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Amended Recovery Strategy and Management Plan for Multiple Species of Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora in Canada - 2015 [Proposed]

 

2. Recovery

2.1 Recovery Feasibility

Based on the application of the criteria outlined in the Species at Risk Act Policies (Government of Canada 2009) to each of the 13 legally listed ACPF species, recovery is considered feasible for all 13 legally listed ACPF species.

The desirability, efficacy and probability of successfully implementing recovery actions for these species are greatly enhanced through their occurrence in similar habitats and locations, as well as commonalities in their threats. Examples already exist which demonstrate that reduction and mitigation of threats is possible and that the necessary techniques exist and are effective. Formal and informal partnerships with industry, scientists, municipal governments, federal/provincial governments, conservation organizations, property owners, and the public all work positively towards the long-term conservation and recovery of ACPF species.

The following four criteria have been considered:

  1. Individuals of the wildlife species that are capable of reproduction are available now or in the foreseeable future to sustain the population or improve its abundance.

    Yes.  All species show some capacity for asexual and sexual reproduction however some of the constraints on sexual reproduction are not well understood. It is uncertain if these are genetic or environmental constraints and thus it is uncertain how these may impact the feasibility of recovery. Whether through asexual or sexual means there is enough capacity to improve the population growth rate and abundance.

  2. Sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species or could be made available through habitat management or restoration.

    Yes.  There is no evidence that suitable habitat is not available or could not be made available for all 11 species. However, there have been declines in habitat quality and extent, particularly for the seven lakeshore species due to human activities and these threats continue to have an adverse effect on habitat.

  3. The primary threats to the species or its habitat (including threats outside Canada) can be avoided or mitigated.

    Yes.  None of the threats that are currently known could not be avoided or mitigated. Some additional work may be needed to fully understand the impacts of some threats and what recovery approaches will be most effective in terms of the removal or mitigation of threats. For example halting all development around lakeshores may not be possible, however threat mitigation measures may be able to be implemented which would make development more compatible with ACPF populations and their required habitat.

  4. Recovery techniques exist to achieve the population and distribution objectives or can be expected to be developed within a reasonable timeframe.

    Yes.  Recovery and conservation actions have been underway since the early 1990's and recovery techniques have already been employed successfully for species. Several examples already exist which indicate that recovery is technically feasible (see Section 1.6).

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2.2 Recovery Goals

2.2.1 Vision

A vision for all ACPF species and habitats was developed for the conservation and recovery of this very important suite of species. Recognizing that in Canada these species are only located in NS and that globally NS has some of the best remaining habitat for these species, the vision is to maintain persistent populations of ACPF species and their habitat in NS and Canada.

This will be achieved by maintaining an ecosystem perspective in ACPF recovery planning, protecting and maintaining species and their habitats, including the broader context of the conservation of ACPF species that are potentially at risk in all recovery approaches, and addressing the prevention of additional ACPF species from becoming at risk.

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2.2.2 Recovery Goals

Recovery goals are presented for all high priority ACPF species in this document, including the 13 legally listed ACPF species, the 13 non-legally listed, Red (May Be At Risk) ranked species, and the two Undetermined rank (data deficient) species (Table 10).

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Table 10. Recovery goals for the high priority ACPF species.
Goal No.Species Common Name (StatusNote * of Table 10)Recovery Goal
1Pink Coreopsis (E)
Water Pennywort (T)
Plymouth Gentian (T)
  • Maintain extant populations at present levels of abundance or greater at current locations.
  • Maintain extent and quality of habitats for all three species.
  • Restore habitats to re-establish populations to areas of former habitat.
2Eastern Baccharis (T)
Thread-leaved Sundew (E)
Goldencrest (T)
Sweet Pepperbush (SC)
Tubercled Spikerush (SC)
New Jersey Rush (SC)
Redroot (SC)
Eastern Lilaeopsis (SC)
Long's Bulrush (SC)
Spotted Pondweed (V)
Nantucket Shadbush (Red (May Be At Risk))
Coastal Plain Joe-pye-weed (Red (May Be At Risk))
Slender Blue Flag (Red (May Be At Risk))
Spreading Panic-grass (Red (May Be At Risk))
Intermediate Mermaid-Weed (Red (May Be At Risk))
Marsh Mermaid-Weed (Red (May Be At Risk))
Tall Beakrush (Red (May Be At Risk))
Silky Willow (Red (May Be At Risk))
Coastal-Plain Blue-Eyed Grass (Red (May Be At Risk))
Poison Sumac (Red (May Be At Risk))
Maleberry (Red (May Be At Risk))
Torrey's Bulrush (Red (May Be At Risk))
Forked Bluecurls (Red (May Be At Risk))
  • Maintain extant populations at present levels of abundance or greater at current locations.
  • Maintain extent and quality of habitats for all 23 species.
3Terrell Grass (Undetermined)
Rich's Sea-blite (Undetermined)
  • Improve information for both species and ensure persistence of existing populations at present levels.

Notes of Table 10

Note * of Table 10

Status: Legally listed (SARA): Endangered (E), Threatened (T), Special Concern (SC), Provincially Vulnerable (V) or General Status: Red (May Be At Risk) or Undetermined

Return to note * referrer of table 10

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More quantitative recovery goals and objectives are not possible at this time as a result of a lack of data pertaining to population numbers and trends and historical distribution within a given location. Also it is important to consider that recovery potential may be influenced by biologically limiting factors such as scarcity of suitable habitat, slow growth, limited distribution, and low reproductive rates.

The three species addressed by the first goal require additional attention because they have experienced significant historical losses and are under imminent threats from development at remaining known sites. Thus habitat restoration is one of the goals for these species. Restoration applies only to areas of known loss of habitat or areas where opportunities for stewardship activities could enable restoration. Other ACPF species might benefit from restoration actions; however, these three species should be the primary focus of these efforts.

For species addressed by the second goal, objectives and approaches required to achieve this goal for each species will vary primarily because of differences in the number and degree of threats. Endangered and Threatened species will require threat reduction in order to achieve the goal, whereas Special Concern (SARA), Vulnerable (NS ESA) and Red (May Be At Risk) ranked species, which face fewer threats, will require the prevention of additional threats to achieve the goal.

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2.3 Recovery Objectives

The following objectives (Table 11) are presented for all high priority ACPF species in this document and are necessary and sufficient to meet the recovery goals in Table 10. The time frame for each objective is presented according to the different species addressed in the recovery goals (Table 10). Priorities referred to in the recovery objectives table are based on the characterization and prioritization process outlined in Section 1.4. Each objective addresses a single concept or issue, identifies changes that are needed, and describes a desired end state or accomplishment. The means for achieving the recovery objectives are described in the Strategic Recovery Approaches Section (2.4).

