. Hood, B. Cairns, and P. Herzog. 2004.  Beneficial grazing management practices for Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and ecology of silver sagebrush (Artemisia cana) in southeastern Alberta.  Technical Report. Pub. No. T/049, Public Lands and Forests Division, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Lethbridge, Alberta. 60 pp.

AlbertaAgriculture, Food and Rural Development.  2003.  Farm Census Statistics for Alberta.  Statistics and Data Development Unit, Economics and Competitiveness Division, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. Edmonton, Alberta. www.agric.gov.ab.ca.htm

Alberta Sage-Grouse Recovery Action Group.  2005.  Alberta greater Sage-Grouse recovery plan.  Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton, AB.  Species at Risk Recovery Plan No. 8. 33pp.

Aldridge, C.L.  1998(a).  Status of Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus) in Alberta.  Wildlife Status Report No. 13. Alberta Environmental Protection, Wildlife Management Division, and Alberta Conservation Association, Edmonton, Alberta.  23 pp. 

Aldridge, C.L.  1998(b).  The status of Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus) in Canada.  Proceedings of the 5th Prairie Conservation and Endangered Species Workshop.  Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Natural History Occasional Paper 24:197-205.

Aldridge, C.L.  2000.  Reproduction and habitat use by Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in a northern fringe population.  M.Sc. Thesis. University of Regina. Regina, Saskatchewan.  109 pp.

Aldridge, C.L. 2001.  Do Sage-Grouse have a future in Canada?  Population dynamics and management suggestions.  Proceedings of the 6th Prairie Conservation and Endangered Species Conference. Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Aldridge, C.L.  2005.  Identifying habitats for persistence of greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Alberta, Canada.  Ph.D. Thesis. University of Alberta. Edmonton, Alberta. 250 pp.

Aldridge, C.L., S.J. Oyler-McCance, and R.M. Brigham.  2001.  Occurrence of greater Sage-Grouse X sharp-tailed grouse hybrids in Alberta.  Condor 103: 657-660.

Aldridge, C.L. and R.M. Brigham.  2002.  Sage-Grouse nesting and brood habitat use in southern Canada.  Journal of Wildlife Management 66(2): 433-444.

Aldridge, C.L., and R.M. Brigham.  2003.  Distribution, status and abundance of Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, in Canada.  Canadian Field Naturalist 117:25-34.

Aldridge, C.L., M.S. Boyce, and R.K. Baydack.  2004a.  Adaptive management of prairie grouse: how do we get there?  Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(1): 92-103.

Aldridge, C.L., R. Lee, P. Jones, and J. Nicholson.  2004b.  Winter habitat selection and survival by Sage-Grouse in southeastern Alberta.  Final project report for 2003-2004 funding partners.  Unpublished Report, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development.  Edmonton, Alberta.  18 pp.

Autenrieth, R.E.  1981.  Sage-Grouse management in Idaho. Wildlife Bulletin. No. 9. Wildlife Research Section, Idaho Dept. Fish and Game.  238 pp.

Autenrieth, R., W. Molini, and C. Braun, Eds.  1982.  Sage-Grouse management practices.  Technical Bulletin 1, Western States Sage-Grouse Committee, Twin Falls, Idaho.  42 pp.

Barnett, J.F. and J.A. Crawford.  1994.  Pre-laying nutrition of Sage-Grouse hens in Oregon. Journal of Range Management 47: 114-118.

Beck, J.L. and D.L. Mitchell.  2000.  Influences of livestock grazing on Sage-Grouse habitat.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(4): 993-1002.

Beck, T.D.I.  1977.  Sage-Grouse flock characteristics and habitat in winter.  Journal of Wildlife Management 41: 18-26.

Beck, T.D.I. and C.E. Braun.  1978.  Weights of Colorado Sage-Grouse.  Condor 80(2): 241-243.

Beck, T.D.I. and C.E. Braun.  1980.  The strutting ground count: Variation, traditionalism, and management needs.  Proceedings of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 60: 558-566.

Benedict, N.G., S.J. Oyler-McCance, S.E. Taylor, C.E. Braun, and T.W. Quinn.  2003.  Evaluation of the eastern (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus) and western Centrocercus urophasianus phaios) subspecies of Sage-Grouse using mitochondrial control-region sequence data.  Conservation Genetics 4(3): 301-310.

