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COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Atlantic Salmon (Lake Ontario population) in Canada
- Assessment Summary
- Executive Summary
- Species Information
- Population Sizes and Trends
- Limiting Factors and Threats
- Special Significance of the Species
- Existing Protection or Other Status Designations
- Summary of Status Report
- Technical Summary
- Information Sources
- Biographical Summary of Report Writer
- Appendix A.
- Appendix B
Abraham, W.J. 1983. A Plan to Determine the Feasibility of Atlantic Salmon Restoration in Lake Ontario. New York Department of Environmental Conservation. 13p.
Alexander, Sir J.E. (Editor). 1860. Salmon Fishing in Canada. cited in Dymond, J.R. 1965. The Lake Ontario Salmon (Salmo salar). Edited by H.H. Mackay. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, Maple. 283 p.
Banks, J.W. 1969. A review of the literature on upstream migration of adult salmonids. J. Fish. Biol. 1:85-136.
Bardonnet, A. and J.-L. Baglinère. 2000. Freshwater habitat of Atlantic salmon (Salmosalar). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57: 497-506.
Beall, E., J. Dumas, and D. Claireau. 1994. Dispersal patterns of survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles in a nursery stream. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 51: 1-10.
Bisset, J., J. Bowlby, M. Jones, B. Marchant, S. Orsatti, L. Stanfield. Lake Ontario Atlantic Salmon Working Group Background Document. Technical Advisors Workshop, October 1993.
Bisset, J., J. Bowlby, M. Jones, B. Marchant, L. Miller-Dodd, S. Orsatti, L. Stanfield. An Atlantic salmon restoration plan for Lake Ontario. February 1995.
Blair, A.A. 1938. Scales of Lake Ontario salmon indicate a land-locked form. Copeia.1938 (4): 206.
Carcao, G. 1986. Atlantic salmon in the Great Lakes basin: a history of its extirpation and attempted restoration. Ramsay Wright Laboratories. University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Christie, W.J. 1972. Lake Ontario: effects of exploitation, introductions, and eutrophication on the salmonid community. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 29:913-929.
Christie, W.J. 1973. A review of the changes in the fish species composition of Lake Ontario. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report 23, 65 p.
Clinton, DeWitt. 1822. Letters on the natural history and internal resources of the state of New York. By Hibernicus (pseud.). Privately printed by Bliss & White, New York. In Webster, D.A. 1982. Early History of Atlantic Salmon in New York. New York Fish and Game Journal. 29(1): 26-44.
Cuerrier, J.P. 1983. Adaptation of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, to a restricted freshwater environment. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 97(4): 439-442.
Cunjak, R.A. 1988. Behaviour and microhabitat of young Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during winter. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: 2156-2160.
Cunjak, R.A. 1996. Winter habitat of selected stream fishes and potential impacts from land-use activity. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53 (Suppl. 1): 267-282.
Cunjak, R.A., T.D. Prowse, and D.L. Parish. 1998. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in winter: "the season of parr discontent"? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55(Suppl.1): 161‑180.
Dunfield, R.W. 1985. The Atlantic salmon in the history of North America. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 80: 181 p.
Dymond, J.R. 1963. Family Salmonidae, p. 457-502. In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Pt. 3. Soft-rayed bony fishes. Sears Found. Mar. Res. Mem. 1:630 p.
Dymond, J.R. 1965. The Lake Ontario Salmon (Salmo salar). Edited by H.H. Mackay. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, Maple. 283 p.
Eckert, T.H. 2003. Lake Ontario Fishing Boat Census 2002. 59 p. In 2002 Annual Report, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Bureau of Fisheries Lake Ontario Unit and St. Lawrence River Unit to the Great Lakes Fishery Commission’s Lake Ontario Committee, March 27-28 2003.
Elson, P.F. 1975. Atlantic salmon rivers, smolt production and optimal spawning: an overview of natural production. International Atlantic Salmon Foundation Spec. Publ. Series, No. 6.