2.3.1 Vision

Table 11. Recovery objectives and a proposed time-frame for completion according to each of the high priority species categories.
Objective No.ObjectiveTime-frame (years)

Legally listed ACPF Species
Time-frame (years)

Red (May Be At Risk)
Time-frame (years)

Undetermined
1Protect all populations and their habitats at the 53 high priority lakeshores, 56 high priority bogs/fens, all medium priority lakeshores, 6 high priority estuaries and 7 high priority saltmarshes.5-1010>10
2Prevent, remove, and/or reduce threats to species and habitats, including all high priority threats on lakeshores, at bogs/fens, and at estuaries/coastal habitats.5-10>10-
3Determine and update information on populationabundance and distribution, habitat availability and suitability, and threats.5>105
4Attain information on population biology, diversity and ecological requirements needed to support conservation and recovery.5-10>10>10
5Continueand/or implement stewardship activities at the 53 high priority lakeshores and 56 high priority bogs/fens and the medium priority lakeshores.5>10-
6Increase public awareness and education pertaining to the existence, threats, and conservation value of all high priority species and their habitats.55-105-10
7Define needs and methods for implementing restoration for Pink Coreopsis, Water Pennywort, and Plymouth Gentian.5-10--

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2.4 Approaches Recommended to Meet Recovery Objectives

2.4.1 Recovery planning

The similar goals and objectives for the high priority species included in this document can be addressed through three broad, interrelated strategies: Management, Stewardship, and Information Acquisition. These broad strategies provide a framework for the future development of specific recovery actions, help participants identify their role in the recovery process, and can increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness of recovery actions. Priorities referred to in the recovery approaches table are based on the characterization and prioritization process outlined in Section 1.4. Table 12 provides a summary of the recommended approaches and specific steps necessary to meet recovery objectives and address threats with the approaches organized according to each of the three strategies. Section 2.4.2 provides a general description of each broad strategy with a discussion of its relevance to the recovery of ACPF.

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Table 12: Recommended approaches required to achieve recovery goals and objectives and address threats for all high priority species.
Broad StrategyRecommended approaches necessary to meet recovery objectivesPriorityNote + of Table 12Objv. No.Threat Addressed
(Category & General Threat)Note * of Table 12
Management

1. Protect all suitable habitat at all High priority locations

  • Develop a comprehensive habitat conservation and protection plan and conduct a detailed assessment and review of land ownership and tenure in order to apply the following approaches
  • Employ a variety of approaches to protect habitat including: legal (i.e. SARA critical habitat, NS ESA core habitat, protected areas designation: Special Places Protection Act, Wilderness Areas Protection Act, conservation easements, acquisition by non-governmental conservation land trusts or government protection/conservation agencies), policy (i.e. provincial Integrated Resource Management (IRM) zoning) or stewardship (i.e. agreements, community administered conservation areas)
  • Apply these approaches at all lakes and bogs/fens with critical habitat identified.
  • Apply these approaches at the additional High priority lakes and bogs/fens at which critical habitat does not occur
  • Identify specific government agencies and departments, industries, and other groups that are making decisions and conducting planning that could impact ACPF, enhance understanding of legal responsibilities regarding ACPF, about recovery and conservation efforts, and how they could become involved
  • Identify high priority ACPF sites that are considered to be irreplaceable and work towards their formal acquisition, while also continuing to act opportunistically to acquire ACPF sites
  • Work with land trusts and other non-government, conservation organizations to identify sites where formal acquisition may be the preferred method of protection over conservation easements or stewardship agreements
  • Work with NS DEL to identify priority locations for protected areas designation and move towards establishing protected areas
  • Ensure key ACPF sites are recognized as priorities for protection under the Nova Scotia government's protected areas systems planning process which targets the protection of 12% of the province
  • Develop specific targets regarding the number of ACPF sites to be protected within a specific timeframe (i.e. at least one high priority site on each lake, bog/fen or estuary by 2012)
High1, 2, 5, 6All current threats (except D. 2 & F. 1)
Management

2. Recommend enforcement of laws, regulations, and policies for species and habitat protection

  • Ensure appropriate training with regards to relevant species at risk legislation and regulations for all provincial and federal enforcement staff
  • Review and assess effectiveness of legislation, regulations and policies by tracking violations and infractions of laws, and seek amendments where appropriate
  • Raise awareness amongst all departments and levels of government regarding threats to ACPF and how their jurisdiction over laws, regulations and policies may impact on ACPF
  • Strengten implementation of law, regulation and policies on the ACFP species and their habitat
 High1, 2All current threats (except D. 2 & E. 1 & F. 1)
Management

3. Involve federal, provincial and municipal government land use decision bodies in conservation and recovery of ACPF species and habitats and encourage enhanced communication among levels of government and between government departments

  • Provide an overview and briefing of the status of ACPF and this recovery planning document to all relevant federal and provincial government departments and all 12 of the regional and rural municipalities that contain the legally listed High priority ACPF species.
  • Expand on initial contact and communication with municipal planners with regards to municipal tools that can be used to reduce impacts of cottage and residential development on ACPF species at risk
  • Encourage the development and implementation of a simple and streamlined process for jurisdictional decisions, approvals, and denials particularly regarding permitting, licensing, and regulation of human activities that pose a threat to ACPF
  • Along with legally binding forms of protection, continue to work with the provincial Integrated Resources Management (IRM) planning process to further the conservation and recovery of ACPF
  • Continue to provide support and rationale for the expansion and designation of additional provincial protected areas
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of development restrictions created in 2004 that apply to 13 High priority lakes in the Tusket River watershed, regulated through NS DEL (but developed in collaboration with NS DEL, NS DNR, and the municipalities)
Medium1, 2All current threats (except D. 2 & E. 1 & F. 1)
Management

4. Engage and work with landowners, industry, non-government organizations, and regulatory authorities in management programs that target reduction and mitigation of High priority threats

  • Identify and communicate with all development companies that own property on High priority locations
  • Identify and work with all cottage associations and OHV clubs in high priority locations
  • Identify all companies (i.e. NS Power Incorporated, Bowater Mersey Paper Company Limited, JD Irving Limited, etc…) with land immediately adjacent to High priority locations
  • Indentify and work with mink farmer associations regarding nutrient runoff and support water quality monitoring (volunteer or industry).  
  • Work with those identified to reduce and mitigate High priority threats including; OHV use, cottage development and shoreline alterations, water level alterations, and nutrient loading
Medium2, 5, 6All current High priority threats:
A.
Habitat Loss or Degradation(General Threats 1-4, 7&8)
B.
Changes in Ecological Dynamics & Natural Processes (General Threats 1&2, 5&6)
D.
Disturbance or Persecution(General Threat 1)
Management