Bergerud, A.T.  1988a.  Mating systems in grouse.  Pages 439-472 in A.T. Bergerud and M.W. Gratson, Eds.  Adaptive strategies and population ecology of northern grouse. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.  809 pp.

Bergerud, A.T.  1988b.  Population ecology of North American grouse.  Pages 578-648, in A.T. Bergerud and M.W. Gratson, Eds.  Adaptive strategies and population ecology of northern grouse.  University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.  809 pp.

Berry, J.D. and R.L. Eng.  1985.  Interseasonal movements and fidelity to seasonal use areas by female Sage-Grouse.  Journal of Wildlife Management 49(1): 237-240.

Bird, R.D.  1961.  Ecology of the aspen parkland of western Canada. Research Branch. Canada Dept. Agriculture. Ottawa, Ontario.  Publication No. 1066.  155pp.

Bradley, C. and C. Wallis.  1996.  Prairie ecosystem management: An Alberta perspective.  Prairie Conservation Forum.  Lethbridge, Alberta.  Occasional Paper No. 2. 29 pp.

Braun, C.E.  1998.  Sage-Grouse declines in western North America: What are the problems? Proceedings of the Western Association of State Fish and Wildlife Agencies 78:139-156.

Braun, C.E., O.O. Oedekoven, and C.L. Aldridge.  2002.  Oil and gas development in western North America: Effects on sagebrush steppe avifauna with particular emphasis on Sage-Grouse.  Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 67: 337-349.

Braun, C.E., T. Britt, and R.O. Wallestad.  1977.  Guidelines for maintenance of Sage-Grouse habitats.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 5(3): 99-106.

Call, M.W. and C. Maser.  1985.  Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands – The Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: Sage-Grouse.  Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.  Portland, Oregon. 29 pp.

Canadian Sage-Grouse Recovery Team.  2001.  Canadian Sage-Grouse recovery strategy.  Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton, Alberta.  55 pp.

Clark, J. and L. Dube.  1984.  An inventory of vegetative communities associated with Sage-Grouse leks in southern Alberta.  Unpublished Report, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Energy and Natural Resources, Lethbridge, Alberta.  28 pp.

Coggins, K.A.  1998.  Relationship between habitat changes and productivity of Sage-Grouse at Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge, Oregon.  M.S. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.  61 pp.

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.  2006.  COSEWIC web site. Species Search. URL http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct1/index_e.cfm

Connelly, J.W., H.W. Browers, and R.J. Gates.  1988.  Seasonal movements of Sage-Grouse in southeastern Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management 52(1): 116-122.

Connelly, J.W., R.A. Fischer, A.D. Apa, K.P. Reese, and W.L. Wakkinen.  1993.  Renesting of Sage-Grouse in southeastern Idaho.  Condor 95(4): 1041-1043.

Connelly, J.W., K.P. Reese, W.L. Wakkinen, M.D. Robertson, and R.A. Fischer.  1994.  Sage-Grouse ecology. Study I: Sage-Grouse response to a controlled burn.  Idaho Dept. Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho.  P-R Project W-160-R-21.

Connelly, J.W., M.A. Schroeder, A.R. Sands, and C.E. Braun.  2000.  Guidelines to manage Sage-Grouse populations and their habitats.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(4): 967-985.

Connelly, J.W., K.P. Reese, and M.S. Schroeder.  2003.  Monitoring of greater Sage-Grouse habitats and populations.  College of Natural Resources Experimental Station.  University of Idaho.  Moscow, Idaho.  47 pp.

Connelly, J.W., S.T. Knick, M.A. Schroeder, and S.J. Stiver.  2004.  Conservation assessment of greater Sage-Grouse and sagebrush habitats.  Western Association of  Fish and Wildlife Agencies.  Unpublished Report, Cheyenne, Wyoming.  610 pp.

Crawford, J.A., R.A. Olson, N.E. West, J.C. Moseley, M.A. Schroeder, T.D. Whitson, R.F. Miller, M.A. Gregg, and C.S. Boyd.  2004.  Ecology and management of Sage-Grouse and Sage-Grouse habitat.  Journal of Range Management 57: 2-19.