Fisher, J.P., Fitzsimons, J.D., G.F. Combs Jr., J.M. Spitsbergen. 1996. Naturally occurring thiamine deficiency causing reproductive failure in Finger Lakes Atlantic salmon and Great Lakes lake trout. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 125: 167-178.
Fleming, I.A. 1998. Pattern and variability in the breeding system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), with comparisons to other salmonids. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55 (Suppl. 1): 59-76.
Fry, F.E.J. 1947. Effects of the environment on animal activity. Univ. Toronto Stud. Biol. Ser. 55, Publ. Ont. Fish. Res. Lab. 68:62 p.
Fynn-Aikins, K., P.R. Bowser, D.C. Honeyfield, J.D. Fitzsimons, H.G. Ketola. 1998. Effect of dietary amprolium on tissue thiamin and Cayuga syndrome in Atlantic salmon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 127: 747-757.
Garside, E.T. 1973. Ultimate upper lethal temperature of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Can. J. Zool. 51: 898-900.
Gibson, R.J. 1981. Behavioural interactions between coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) at the juvenile fluviatile stages. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1029: v + 116 p.
Goodyear, C.S., T.A. Edsall, D.M. Ormsby Depsey, G.D. Moss, and P.E. Polanski. 1982. Atlas of the spawning and nursery areas of Great Lakes fishes. Volume eleven: Lake Ontario, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC FWS/OBS- 82/52.
Hearn, W.E., and B.E. Kynard. 1986. Habitat utilization and behavioral interaction of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (S. gairdneri) in tributaries of the White River of Vermont. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43: 1988-1998.
Heggenes, J. and S.J. Salveit. 1990. Seasonal and spatial microhabitat selection and segregation in young Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and brown trout, Salmo trutta L., in a Norwegian river. J. Fish Biol. 36: 707-720.
Hislop, J.R.G. and A.F. Youngson. 1984. A note on the stomach contents of salmon caught by longline north of the Faroe Island in March 1983. ICES C.M. 1984/M:17.
Huntsman, A.G. 1944. Why did the Lake Ontario salmon disappear? Trans. R. Soc. Can. 38 (Ser. 3, Sect. 5): 83-102.
Javoid, M.Y. and J.M. Anderson. 1967. Thermal acclimate and temperature selection in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar and rainbow trout, S. gairdneri. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 24: 1507-1513.
Ketola, H.G., P.R. Bowser, G.A. Wooster, L.R. Wedge, S.S. Hurst. 2000. Effects of thiamine on reproduction of Atlantic salmon and a new hypothesis for their extirpation in Lake Ontario. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 129: 607-612.
Lake OntarioLaMP. 2004. Website: http://gleams.altarum.org/glwatershed/lamps/lakeontario/background.html.
Leim, A.H., and W.B. Scott. 1966. Fishes of the Atlantic Coast of Canada. Maine Atlantic Salmon Commission. 2001. Website: http://www.state.me.us/asa.html.
Maraldo, D., B. Bowman and M. Gillies. 1997. The return of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to Trout Lake, North Bay, Ontario. Water Qual. Res. J. Canada. 32 (2): 347‑364.
McCormick, S.D., L.P. Hansen, T.P. Quinn, and R.L. Saunders. 1998. Movement, migration, and smolting of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55 (Suppl. 1): 77-92.
McCrimmon, H.R. 1950. The reintroduction of Atlantic salmon into tributary streams of Lake Ontario. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 78: 128-132.
McCrimmon, H.R., and B.L. Gots. 1979. World distribution of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 36: 422-457.
Mills, D. 1989. Ecology and Management of Atlantic salmon. Chapman & Hall, London, xiii + 351 p.
Moir, H.J., C. Soulsby, and A. Youngson. 1998. Hydraulic and sedimentary characteristics of habitat utilized by Atlantic salmon for spawning in the Girnock Burn, Scotland. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 5: 241-254.
Mundy, P.R. 1996. The role of harvest management in the future of Pacific salmon populations: shaping human behaviour to enable the persistence of salmon. In Pacific salmon and their ecosystems. Edited by D.J. Stouder, P.A. Bisson, and R.J. Naiman. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y. pp. 315-330.