5. Increase public awareness and education regarding management approaches to ACPF conservation and recovery

  • Include explanation of management approaches (OHV reduction, cottage/residential development restrictions and guidance, inter-departmental involvement, etc…) in communication and outreach materials and website
  • As ACPF protected areas expand, expand educational signage onsite, so that more people are made aware of the significance of ACPF and the efforts being made to protect them
Medium6A.Habitat Loss or Degradation (General Threats 1-6)
B.
Changes in Ecological Dynamics & Natural Processes (General Threats 1&2, 4)
C.
Pollution (General Threats 1-3)
D.
Disturbance or Persecution(General Threat 1&2)
E.
Exotic or Invasive Species(General Threat 1)
Management

6. Coordinate ACPF recovery and conservation with recovery efforts for other species at risk to create efficiencies and ensure effective implementation

  • Meet, collaborate, and coordinate efforts with other species at risk Recovery Teams, including: Eastern Ribbonsnake, Blanding's Turtle, and Atlantic Whitefish
Medium1, 2, 3, 5, 6All current threats (except D. 2)
Management

7. Integrate species at risk conservation and recovery into ecosystem and landscape management tools that are not specific to conservation and recovery but that have an effect on species at risk (i.e. agriculture, forestry, municipal planning)

  • Assess all other ecosystem and landscape management tools which could include more species at risk elements
  • Conduct an analysis of these management tools and offer suggestions for how they could be expanded to include more species at risk components
  • Continue to work with municipal planners on approaches and municipal tools that can play a role in ACPF conservation and recovery
Low1, 2, 6All current threats (except D. 2)
Stewardship

8. Align stewardship activities with High priority species, habitats, locations, and threats

  • Ensure all organizations engaged in stewardship activities have the Recovery Strategy and Management Plan and are coordinating their recovery activities with the ACPF Recovery Team
High5All current threats
Stewardship

9. Initiate stewardship programs with landowners for High priority species and locations which have not yet been targeted

  • Work with the NSNT to expand their stewardship programs, particularly initial landowner contact, to include all High priority locations
  • Engage other non-government organization interested in the stewardship of ACPF, including local environmental and conservation groups such as the Tusket River Environmental Protection Association (TREPA) to help achieve this step
High5A.Habitat Loss or Degradation (General Threats 1-4)
B.
Changes in Ecological Dynamics & Natural Processes (General Threats 1&2)
C.
Pollution (General Threats 1-3)
D.
Disturbance or Persecution(General Threat 1&2)
E.
Exotic or Invasive Species(General Threat 1)
Stewardship

10. Continue and improve stewardship initiatives with landowners where they already exist, including landowner contact programs, formal stewardship agreements, conservation easements, and volunteer monitoring programs

  • Continue to build relationships with landowners already contacted
  • Increase the number of formal stewardship agreements in place and evaluate their effectiveness in terms of long-term protection of species and habitats
  • Continue to use conservation easements, protected areas designations on private land, and land trust securement as means to protect High priority locations in perpetuity and coordinate/target conservation easements in locations and at sites that coincide with existing protection to ensure a greater contiguous area of habitat is protected
  • Encourage volunteer monitoring programs follow protocols developed by the Recovery Team, are coordinated with other monitoring initiatives, and population, habitat and threats components are monitored
High1, 3, 5, 6A.Habitat Loss or Degradation (General Threats 1-4)
B.
Changes in Ecological Dynamics & Natural Processes (General Threats 1&2)
C.
Pollution (General Threats 1-3)
D.
Disturbance or Persecution(General Threat 1&2)
E.
Exotic or Invasive Species(General Threat 1)
Stewardship

11. Explore ideas for incentives for private land conservation, such as tax breaks, elimination of tax disincentives, and creation of an efficient process that minimizes time and energy required by landowner

  • Work with the Recovery Team, NSNT, Nature Conservancy of Canada, other land trusts, and relevant provincial and federal agencies to implement the recommendations of the PLaCEs (Private Land Conservation Enhancements) Committee regarding enhancing private land conservation
  • Work with existing government based programs, such as EcoGifts, to align their approaches with the strategy developed to create incentives
  • Promote the expansion and enhancement of the cost-shared conservation land securement agreements that the Province has entered into with the NCC and NSNT
  • Work with the NCC to ensure money for private land securement in NS targets priority ACPF habitats and sites and encourage the use of this money to leverage additional land securement funds
High1A.Habitat Loss or Degradation (General Threats 1-4)
B.
Changes in Ecological Dynamics & Natural Processes (General Threats 1&2)
Stewardship

12. Continue to develop and strengthen education initiatives such as public talks and production and distribution of printed and online information

  • Increase the number of pubic talks and ensure a diversity of audiences including, residents, schools, naturalist groups, developers, municipal officials and staff, provincial and federal government staff, other non-government organizations
  • Work with Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site staff when they are developing educational materials for parks visitors and ensure their utility both within and outside of park boundaries
  • Work with non-government and conservation organizations on the development of additional brochures and signage for cottage owners and residents
  • Work with the NSNT and Parks Canada to evaluate the effectiveness of ACPF field guides
  • Maintain and enhance ACPF Conservation and Recovery website and promote it
Medium5, 6All current threats
Stewardship

13. Develop stewardship initiatives that engage industry, other organizations, and all three levels of government

  • Identify all development companies, cottage associations, OHV clubs, mink farm associations, companies and industries with land immediately adjacent to High priority locations
  • Work with these audiences to develop stewardship initiatives that reduce or mitigate High priority threats to ACPF
Low2, 5A.Habitat Loss or Degradation (General Threats 4-9)
B.
Changes in Ecological Dynamics & Natural Processes (General Threats 3-6)
C.
Pollution (General Threats 1&2)
D.
Disturbance or Persecution(General Threat 1)
E.
Exotic or Invasive Species(General Threat 1)
F.
Climate & Natural Disasters (General Threat 1)
Stewardship

14. Establish an international network to foster cooperation and coordination of conservation and recovery efforts for ACPF throughout their range

  • Organize and host the second International Conference on ACPF
  • Formalize and expand communication networks already established between ACPF researchers on a project-by-project, species-by-species basis
Low4, 5, 6All current threats
Information Acquisition

15. Develop protocols and species-specific methods of counting for surveying, monitoring, and inventories

  • Work with Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre (AC CDC) and botanists on the Recovery Team to develop protocols for assessing abundance, conducting surveys, and monitoring
  • Re-design and enhance existing databases to ensure that all surveys, monitoring and inventories are up to date, well documented, and readily accessible
  • Coordinate the application of protocols for all ongoing research including academic, community-based, NSNT volunteer monitoring program, industry, and government
High3All current threats
Information Acquisition

16. Conduct surveys to assess population abundance and distribution as well as existing and potential habitat availability and suitability

  • Use newly developed ACPF database to determine High priority locations that require immediate surveying (selection of locations to be based on ACPF Recovery Team assessment of such factors as time since last survey and/or incomplete data)
  • Ensure adequate population abundance and distribution baseline data are collected at all High priority locations
  • Map sites for populations and individuals, as well as suitable habitat at all High priority locations
  • Conduct targeted surveys of areas with suitable habitat for the Undetermined ranked (or data-deficient) species
  • Conduct targeted surveys for High priority species that the ACPF Recovery Team has identified as likely to be more widely present than currently documented (i.e. Long's Bulrush, Thread-leaved Sundew, Tubercled Spikerush, Sweet Pepperbush)
  • Conduct targeted surveys of rivers and streams flowing into and out of High priority lakes
High3All current threats
Information Acquisition