Dalke, P.D., D.B. Pyrah, D.C. Stanton, J.E. Crawford, and E.F. Schlatterer.  1963.  Ecology, productivity and management of Sage-Grouse in Idaho.  Journal of Wildlife Management 27(4): 811-841.

DeLong, A.K., J.A. Crawford, and D.C. DeLong Jr.  1995.  Relationship between vegetational structure and predation of artificial Sage-Grouse nests.  Journal of Wildlife Management 59(1): 88-92.

Dobkin, D.S.  1995.  Management and conservation of Sage-Grouse, denominative species for ecological health of shrub-steppe ecosystems.  Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Portland, Oregon.  26 pp.

Dube, L.A.  1993.  Provincial Sage-Grouse population trend counts April-May 1991.  Unpublished Report., Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, Lethbridge, Alberta.  21 pp.

Dunn, P.O. and C.E. Braun.  1986.  Summer habitat use by adult female and juvenile Sage-Grouse.  Journal of Wildlife Management 50(2): 228-235.

Drut, M.S., J.A. Crawford, and M.A. Gregg.  1994a.  Brood habitat use by Sage-Grouse in Oregon.  Great Basin Naturalist 54(2): 170-176.

Drut, M.S., W.H. Pyle, and J.A. Crawford.  1994b.  Diets and food selection of Sage-Grouse chicks in Oregon.  Journal of Range Management 47: 90-93.

Emmons, S.R. and C.E. Braun.  1984.  Lek attendance of male Sage-Grouse.  Journal of Wildlife Management 48(3): 1023-1028.

Eng, R.L.  1963.  Observations on the breeding biology of male Sage-Grouse.  Journal of Wildlife Management 27(4): 841-846.

Eng, R.L. and P. Schladweiler.  1972.  Sage-Grouse winter movements and habitat use in central Montana.  Journal of Wildlife Management 36(1): 141-146.

England, T. and A. DeVos.  1969.  Influence of animals on prairie conditions on the Canadian grasslands.  Journal of Range Management 22(2): 87-94.

Environment Canada.  2005.  Policy on the feasibility of recovery (draft).  Species at Risk Act Policy.  Government of Canada.

Fischer, R.A., K.P. Reese, and J.W. Connelly.  1996.  An investigation of fire effects within xeric Sage-Grouse brood habitat.  Journal of Range Management 49: 194-198.

Fisher, C. and J. Acorn.  1998.  Birds of Alberta.  Lone Pine Publishing.  Edmonton, Alberta.

Fleischner, T.L.  1994.  Ecological costs of livestock grazing in western North America.  Conservation Biology 8(3): 629-644.

Fletcher, Q.E., C.W. Dockrill, D.J. Saher, and C.L. Aldridge.  2003.  Observations of northern harrier attacks of greater Sage-Grouse in southern Alberta.  Canadian Field Naturalist 117: 479-480.

Forrestall, K.  2006.  A strategic environmental assessment for the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus).  Unpublished report. Parks Canada Agency, Winnipeg, MB.

Godfrey, W.E.  1986.  Birds of Canada.  National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Canada.  Ottawa, Ontario.

Greenwood, R.J., A.B. Sargeant, D.H. Johnson, L.M. Cowardin, and T.L. Shaffer.  1995.  Factors associated with duck nest success in the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada.  Wildlife Monographs No. 128.  57 pp.

Gregg, M.A., J.A. Crawford, and M.S.  Drut.  1993.  Summer habitat use and selection by female Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Oregon.  Great Basin Naturalist 53(3): 293-298.

Gregg, M.A., J.A. Crawford, M.S. Drut and A.K. DeLong.  1994.  Vegetational cover and predation of Sage-Grouse nests in Oregon.  Journal of Wildlife Management 58(1): 162-166.

Hagen, C.A.  1999.  Sage-Grouse habitat use and seasonal movements in an naturally fragmented landscape, Northwestern Colorado. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba.  136 pp.

Hanf, J.M., P.A. Schmidt, and E.B. Groshens.  1994.  Sage-Grouse in the High Desert of central Oregon: Results of a study, 1988-1993.  U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Prineville, Oregon.  57 pp.

Harris, W.C.  1998.  Status of Sage-Grouse in Saskatchewan.  Proceedings of the Western Sage and Sharp-tailed Grouse Workshop.  Billings, Montana.

