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Recovery Strategy for Cultus Pygmy Sculpin

16. References Cited

Balanced Environmental Services Inc. 2004. Habitat background report of the Cultus Lake ecosystem including Sweltzer Creek, the Vedder-Chilliwack River system and the Fraser River. Draft report prepared for Fisheries and Oceans, Canada. (NEED TO GET PERMISSION TO CITE)

Cannings, S.G. and J. Ptolemy. 1998. Rare freshwater fish of British Columbia. Unpublished report to Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC.

COSEWIC 2003. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Cultus Population) in Canada.  Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. Ix + 57 pp.

Cultus Lake Parks Board. 2006. Internet-based information on Cultus Lake Park, and proposed development plans. (Accessed 23/02/2006 9:51:36 AM)

Engel, S. 1995. Eurasian watermilfoil as a fishery management tool. Fisheries 20(3):20-27.

Government of Canada. 2005. Species at Risk Act Policy. Policy on the feasibility of recovery. Draft, January 06, 2005.

Gross, M.R., J. Repka, C.T. Roberston, D.H. Secor and W. Van Winkle. 2002. Sturgeon conservation: insights from elasticity analyses. Pages 13-29 in Biology, Management, and Protection of North American Sturgeon, eds., W. Van Winkle, P. Anders, D.H. Secor, and D. Dixon. Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society (274 pp).

Heard, W.R. 1965. Limnetic cottid larvae and their utilization as food by juvenile sockeye salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 94: 191-193.

IUCN 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. Available at

Keast, A. 1984. The introduced aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum as habitat for fish and their invertebrate prey. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62: 1289-1303.

Krejsa, R.J. 1965. The systematics of the prickly sculpin, Cottus asper,: an investigation of genetic and nongenetic variation within a polytypic species. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, 183 pp.

Land and Water British Columbia Inc. 2006. Water licenses query. Available at:

Larson, K.W. and G.W. Brown Jr. 1975. systematic status of a midwater population of freshwater Sculpin (Cottus) from lake Washington, Seattle, Washington. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32: 21-28.

McLarney, W.O. 1968. Spawning habits and morphological variation in the coastrange sculpin, Cottus aleuticus, and the prickly sculpin, Cottus asper. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 97: 46-48.

McPhail, J.D., and R. Carveth. 1990. A foundation for conservation : the nature and origin of the freshwater fish fauna of British Columbia. Unpublished report to Fisheries Branch, B.C. Ministry of the Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, B.C.

Ministry of Lands, Parks & Housing. 1980. Cultus Lake Provincial Park master plan. Victoria, BC.

Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 1996. British Columbia water quality status report. Available at:

Morris, W.F., and Doak, D.F. 2002. Quantitative conservation biology; theory and practice of population viability analysis. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.

National Recovery Working Group. 2004. Recovery Handbook (ROMAN). October 2004. Working Draft. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife, Ottawa, Ontario. 75 pp. plus appendices.

Parmesan, C. and G. Yohe. 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 37-42.


Province of BC. 2006. Ministry of Environment data accessed through Fish Wizard. available at:

Reed, D.H., J.J. O'Grady, B.W. Brook, J.D. Ballou, and R. Frankham. 2003. Estimates of minimum viable population sizes for vertebrates and factors influencing those estimates. Biological Conservation 113:23-24.

Ricker, W.E. 1960. A population of dwarf Coastrange Sculpins (Cottus aleuticus). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 17:929-932.

Rosenfeld, J.S. and T. Hatfield. 2006. Information needs for assessing critical habitat of freshwater fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63: 683-698.

Schade, C.B. and S.A. Bonar. 2005. Distribution and abundance of nonnative fishes in streams of the western United States. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 25:1386–1394.

Schubert, N.D. et al. 2002. Status of Cultus Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). PSARC Working Paper.

Scott, W.B. and E.G. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184.

Taylor, J. 2006. Draft status report on Cultus Pygmy Sculpin [Cottus sp.]. unpublished manuscript.

Thomas, C.D.  1990. What do real population dynamics tell us about minimum viable population sizes? Cons. Biol. 4: 324-327.

Truelson, R.L. 1992. Control of Eurasian watermilfoil in Cultus Lake 1991. B.C. Ministry of Environment.  Unpublished manuscript.