17. Monitor populations and habitat regularly to determine trends in status

  • Apply monitoring protocols, implement a regular monitoring schedule for all High priority locations and ensure that a long-term monitoring program is in place
  • Coordinate efforts with volunteer monitoring programs and academic, industry and government research
High3, 5All current threats
Information Acquisition

18. Monitor threats to populations and habitats and evaluate mitigation and reduction efforts

  • Ensure adequate baseline data on threats exists for all High priority locations
  • Coordinate the monitoring of threats with the monitoring of populations and habitats to enhance efficiency
High3All current threats
Information Acquisition

19. Conduct biological and ecological research required to address knowledge gaps

  • Examine the role of sexual and asexual reproduction in species population viability
  • Evaluate pollination and how lack of it might limit persistence and growth and determine what the habitat requirements are for pollinators
  • Determine the importance of watershed-level processes with respect to seed dispersal
  • Examine genetic diversity, particularly differences between US and NS populations
Medium4All current threats
Information Acquisition

20. Conduct surveys and research to examine the role of key ecological processes and factors in regards to habitat characterization

  • Evaluate ecological processes and factors such as natural disturbance regimes, pollination, seed dispersal, and cumulative effects of threats to determine their impact on how habitat is characterized.
Medium1,3,4All current threats
Information Acquisition

21. Assess habitat restoration methods and determine potential sites for implementation

  • Evaluate options for habitat restoration methods particularly for Pink Coreopsis, Water Pennywort, and Plymouth Gentian
Medium7A.Habitat Loss or Degradation (General Threats 1-4)
B.
Changes in Ecological Dynamics & Natural Processes (General Threats 1&2)
C.
Pollution (General Threats 1-3)
D.
Disturbance or Persecution(General Threat 1&2)
E.
Exotic or Invasive Species(General Threat 1)
Information Acquisition

22. Work with Mi'kmaq community to identify Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) pertinent to conservation and recovery

  • Align communication and engagement opportunities for the Mi'kmaq community with other species at risk initiatives in southwestern NS (i.e. Eastern Ribbonsnake and Blanding's Turtle)
  • Extend the offer to the Mi'kmaq community to have a representative on the ACPF Recovery Team
Medium4, 5A.Habitat Loss or Degradation (General Threats 1-4)
B.
Changes in Ecological Dynamics & Natural Processes (General Threats 1&2)
C.
Pollution (General Threats 1-3)
D.
Disturbance or Persecution(General Threat 1&2)
E.
Exotic or Invasive Species(General Threat 1)
Information Acquisition

23. Coordinate scientific studies, approaches to recovery and encourage collaboration

  • Ensure academics have the Recovery Strategy and Management Plan and are aware of the High priority approaches and steps identified therein
  • Work with other research-based organizations such as the Mersey Tobeatic Research Institute (MTRI) to ensure coordination and facilitate efficient use of resources
  • As with the management approach and steps identified above: Communicate and coordinate recovery efforts with other species at risk Recovery Teams
Medium3, 4All current threats
Information Acquisition

24. Develop tools in support of contingency planning

  • Develop a contingency plan in order to adapt conservation and recovery steps and modify priorities as new information becomes available, threat priorities change, or new threats arise
  • Explore and apply propagation techniques as a potential tool for recovery
  • Develop a gene and seed bank
Low4All current threats

Notes of Table 12

Note + of Table 12

Priority corresponds to: High = Urgent, Medium = Necessary, Low = Beneficial

Return to note + referrer of table 12

Note * of Table 12

Refer to Table 8 to interpret alpha-numeric threat codes

Return to note * referrer of table 12

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2.4.2 Narrative to support Recovery Planning Table

Although priorities are established for all recovery approaches outlined in Table 12 it is important to recognize the need for flexibility when implementing this document. As new information arises or changes in threats occur it is important to be able to respond to these events and be able to adapt and shift priorities accordingly.

Broad Strategy: Management
As a broad strategy, management offers several tools to affect recovery, including: legislation, decision-making, coordination, planning, policies, programs, and protected areas. It is important that ACPF species and habitats receive early attention and priority during broad management planning and decision-making. Management efforts must occur in a timely fashion, target priorities outlined in this document, be based on sound information, be adaptive, and be evaluated frequently. Approaches that do not incorporate these aspects may waste precious resources or could actually result in negative impacts to the species.

The first and most urgent management priority identified in Table 12 is the protection of habitat which will only be achieved through the development and then implementation of a comprehensive habitat conservation and protection plan. This would require a review of all land tenure at high priority locations in order to determine which of the identified approaches to habitat protection (legal, policy, zoning, stewardship, acquisition, etc.) would best be applied at each location. Many of the subsequent approaches and specific steps outlined under the broad management strategy will be dependent upon the development of this habitat conservation and protection plan.

Broad Strategy: Stewardship
Stewardship is an important broad strategy for recovery because it builds local capacity for conservation. It encompasses an assortment of "less formal", often voluntary approaches associated with the care and responsibility for species and habitats and it can include a range of conservation approaches. Stewardship efforts towards ACPF recovery to be undertaken by all citizens, non-government organizations, industries, and governments should be encouraged. Effective communication and education are integral components of this document as they promote and sustain stewardship initiatives.

Although identified as two separate broad strategies 'management' and 'stewardship' approaches and specific steps do overlap and integrate in several instances. This serves to reinforce the importance of adopting multiple approaches and steps in recovery efforts. There are several urgent stewardship priorities identified in Table 12 and one of fundamental importance aligning stewardship efforts with the priorities identified in this document. With such a high proportion of the land in NS being privately owned stewardship initiatives that engage landowners are considered key. This includes specific steps such as initial landowner contact as well as the building of a relationship with the landowners, development of formal stewardship agreements, conducting a volunteer monitoring program, promoting and achieving conservation easements, and creating incentives for private land conservation.

Broad Strategy: Information Acquisition
Reliable relevant information, derived from science-based research, Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), and other cultural and non-scientific sources should form the basis of any recovery planning document. The existing information base for ACPF is sufficient for identifying many of the necessary strategic recovery approaches. However, there are still gaps in knowledge (Section 1.7); therefore the ongoing acquisition of information is essential. Also, ongoing monitoring and survey information are crucial for evaluating the status and trends for species, habitats, and threats.

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2.5 Performance Measures

The ultimate purpose of setting performance measures is to determine whether the recovery approaches being used are having a positive or beneficial effect. The recovery planning document should take an adaptive management approach whereby new information feeds back into the document on a regular basis. Performance measures provide a means to evaluate whether the recovery objectives are being met, report on progress, and guide their improvement. Future evaluations of this recovery planning document will be based upon the performance measures listed in Table 13.