Harris W.C and D. A. Weidl.  1988.  Saskatchewan Sage Grouse Census -1988.  Prepared for Saskatchewan Natural History Society and Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources.

Hayes, G.F. and K.D. Holl.  2003.  Cattle grazing impacts on annual forbs and vegetation composition of mesic grasslands in California.  Conservation Biology 17(6): 1694-1702.

Herkert, J.R.  1994.  The effects of habitat fragmentation on Midwestern grassland bird communities.  Ecological Applications 4(3): 461-471.

Herkert, J.R., D.L. Reinking, D.W. Wiedenfeld, M. Winter, J.L. Zimmerman, W.E. Jensen, E.J. Finck, R.R. Koford, D.H. Wolfe, S.K. Sherrod, M.A. Jenkins, J. Faaborg, and S.K. Robinson.  2003.  Effects of prairie fragmentation on the nest success of breeding birds in the Mid-Continent United States. Conservation Biology 17(2): 587-594.

Holloran, M.J.  2005.  Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population response to natural gas field development in western Wyoming.  Ph.D. Thesis. University of Wyoming. Larmie, WY.  209 pp.

Holloran, M., B. Heath, A. Lyon, and S. Anderson.  2001.  Evaluating Sage-Grouse nesting habitat selection within core occupied habitats of Wyoming.  8th Annual Wildlife Society Conference, Reno, Nevada.

Hood, T. and J. Gould.  1992.  Operational management plan: Milk River Natural Area and Kennedy Coulee Ecological Reserve.  Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife.  Lands and Wildlife.  Public Lands Division.  Pub No. T/250. Edmonton, Alberta.  56 pp.

Howerter, D.W.  2003.  Factors affecting duck nesting in the aspen parklands: A spatial analysis. Ph.D. Thesis.  Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana.  135 pp.

Huwer, S.L.  2004.  Evaluating greater Sage-Grouse brood habitat using human-imprinted chicks.  M.S. Thesis. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.  85 pp.

Hyslop, C., Ed.  1998.  COSEWIC status report on Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.  52pp.

Jenni, D.A. and J.E. Hartzler.  1978.  Attendance at a Sage-Grouse lek:  Implications for spring censuses.  Journal of Wildlife Management 42: 46-52.

Johnson, G.D. and M.S. Boyce.  1990.  Feeding trials with insects in the diet of Sage-Grouse chicks.  Journal of Wildlife Management 54(1): 89-91.

Johnson, G.D. and M.S. Boyce.  1991.  Survival, growth and reproduction of captive-reared Sage-Grouse.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 19(1): 88-93.

Jones, P.F., R. Penniket, L. Fent, J. Nicholson, and B. Adams.  2005.  Silver sagebrush community associations in southeastern Alberta, Canada.  Rangeland Ecology & Management 58(4): 400-405.

Kaufman, J.B.  1990.  The ecology of fire in rangelands: historical and current contexts.  In T.E. Bedell, Ed., Proceedings of the Pacific Northwest Range Management Short Course: Fire in Pacific Northwest Ecosystems.  Department of Rangeland Resources.  Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.  145 pp.

Kerwin, M.L.  1971.  The status, behaviour and ecology of Sage-Grouse in Saskatchewan.  M.Sc. Thesis, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan.  104 pp.

King, T., J.J. Schoenau, and J. Schmutz.  2005.  Impacts of grazing management system on soil nutrient supply rates and plant nutrient concentrations at five southern grassland Saskatchewan sites.  Unpublished report. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.  14 pp.

Klebenow, D.A.  1969.  Sage-Grouse nesting and brood habitat in Idaho.  Journal of Range Management 33: 649-661.

Klebenow, D.A. and G.M. Gray.  1968.  Food habits of juvenile Sage-Grouse.  Journal of Range Management 21:80-83.

Koper, N.  2004.  Upland-nesting ducks as surrogate species for avian conservation in the dry mixed-grass prairie.  Ph. D. Thesis.  University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.  192 pp.

Lungle, K.  1991.  The raccoon (Procyon lotor): implications for Alberta.  Occasional Paper No. 7, Fish and Wildlife Division, Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, Edmonton, Alberta.  44 pp.