Myers, R.A. 1984. Demographic consequences of precocious maturation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41: 1349-1353.
NatureServe. 2001. NatureServe Explorer, Conservation Status Report. Web Site: http://www.natureserveexplorer.org/servlet/NatureServe.
Parsons, J.W. 1973. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970. U.S. Bur. Sport Fish. Wildl. Tech. Pap. No. 68.
Peterson, R.H. 1978. Physical characteristics of Atlantic salmon spawning gravel in some New Brunswick streams. Fish. Mar. Serv. Tech. Rep. No. 785.
Rimmer, D.M., U. Paim, and R.L. Saunders. 1984. Changes in the selection of microhabitat by juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at the summer-autumn transition in a small river. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41: 469-475.
Saunders, R.L. 1965. Adjustment of buoyancy in young Atlantic salmon and brook trout by changes in swimbladder volume. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 22: 335-352.
Scott, R.J., D.L.G. Noakes, F.W.H. Beamish and L.M. Carl. 2003. Chinook salmon impede Atlantic salmon conservation in Lake Ontario. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 12: 66-73.
Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1973 (1998 reprint). Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bulletin No. 184: 996 p.
Simcoe, Diary, pp. 238, 331. Fox, "The Literature of Salmo salar", p. 48. Quoted in Edward E. Prince, "The Maximum Size of Fishes and its Causes," in Annual Report of the Department of Marine and Fisheries, 1903 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1904), Appendix II p.1x. In Dunfield, R.W. 1985. The Atlantic salmon in the history of North America. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 80: 181 p.
Stanfield, L.W., S.F. Gibson, and J.A. Borwick. 2005. Using a landscape approach to predict the distribution and density patterns of juvenile salmonines in the Lake Ontario basin. Special publication of the American Fisheries Society. Proceedings of Special Symposium: Influences of landscape on stream habitat and biological communities. Madison, Wisconsin. In Press
Stanfield, L.W., and B.W. Kilgour. 2005. Effects of percent impervious cover on fish and benthos assemblages and in-stream habitats in Lake Ontario tributaries. Special publication of the American Fisheries Society. Proceedings of Special Symposium: Influences of landscape on stream habitat and biological communities. Madison, Wisconsin. In Press
Stanfield, L. and M. L. Jones. 2003 . Factors influencing rearing success of Atlantic salmon stocked as fry and parr in Lake Ontario tributaries. N. Amer. Jour. Fish. Man. 23: 1175-1183.
Tucker, S. and J.B. Rasmussen. 1999. Using 137Cs to measure and compare bioenergetic budgets of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the field. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 875-887.
Volpe, J.P., E.B. Taylor, D.W. Rimmer, and B.W. Glickman. 2000. Evidence of Natural Reproduction of Aquaculture-Escaped Atlantic Salmon in a Coastal British Columbia River. Conservation Biology 14(3): 899-903.
Volpe, J.P., B.R. Anholt, and B.W. Glickman. 2001. Competition among juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss): relevance to invasion potential in British Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58: 197-207.
Wankowski, J.W.J. 1981. Behavioural aspects of predation by juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) on particulate, drifting prey. Animal Behaviour. 29: 557-571.
Wankowski, J.W.J., and J.E. Thorpe. 1979. Spatial Distribution and feeding in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. juveniles. Journal of Fish Biology 14: 239-247.
Webster, D.A. 1982. Early History of Atlantic Salmon in New York. New York Fish and Game Journal. 29(1): 26-44.
Wilmot, S. 1879. Ontario salmon, special report in Report on fish-breeding. Ann. Rept. Minister of Marine and Fish Canada for 1879, Pt. 2, pp.35-46. In Dymond, J.R. 1965. The Lake Ontario Salmon (Salmo salar). Edited by H.H. Mackay: Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, Maple. 283 p.
Wilzbach, M.A., M.E. Mather, C.L. Folt, A. Moore, R.J. Naiman, A.F. Youngson, and J. McMenemy. 1998. Proactive responses to human impacts that balance development and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) conservation: an integrative model. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55 (Suppl. 1): 288-302.
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