Table 13. Performance measures pertaining to each recovery objective
Objective No.ObjectivePerformance Measures
1Protect all populations and their habitats at the 53 high priority lakeshores, 56 high priority bogs/fens, medium priority lakeshores, 6 high priority estuaries and 7 high priority saltmarshes.
  • Number of sites protected
  • No loss of populations or reduction in distribution
2Prevent, remove, and/or reduce threats to species and habitats, including all high priority threats on lakeshores, at bogs/fens, and at estuaries/coastal habitats.
  • Reduction in the number of threat occurrences
  • Reduction in the severity or impact of threats
3Determine and update information on population abundance and distribution, habitat availability and suitability, and threats.
  • Database developed and updated with comprehensive data on population abundance and distribution and habitat status
  • Monitoring protocols developed and regular monitoring program in place
4Attain information on population biology, diversity and ecological requirements needed to support conservation and recovery.
  • Important components of biology and ecology knowledge required for conservation and recovery understood
5Continueand/or implement stewardship activities at the 53 high priority lakeshores and 56 high priority bogs/fens and the medium priority lakeshores.
  • Stewardship agreements in place for all High priority species and locations
  • Number of sites protected through stewardship agreements with landowners
  • Number of people and groups engaged in stewardship
6Increase public awareness and education pertaining to the existence, threats, and conservation value of all high priority species and their habitats.
  • All landowners aware and educated regarding ACPF conservation and recovery
  • All audiences inventoried and a contact database developed and maintained
  • All relevant audiences receive education and awareness materials
7Define needs and methods for implementing restoration for Pink Coreopsis, Water Pennywort, and Plymouth Gentian.
  • Restoration plan and timelines in place
  • Number of sites successfully restored for each species

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2.6 Critical Habitat

Critical habitat is defined in the Species at Risk Act as "…the habitat that is necessary for the survival or recovery of a listed wildlife species and that is identified as the species' critical habitat in the recovery strategy or in an action plan for the species" (subsection 2(1)).

In this multi-species recovery planning document, critical habitat is addressed for the five SARA listed species: the two Endangered species, Pink Coreopsis (Coreopsis rosea) and Thread-leaved Sundew (Drosera filiformis); and the three Threatened species, Water-pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata), Golden Crest (Lophiola aurea), and Plymouth Gentian (Sabatia kennedyana).  All five of these species occur either in bog/fen habitat, lakeshore habitat, or rivershore habitat (Table 7).

Critical habitat does not apply to species of Special Concern or species listed only under the NS ESA and is therefore not identified for Tubercled Spike-rush, New Jersey Rush, Redroot, Eastern Lilaeopsis, Sweet Pepperbush, Eastern Baccharis, Spotted Pondweed and Long's Bulrush. However, habitat management and protection is still an essential element for the long-term conservation of these species and thus detailed habitat descriptions are included in Section 1.5 (Table 4) and the locations where these species are known to occur are listed and prioritized in Section 1.5.

In this Amended Recovery Strategy, critical habitat is fully identified for all five Endangered and Threatened ACPF species using the best available information. Included below is a summary of the approach and rationale used for identifying critical habitat, followed by the identification of critical habitat for each of the five species. The 2010 Recovery Strategy included a schedule of studies (Section 2.6.4) and below, Table 23 summarizes the activities that were completed.

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2.6.1 Approach and rationale for identifying species' critical habitat

For all five species, critical habitat will be evaluated at multiple spatial scales (Table 14). The scale termed Location (entire lake waterbody, river, or bog/fen) is included as a means to assist in the identification of critical habitat, but is not identified as such. The two scales at which critical habitat is identified are: Site (specific occurrence within a location), and Individual (where the plant is growing). This multiple scale approach is useful and necessary to ensure all ecological and biological habitat requirements are considered and all management tools required for the protection of habitat are evaluated. These scales are interrelated but an evaluation of all three provides the most comprehensive approach to determine critical habitat. Table 14 provides a description of each scale and outlines its importance from an ecological and management perspective and further explanation of the scales is provided below the table. There are no specific temporal scales that need to be addressed with regards to critical habitat for these ACPF species.

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Table 14. Scales evaluated in the identification of critical habitat, including an explanation of the importance of the scale from both an ecological and management perspective.
Scale (Description)Importance of Scale: Ecological PerspectiveImportance of Scale: Management Perspective
Location
(Lake, bog/fen, or river)
  • Ecological, functional unit
  • Changes in hydrology (i.e. quality and integrity) can impact habitat at the site and individual scales
  • Critical Habitat is NOT identified at this scale
  • Activities at this scale impact habitat at site and individual scales (e.g. eutrophication, draining of lake or bog/fen, stabilization of water levels)
  • Readily identifiable geographic unit (i.e. names and boundaries already defined)
  • Can trigger management decisions, regardless of level of habitat information at site or individualscale
Site
(Specific occurrence within a location)
  • Essential areas within a location where species specific habitat characteristics occur
  • Suitable habitat can be identified based on the species specific habitat characteristics
  • Critical Habitat is identified at this scale
  • Majority of activities impact habitat at the site and individual scales
  • Detailed habitat descriptions allow identification of areas where habitat exists, enabling current management decisions based on a site visit and facilitating future mapping of areas
Individual
(Where the plant is growing)
  • Where individuals occur is the most basic, fundamental habitat scale
  • Plants can occur in areas that do not fit the description of the site scale habitat characteristics
  • Critical Habitat is identified at this scale
  • Majority of activities impact habitat at the individual and site scales
  • Essential scale for management decisions when sitescale critical habitat (i.e. habitat characteristics) is not described
  • Management decisions must be made for all areas where the species occurs or has occurred

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Table 15 provides a summary of how many locations exist for each species and whether critical habitat will be identified for the species in this recovery planning document. As new information becomes available or new occupied areas are discovered (either at the site scale, individual scale, or both) the identified of critical habitat will be amended in the subsequent action plan or the updated recovery strategy and management plan.

Table 15. For each species, the total number of lake, bogs/fens, and rivershore locations where critical habitat will be identified at each scale.
Scale (Description)Critical Habitat Identified

Pink Coreopsis
Critical Habitat Identified

Thread-leaved Sundew
Critical Habitat Identified

Water Pennywort
Critical Habitat Identified

Goldencrest
Critical Habitat Identified

Plymouth Gentian
# of Locations
(Lake, bog/fen, or river)
8 lakes5 bogs/ fens3 lakes8 lakes & 3 bogs/ fens11 lakes & 1 river
Site
(Specific occurrence within a location)
yesyesyesyesyes
Individual
(Where the plant is growing)
yesyesyesyesyes

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Location scale

For all five species the location scale will not be identified as critical habitat; however, it is important to consider and evaluate this scale because it is an ecologic unit within which the species specific habitat characteristics necessary for the survival and recovery of the species are found and activities likely to destroy critical habitat may be relevant at this scale. For each location, the NS Atlas Square Reference (Province of NS, 2011) is provided to identify the corresponding geographic area.