Lyon, A.G. and S.H. Anderson.  2003.  Potential gas development impacts on Sage-Grouse nest initiation and movement.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(2): 486-491.

Martin, N.S.  1970.  Sagebrush control related to habitat and Sage-Grouse occurrence.  Journal of Wildlife Management 34(2): 313-320.

McAdam, S.  2003.  Lek occupancy by greater Sage-Grouse in relation to habitat in southwestern Saskatchewan.  M.Sc. Thesis.  Royal Roads University, Victoria, British Columbia.

McNeil, R.L. and B.J. Sawyer.  2001.  Soils and landscapes associated with silver sagebrush and Sage-Grouse.  Report prepared for Public Lands Division, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Lethbridge, Alberta.  36 pp.

McNeil, R.L. and B.J. Sawyer.  2003.  Effects of water management practices and precipitation events on sagebrush habitat in southeastern Alberta.  Report. prepared for Alberta Conservation Association and Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Lethbridge, Alberta.  181 pp.

Milchunas, D.G. and W.K. Lauenroth.  1993.  Quantitative effects of grazing on vegetation and soils over a global range of environments.  Ecological Monographs 64(4):327-366.

Moynahan, B.J., M.S. Lindberg, J.J. Rotella, and J.W. Thomas.  In press[a].  Factors affecting nest survival of greater Sage-Grouse in northcentral Montana.  Journal of Wildlife Management.

Moynahan, B.J., M.S. Lindberg, and J.W. Thomas.  In press[b].  Factors contributing to process variance in annual survival of female greater Sage-Grouse in north-central Montana.  Ecological Applications. 

Naugle, D.E., C.L. Aldridge, B.L. Walker, T.E. Cornish, B.J. Moynahan, M.J. Holloran, K. Brown, G.D. Johnson, E.T. Schmidtmann, R.T. Mayer, C.Y. Kato, M.R. Matchett, T.J. Christiansen, W.E. Cook, T. Creekmore, R.D. Falise, E.T. Rinkes, and M.S. Boyce.  2004.  West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater Sage-Grouse.  Ecology Letters 7(8): 704-713.

Nelle, P.J., K.P. Reese, and J.W. Connelly.  2000.  Long term effects of fire on Sage-Grouse habitat.  Journal of Range Management 53(6): 586-591.

Nelson, A.L. and A.C. Martin.  1953.  Gamebird weights.  Journal of Wildlife Management 17: 36-42.

Owens, M.K. and B.E. Norton.  1992.  Interactions of grazing and plant protection on basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. tridentata) seedling survival.  Journal of Range Management 45: 257-262.

Oyler-McCance, S.J., S.E. Taylor, and T.W. Quinn.  2005.  A multilocus population genetic survey of the greater Sage-Grouse across their range.  Molecular Ecology 14(5): 1293-1310.

Pasitchniak-Arts, M. and F. Messier.  1995.  Risk of predation on waterfowl nests in the Canadian prairies: Effects of habitat edges and agricultural practices.  Oikos 73(3): 347-355.

Patterson, R.L.  1952.  The Sage-Grouse in Wyoming.  Sage Books, Denver, Colorado.  399 pp.

Penniket and Associates Ltd.  2003.  Aerial photography interpretation and mapping for silver sagebrush in south-central Saskatchewan (Grasslands National Park), Summary report.  Report prepared for Parks Canada Agency, Grasslands National Park, Val Marie, SK. 13 pp.

Penniket and Associates Ltd.  2004.  Aerial photography interpretation and mapping for silver sagebrush in southwestern Saskatchewan, Summary report. Report. prepared for Parks Canada Agency, Grasslands National Park, Val Marie, SK. 10 pp.

Perdix Professionals.  2005.  Impacts of grazing within the Prairie and Aspen Parkland natural regions of Alberta: Synthesis of literature with management recommendations.  Unpublished Report prepared for Ducks Unlimited Canada, Edmonton, Alberta.  69 pp.

Peterson, B.E.  1980.  Breeding and nesting ecology of female Sage-Grouse in North Park, Colorado.  M.S. Thesis. Colorado State Uniersity, Fort Collins, Colorado.  86 pp.