There are three species: Pink Coreopsis, Water Pennywort, and Plymouth Gentian, that occur along lakeshores, Thread-leaved sundew is a bog and fen species and Goldencrest is found both along lakes and in bog/fens. Plymouth Gentian is the only species for which critical habitat will be identified on rivershores.

Site Scale

At the site scale critical habitat is identified for five federally listed endangered and threatened species: Pink Coreopsis, Water Pennywort, Plymouth Gentian, Thread-leaved sundew and Goldencrest (Table 15). This scale represents the lakeshore areas, rivershore areas, or areas within a bog/fen that contain the key habitat characteristics required by the species. These sites are required for the survival and recovery./p>

Critical habitat at the site scale is defined as any area that contains species-specific key habitat characteristics. This includes the specific area of occurrence of occupied and unoccupied habitat within a given location. These species-specific habitat characteristics are elements or attributes of the habitat (i.e. shore slope and width, position on the shoreline, substrate composition, and soil quality) that are required for species survival and recovery and are well documented and referenced in the literature. Not all of the specific habitat characteristics indicated have to be present for it to qualify as critical habitat. Identifying both occupied and unoccupied habitats at the site scale allows for the maintenance of extant populations at present levels and allows for population growth.

With only a few exceptions, detailed site scale mapping has not been conducted at locations where critical habitat is identified. However, the identification of site scale critical habitat based on specific and defined habitat characteristics is considered a valid and necessary approach to the identification of critical habitat because it provides the basis for habitat protection and management. The location and sitelevel habitat characteristics (Tables 17-22) provide the information necessary to determine whether a proposed activity will impact critical habitat when visiting a site.

Individual Scale

At the individual scale, critical habitat identification is complete for all five species and includes habitat at the most basic level; where the plant is actually growing.

Critical habitat at the individual scale is defined as the area occupied by the individual and the extent of the habitat surrounding the plant(s) that contains the same key habitat characteristics as that in which the plant is growing. This includes areas where individuals occur and do not fit the site scale habitat descriptions provided in species-specific Tables 17-22. For all five species, the individual scale critical habitat pertains only to those areas where individuals occur that do not fit the site scale habitat descriptions. This definition of individual scale critical habitat is the minimum amount of adequate habitat necessary to safeguard persistence of the species in the habitat in which it is actually growing.

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2.6.2 Identification of the species' critical habitat

2.6.2.1 Locations at which critical habitat is identified

There are 25 lakes, one rivershore, and 8 bogs/fens where the five federally-listed Endangered and Threatened species are known to occur and where critical habitat is identified at the site and individual scales. Table 16 identifies the lakes, bogs/fens and rivershore where critical habitat is found; see Figure 3 for the location of corresponding watersheds.

Table 16. Locations (lakes, rivershores, and bogs/fens) where critical habitat is identified at the site and individual scales.
WatershedLocationNS Atlas Square Reference (2001)Pink CoreopsisThread-leaved SundewWater PennywortGoldencrestPlymouth Gentian
TusketWilsons Lake82W2--
TusketGillfillan Lake82W1---
TusketBennetts Lake82V2---
TusketAgard Lake81Z2---
TusketSalmon Lake81Z3----
TusketSloans Lake82V1----
TusketPleasant Lake81Z3----
TusketRaynards Lake82V2----
MerseyKejimkujik Lake72X3----
TusketSpringhaven Duck Lake82W2----
TusketLac de l'Ecole82W2----
TusketPearl Lake77W5----
TusketTravis Lake77W4----
TusketKegeshook Lake82X1----
TusketThird Lake82W1----
TusketLake Fanning77V5----
TusketTusket River82W1----
RosewayQuinns Meadow Bog87V2----
RosewayPort La Tour Bog87V5----
RosewaySwains Road Bog86Z4----
RosewayVillagedale Bog86Z5----
RosewayWest Baccaro Bog89V1----
MedwayMolega Lake73W3----
MedwayBeartrap Lake73V4----
MedwayHog Lake73V3----
MedwayPonhook Lake73V4----
MedwayLittle Ponhook Lake73W4----
MedwayShingle Lake73W2----
LahaveSeven Mile Lake73X1----
PetitFancy Lake73Z4----
MerseyDunraven Bog78Y4----
Little RiverMoores Lake Bog70Y2----
Little RiverTiddville Bog70Y2----
Total # of Locations24 Lakes-803811
Total # of Locations8 Bogs/Fens-05030
Total # of Locations1 Rivershore-00001

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2.6.2.2 Critical habitat identification at the site and individual scales for each species

Critical habitat at the site scale is identified for all five Endangered and Threatened species. For the three lakeshore species, at the lake locations, critical habitat is identified as any portion of a lakeshore where the key habitat characteristics described in the species-specific Tables 17 21 occur. This includes both occupied and unoccupied habitat. Unoccupied habitat is important for Pink Coreopsis, and Plymouth Gentian because natural disturbance regimes, particularly ice scouring, can dislodge portions of the substrate or pieces of vegetative matter (including seeds, cultivars, and pieces of the plant that can disperse and propagate vegetatively) that can be transported to other sites on the lake. For Plymouth Gentian, critical habitat is identified at the site scale for one rivershore site along the Tusket River that contains the same key habitat characteristics as described for the lakeshore sites scale critical habitat (Table 19).

For Thread-leaved Sundew (Endangered), critical habitat is identified at the site scale. There are five bog/fen locations identified in Table 16 that contain sites where critical habitat is identified for the Thread-leaved Sundew. At the site scale, critical habitat is identified as any portion of a bog where the key habitat characteristics described in Table 20 occur and this includes both occupied and unoccupied habitat.

For Goldencrest (Threatened), critical habitat is identified at the site scale. There are three bog/fen locations identified in Table 16 that contain sites where critical habitat is identified for the Goldencrest and eight lakes. At the site scale, critical habitat is identified as any portion of a lakeshore or bog where the key habitat characteristics described in Table 21 and 22 occur and this includes both occupied and unoccupied habitat.

Critical habitat at the individual scale is identified for Pink Coreopsis, Water Pennywort, and Plymouth Gentian as the area of lakeshore occupied by the plants and the extent of the habitat surrounding the plant(s) that contains the same key habitat characteristics as that in which the plant is growing. This critical habitat pertains to those areas where individuals occur and do not fit the site scale habitat descriptions provided in species-specific Tables 17-22.

For Thread-leaved Sundew (Endangered) and Goldencrest (Threatened), critical habitat at the individual scale is identified as those areas of the bog/fen where individuals are known to occur and include the extent of the habitat immediately surrounding the plant(s) that contains the same biologically key habitat characteristics as that in which the plant is growing.