Peterson, J.G.,  1970.  The food habits and summer distribution of juvenile Sage-Grouse in central Montana.  Journal of Wildlife Management 34(1): 147-155.

Pulliam, H.R.  1988.  Sources, sinks and population regulation.  American Naturalist 132(5): 652-661.

Pruss, S.D. 1994.  An observational natal den study of wild swift fox (Vulpes velox) on the Canadian prairie.  M.E.Des. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.

Pyle, W.H. and J.A. Crawford.  1996.  Availability of foods of Sage-Grouse chicks following prescribed fire in sagebrush-bitterbrush.  Journal of Range Management 49(4): 320-324.

Rangeland Conservation Service Ltd.  2004.  Beneficial management practices for the Milk River Basin, Alberta:  A component of the Multi-Species Conservation Strategy for Species at Risk in the Milk River Basin (MULTISAR).  Unpublished. Report. Prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resources Development, Fish and Wildlife Division and the Alberta Conservation Association.  Airdrie, Alberta.  369 pp.

Rasmussen, D.I. and L.A. Griner.  1938.  Life history and management studies of the Sage-Grouse in Utah, with special reference to nesting and feeding habits.  Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 3: 852-864.

RS/GIS Laboratory.  2006.  Sage-Grouse Local Working Group Locator Project.  http://www.gis.usu.edu/current_proj/sagegrouse.html  Utah State University.

Sargeant, A.B., R.J. Greenwood, M.A. Sovada, and T.L. Shaffer.  1993.  Distribution and abundance of predators that affect duck production – Prairie Pothole Region. U.S. Department of the Interior. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.  Resource Publication No. 194.  96 pp.

Schroeder, M.A.  1997.  Unusually high reproductive effort by Sage-Grouse in fragmented habitat in north-central Washington.  Condor 99(4): 933-941

Schroeder, M.A., J.R. Young, and C.E. Braun.  1999.  Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in The Birds of North America, Number 425. A. Pool, F. Gill, Eds. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C., Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Schroeder, M.A., C.L. Aldridge, A.D. Apa, J.R., Bohne, C.E. Braun, S.D. Bunnell, J.W. Connelly, P.A. Diebert, S.C. Gardner, M.A. Hilliard, G.D. Kobriger, S.M. McAdam, C.W. McCarthy, J.J. McCarthy, D.L. Mitchell, E.V. Rickerson, and S.J. Stiver.  2004.  Distribution of Sage-Grouse in North America.  Condor 106(2): 363-376.

Scott, J.W.  1942.  Distribution of Sage-Grouse in North America.  Auk 59: 477-499.

Seida, T.L.  1998.  The influence of vegetative characteristics on predation at artificial Sage-Grouse nests.  Upublished Report., Honours B.Sc. Thesis, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan.  26 pp.

Sibley, D.A.  2003.  The Sibley field guide to birds of western North America.  Random House of Canada Ltd.  Toronto, Ontario.

Skinner, D.L., S. Johnston, and D.A. Westworth.  1995.  Abundance and distribution of mammals in planted nesting cover in the aspen parkland of Alberta: North American Waterfowl Management Plan.  D.A. Westworth and Associates and Alberta NAWMP Centre.  NAWMP-015.  Edmonton, Alberta.  29 pp.

Smith Fargey, K. Ed.  2004.  Shared prairie-shared vision: The northern mixed grass transboundary conservation initiative.  Conservation Site Planning Workshop Proceedings and Digital Atlas.  Regina, SK: Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada.

Statistics Canada.  2001.  2001 census: Census of Agriculture.  Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.  (Livestock by provinces) http://www.statcan.ca/english/Pgdb/agrc32d

Stiver, S.J., A.D. Apa, J.R. Bohne, S.D. Bunnell, P.A. Deibert, S.C. Gardner, M.A. Hilliard, C.W. McCarthy, and M.A. Schroeder.  2006.  (DRAFT) Greater Sage-grouse Comprehensive Conservation Strategy.  Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies.  Unpublished Report.  Cheyenne, Wyoming.

Stephens, S.E.  2003.  The influence of landscape characteristics on duck nesting success in the Missouri Coteau of North Dakota.  Ph.D. Thesis . Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana.  169 pp.