The 2010 Recovery Strategy described a schedule of studies necessary to complete the identification of critical habitat for Thread-leaved Sundew and Golden Crest as well as Plymouth Gentian. These activities have been completed and critical habitat is fully identified for these species in this Amended Recovery Strategy.

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Table 17. Descriptions of the key habitat characteristics of critical habitat at the site scale for Pink Coreopsis.
Habitat ParameterDescription of Habitat CharacteristicNote * of Table 17
Shore Slope & WidthLow gradient, gently sloping; broad
Position on ShorelineAreas below the shrub zone that are often flooded and where exposure to disturbance is greatest
Substrate CompositionSandy, gravel, or cobblestone; associated with glacial deposits of ‘red till' (made up of smooth sand or gravel and tend to be water-saturated and low in nutrients)
Soil QualityLow nutrients
Natural DisturbancesNatural fluctuating water conditions, ice scour, wave action
Other Associated SpeciesSouthern Rein-Orchid (Platanthera flava), Grass-Leaved Goldenrod (or Slender Fragrant Goldenrod) (Euthamia caroliniana), Twigrush (Cladium mariscoides), Xyris caroliniana, Redtop Panic Grass (Panicum rigidulum var. pubescens), Three‑way Sedge (Dulichium arundinaceum), Golden-Pert (Gratiola aurea), Southern Bog Clubmoss(Lycopodiella appressa)

Notes of Table 17

Note * of Table 17

Information obtained from: Maher et al. 1978, Isnor 1981, Keddy and Keddy 1983a, Keddy 1985a, Keddy and Wisheu 1989, Pronych and Wilson 1993, Wisheu and Keddy 1994, Newell 1998a, and Roland and Zinck 1998.

Return to note * referrer of table 17

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Table 18. Descriptions of the key habitat characteristics of critical habitat at the site scale for Water Pennywort.
Habitat ParameterDescription of Habitat CharacteristicNote * of Table 18
Shore Slope & WidthLow gradient, gently sloping; broad
Position on ShorelineNarrow band above or below the waterline (where water level fluctuates)
Substrate CompositionSandy or fine gravel
Soil QualityAcidic; Low nutrients
Natural DisturbancesNatural fluctuating water conditions
Other Associated SpeciesSeven-angled Pipewort (Eriocaulon septangulare), Redtop Panic Grass (Panicum rigidulum var. pubescens), Brook-side Alder (Alnus serrulata), Small Swollen Bladderwort (Utricularia radiata), Northern Manna Grass (Glyceria borealis), Shore Sedge (Carex lenticularis), Grass-Leaved Goldenrod (or Slender Fragrant Goldenrod (Euthamia caroliniana), Golden-Pert (Gratiola aurea), Thread Rush (Juncus filiformis), Plymouth Gentian (Sabatia kennedyana), BogYellow-Eyed Grass (Xyris difformis), Pale St John's-Wort (Hypericum ellipticum), Lance-Leaved Violet (Viola lanceolata), Lesser Spearwort (Ranunculus flammula), Little Floating-Heart (Nymphoides cordata), Zigzag Bladderwort (Utricularia subulata)

Notes of Table 18

Note * of Table 18

Information obtained from Keddy 1985a, Wilson 1984, Keddy and Wisheu 1989, Wisheu and Keddy 1989a,b, Newell 1998b, Roland and Zinck 1998, Vasseur et al.2002, Vasseur 2005.

Return to note * referrer of table 18

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Table 19. Descriptions of the key habitat characteristics of critical habitat at the site scale for Plymouth Gentian.
Habitat ParameterDescription of Habitat CharacteristicNote * of Table 19
Shore Slope & WidthLow gradient, gently sloping; broad
Position on ShorelineAreas below the shrub zone that are often flooded and where exposure to disturbance is greatest
Substrate CompositionSandy, gravel, or cobblestone; associated with glacial deposits of ‘red till' (made up of smooth sand or gravel and tend to be water-saturated and low in nutrients)
Soil QualityLow nutrients
Natural DisturbancesNatural fluctuating water conditions, ice scour, wave action
Other Associated SpeciesSouthern Rein-Orchid (Platanthera flava), Grass-Leaved Goldenrod (or Slender Fragrant Goldenrod) (Euthamia graminifolia), Twigrush (Cladium mariscoides), Golden-Pert (Gratiola aurea),Zigzag Bladderwort (Utricularia subulata), Three-way Sedge (Dulichium arundinaceum), Southern Bog Clubmoss (Lycopodiella appressa), Grass-Leaved Goldenrod (or Slender Fragrant Goldenrod) (Euthamia caroliniana), Bog Yellow-eyed-grass (Xyris difformis)

Notes of Table 19

Note * of Table 19

Information obtained from Keddy and Keddy 1983b, Keddy 1985a, Keddy and Wisheu 1989, Wisheu and Keddy 1989a, b, Wisheu and Keddy 1994, and Newell 1998d.

Return to note * referrer of table 19

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Table 20. Description of the key habitat characteristics of critical habitat at the site scale for Thread-leaved Sundew.
Habitat ParameterDescription of Habitat CharacteristicNote * of Table 20
Type of BogOmbrotrophic maritime plateau bogs with a hummock - hollow microtopography
Position in BogMoist peaty hollows and areas of exposed peaty substrate
Substrate CompositionPoorly drained and poorly humified sphagnum that overlies extensive peat deposits
Soil QualityHighly infertile, pH of 3.1 to 3.5
Natural DisturbancesNatural fluctuating water conditions
Other Associated SpeciesSoft Peat Moss (Sphagnum tenellum), Red Peat Moss (Sphagnum rubellum), Tufted Clubrush (or Deergrass) (Scirpus caespitosus), White Beakrush (Rhynchospora alba), Coastal Sedge (Carex exilis), Green Reindeer Lichen (Cladina mitis), C. terraenovae, Cladonia lichen species (Cladonia cervicornis),  Liverworts (Hepatics), Purple Chokeberry (Photinia floribunda), Black Huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), Dwarf Huckleberry (Gaylussacia bigeloviana), Sheep Laurel (Kalmia angustifolia)

Notes of Table 20

Note * of Table 20

Information obtained from: Zinck 1991, Freedman et al. 1992, Freedman and Jotcham 2001, and Landry and Cwynar 2005.

Return to note * referrer of table 20

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Table 21. Descriptions of the key habitat characteristics of critical habitat at the site scale for lakeshores for Goldencrest.
Habitat ParameterDescription of Habitat CharacteristicNote * of Table 21
Shore Slope & WidthGently sloping; typically along shorelines wider than 2 m
Position on ShorelineMiddle of seasonally-exposed shoreline, often in wet, peat-dominated substrate among graminoids and/or ericaceous shrubs; upper of seasonally-exposed shoreline, often in moist, peat-dominated substrate among graminoids and/or Sweet Gale (Myrica gale)
Substrate CompositionPeat-dominated substrate or (most frequently) thin peat-dominated substrate layer over and/or between coarse mineral substrate including gravel, cobbles, stones, boulders, and bedrock
Soil QualityNutrient-poor peat often surrounded by nutrient poor mineral substrate
Natural DisturbancesFlooding, wave action, and ice scour associated with larger catchment area lake shorelines
Other Associated SpeciesTwigrush (Cladium mariscoides); Sweet Gale (Myrica gale); Old Switch Panic Grass (Panicum virgatum var. spissum); 

Notes of Table 21

Note * of Table 21

Information obtained from: Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre, 2014 and COSEWIC 2012.

Return to note * referrer of table 21

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Table 22. Descriptions of the key habitat characteristics of critical habitat at the site scale for bogs/fens for Goldencrest.
Habitat ParameterDescription of Habitat CharacteristicNote * of Table 22
Type of BogFloating bog; shore bog; shore fen; basin fen
Position in BogOpen section of bog/fen or bog/fen edge usually near open water, and often dominated by graminoids and Sweet Gale (Myrica gale)
Substrate CompositionPeat-dominated
Soil QualityNutrient-poor peat, saturated for most or all of growing season
Natural DisturbancesSeasonal flooding from adjacent watercourse, depression, or other water body
Other Associated SpeciesCoastal Sedge (Carex exilis); Slender Sedge (Carex lasiocarpa var. americana); Pickering's Reed Grass (Calamagrostis pickeringii); White Beakrush (Rhynchospora alba); Sweet Gale (Myrica gale)*; Twigrush (Cladium mariscoides); Northern Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea); Bog Aster (Oclemena nemoralis); Sphagnum moss species; Leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata)*; Bog Rosemary (Andromeda polifolia var. latifolia)*; Dwarf Huckleberry (Gaylussacia bigeloviana)*; Large Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) (*generally very low-statured examples of these shrub spp.)

Notes of Table 22

Note * of Table 22

Information obtained from: Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre, 2014; COSEWIC, 2012; Canada Committee on Ecological (Biophysical) Land Classification: National Wetlands Working Group, 1997

Return to note * referrer of table 22

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2.6.3 Schedule of studies

All three of the studies necessary to complete the identification of critical habitat have been completed and critical habitat is fully identified for the five Endangered and Threatened Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora (Table 23).

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Table 23. Schedule of studies necessary to complete the identification of critical habitat. A check mark means the study has been completed.
Description of ActivityOutcome/RationaleCompletion DateThread-leaved SundewGoldencrestPlymouth Gentian
Complete research on site level habitat characteristics and requirementsComprehensive description of key habitat characteristics will be completed2011

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2.6.4 Examples of activities likely to result in the destruction of critical habitat

Destruction is determined on a case by case basis. Destruction would result if part of the critical habitat were degraded, either permanently or temporarily, such that it would not serve its function when needed by the species. Destruction may result from a single or multiple activities at one point in time or from the cumulative effects of one or more activities over time (Government of Canada 2009).

It is important to indicate the scale (according to Table 14) at which activities may have to be managed to ensure that critical habitat is not destroyed. Critical habitat can be negatively affected by activities that occur at a different scale than that at which it has been identified. For example, cottage development anywhere around an entire lake, not just immediately adjacent to identified critical habitat at the site or individual scale, may have to be managed to ensure critical habitat is not destroyed.

Examples of activities which, without proper mitigation, may result in the destruction of critical habitat include, but are not limited to, the activities outlined in Table 24. The scales at which activities may have to be managed in order to ensure critical habitat is not destroyed are indicated.

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Table 24. Examples of activities likely to result in the destruction of critical habitat and the habitat type which these activities may impact.
Description of ActivityDescription of effect
in relation to function loss of critical habitat
Habitat TypeNote 1 of Table 24Scale
(as per Table 14)

Location
Scale
(as per Table 14)

Site
Scale
(as per Table 14)

Individual
Infilling and road buildingPermenant habitat loss; Habitat conversion; fragmentation of habitat; Alteration of natural disturbance regime in existing habitatL & B/F-
Off-highway vehicle useAlteration of habitat characteristics (species composition, substrate compaction); Reduction of microhabitatL & B/F-
Cottage and residential development resulting in nutrient runoff from land clearing, septic system, landscapingHabitat conversion & fragmentation; Alteration of habitat characteristics (increased siltation and nutrients) leading to changes in species compositionL & B/F-
Shoreline alterations including mowing and raking, construction of boat docks and launches, wharves, and breakwatersAlteration of natural disturbance regime; Alteration of habitat characteristics (substrate composition)L-
Crop and animal husbandry/production resulting in nutrient runoff or alteration of the hydrologic regimeChange in hydrological processes; Alteration of habitat characteristics (Increased siltation and nutrients; changes in species composition)L--
Forest harvesting practices resulting in nutrient runoff or alteration of the hydrologic regimeChange in hydrological processes; Alteration of habitat characteristics (Increased siltation and nutrients; changes in species composition)L--
Hydroelectric dam operation: stabilization of water levels and draining of lakeHabitat conversion; Alteration of natural disturbance regime (stabilization of water levels)L--
Peat miningHabitat conversion; Removal of substrate; Hydrologic regime changes (water table changes)B/F--
Cranberry growingHabitat conversion; Removal of substrate; Hydrologic regime changes (flooding)B/F--

Notes of Table 24

Note 1 of Table 24

Habitat Type: L: Lake, B/F: Bog/Fen

Return to note 1 referrer of table 24

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2.7 Recommended Approach for Recovery Implementation

A multiple species approach to recovery implementation is being proposed because the species addressed in this recovery strategy and management plan share similar distributions, habitat requirements, threats, and recovery approaches (see Section 1.3). Implementation will be overseen by the three jurisdictions responsible for the development of this document (Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and the Province of NS). This approach to recovery implementation should be applied particularly because some other species at risk, such as Blanding's Turtle, Eastern Ribbonsnake, and Atlantic Whitefish occur in the same locations as ACPF. Where these species co-exist opportunities for collaboration and coordination of recovery actions should be explored. For Water Pennywort it is recommended that these goals, objectives, and approaches be integrated into vegetation or ecosystem management plans for KNP.

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2.8 Statement on Action Plans

The federal SARA-specific requirements for an action plan will be met in one or more action plans for the ACPF that will be completed within two years of the final posting of this recovery planning document on the Species at Risk Public Registry. For broader conservation reasons, other action plans in support of recovery may be developed outside of the SARA process by jurisdictions and other partners in cooperation with the Recovery Team. Some activities detailed in the broad strategies and recommended approaches (Table 12) will be undertaken concurrently with the creation of the action plan. The recovery action plan included in the 2005 ACPF Multi species Recovery Strategy and Action Plan will serve as a starting point for action planning however; it does not contain sufficient detail to serve as the action plan for ACPF recovery.

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