Stohlgren, T.J., L.D. Schell, and B.V. Heuvel.  1999.  How grazing and soil quality affect native and exotic plant diversity in rocky mountain grasslands.  Ecological Applications 9(1): 45-64.

Sveum, C.M., J.A. Crawford, and W.D. Edge.  1998.  Use and selection of brood-rearing habitat by Sage-Grouse in south central Washington.  Great Basin Naturalist 58(4): 344-351.

Thorpe, J.  2002.  Literature review: silver sagebrush communities and their management.  SRC Publication No. 11465-1E02,  Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.  13 pp. 

Thorpe, J. and B. Godwin.  2003.  Differences between grazed and ungrazed vegetation in Sage-Grouse habitat in Grasslands National Park.  SRC Publication No. 11475-1E03, Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.  34 pp.

Thorpe, J., B. Godwin, and S. McAdam.  2005.  Sage-Grouse habitat in southwestern Saskatchewan: Differences between active and abandoned leks.  SRC Publication No. 11837-1E05.  Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.  39 pp.

United States Geological Survey.  2006.  Sagemap.  A GIS Database for Sage Grouse and Shrubsteppe Management in the Intermountain West.  http://sagemap.wr.usgs.gov/

Van Poollen, H.W. and J.R. Lacey.  1979.  Herbage response to grazing systems and stocking intensities.  Journal of Range Management 32(4): 250-253.

Vriend, H.G. and L.D. Gudmundson.  1996.  An overview of Sage-Grouse populations in Alberta.  Pages 290-296 in W.D. Willms and J.F. Dormaar, Eds., Proc. 4th Conservation and Endangered Species Workshop.  Natural History Occassional Paper No. 23, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. 

Wakkinen, W.L., K.P. Reese, and J.W. Connelly.  1992 .  Sage grouse nest locations in relation to leks.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 56(2): 381-383 

Walker, B.L., D.E. Naugle, K.E. Doherty, and T.E. Cornish.  2004.  Outbreak of West Nile virus in greater Sage-Grouse and guidelines for monitoring, handling, and submitting dead birds.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(3): 1000-1006.

Wallestad, R.O.  1971.  Summer movements and habitat use by Sage-Grouse broods in central Montana.  Journal of Wildlife Management 35:129-136.

Wallestad, R.O.  1975.  Life history and habitat requirements of Sage-Grouse in central Montana.  Montana Department of Fish and Game, Game Management Division, Helena, Montana.  66 pp.

Wallestad, R. and C. Pyrah.  1974.  Movement and nesting of Sage-Grouse hens in central Montana.  Journal of Wildlife Management 38(4): 630-633.

Wallestad, R., J.G. Peterson, and R.L. Eng. 1975.  Foods of adult Sage-Grouse in central Montana.  Journal of Wildlife Management 39(3): 628-630.

Watters, M.E., T.L. McLash, C.L. Aldridge, and R.M. Brigham.  2002.  The effect of vegetation structure on predation of artificial greater Sage-Grouse nests.  Ecoscience 9(3): 314-319.

Watters, M., G. McMaster, and G. Springer.  2004.  Site plans for Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in southern Saskatchewan.  Unpublished Report, Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Regina, Saskatchewan.

Weichel, B. and D. Hjertaas.  1992.  Recovery and Management Plan for Sage Grouse in Saskatchewan.  Wildlife Technical Report 92-5.  Saskatchewan Natural Resources.

Westemeier R. L., J.D. Brawn, S.S. Simpson, T.L. Esker, R.W. Jansen, J.W. Walk, E.L. Kershner, J.L.Bouzat, and K.N.Paige.  1998.  Tracking the long-term decline and recovery of an isolated population.  Science. 27 November 1998: Vol. 282. no. 5394, pp. 1695-1698

Winward, A.H.  1991.  A renewed commitment to management of sagebrush grasslands. in Management of the sagebrush steppe.  Agricultural Experiment Station Special Report. No. 880.  Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.  48 pp.

Wrobleski, D.W. and J.B. Kauffman.  2003.  Initial Effects of Prescribed Fire on Morphology, Abundance, and Phenology of Forbs in Big Sagebrush Communities in Southeastern Oregon.  Restoration Ecology 11(1): 82–90

Zablan, M.A.  2003.  Estimation of greater Sage-Grouse survival in North Park, Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management 67(1): 144-154.