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Recovery strategy for the northern and southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Canada

Appendices

Appendix A - Glossary

Abiotic:
Non-living factors in the environment (e.g. water, air, rocks).

Allee effect:
The reduced likelihood of finding a mate when population numbers are low.

Anthropogenic:
Caused or produced by humans.

Bioaccumulation:
The process by which (toxic) substances from prey and the environment crease over time in concentration in living organisms.

Biotic:
Living components of the environment (e.g. fish, plankton).

Biotoxin:
Toxin produced by a living organism.

Culture:
A body of information and behavioural traits that are transmitted within and between generations by social learning.

dB (decibel):
A unit for measuring the relative intensity of a sound. In this document the sources of sounds are consistently referenced to 1 µPa at 1 m. The sounds that marine mammals hear (received level) depend on their distance from the source of the sound.

Depensation:
When a decline in population numbers leads to reduced survival (due to increased mortality) or reduced reproduction (due to the Allee effect).

Ecotype:
A population that is genetically different from other populations of the same species.

Lipophilic:
A substance that dissolves more easily in lipids (fats) than water. Chemicals that are lipophilic tend to bioaccumulate.

Matriline:
Comprises all surviving members of a female lineage.  A typical matriline comprises an adult female, her offspring, and the offspring of her daughters.

Mediastinal:
Part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea and thymus.

Odontocete:
Toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises.

Systemic mycoses:
Fungal infection that affects the whole body.

µPa (micro Pascal):
A unit of acoustic pressure.

Sympatric:
Closely related populations or ecotypes that overlap in their range but do not interbreed.


Contaminant acronyms

APEs
Alkylphenol ethoxylates

DBT
Dibutyltin

DDT
Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane

PAHs
Persistent aromatic hydrocarbons

PBDEs
Polybrominated diphenylethers

PBDTs
Polybrominated trienylethers

PCBs
Polychlorinated biphenyls

PCDDs
Dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

PCDFs
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans

PCNs
Polychlorinated napthalenes

PCPs
Polychlorinated paraffins

PCTs
Polychlorinated terphenyls

SPFOs
Perfluoro-octane sulfonates

POPs
Persistent organic pollutants

TBT
Tributyltin

Appendix B - Description of critical habitat

Southern resident killer whale critical habitat boundaries
No.Point DescriptionLatitude DegLatitude MinLongitude DegLongitude Min
1western boundary4829.6812444.31
2western boundary4840.0212450.68
3Excluding waters north of the line joining (Sooke Inlet)4821.3012344.32
4Excluding waters north of the line joining (Sooke Inlet)4820.3312342.90
5Excluding waters north of the line joining (Royal Roads, Esquimalt Hbr, Victoria Hbr)4824.2512328.97
6Excluding waters north of the line joining (Royal Roads, Esquimalt Hbr, Victoria Hbr)4824.5712322.61
7Excluding waters west of the line joining (Cordova Channel and Sidney Channel)4829.6912318.61
8Excluding waters west of the line joining (Cordova Channel and Sidney Channel)4836.1212318.51
9Excluding waters west of the line joining (western half of Miners Channel and the waters west of Gooch Island)4837.0412318.49
10Excluding waters west of the line joining (western half of Miners Channel and the waters west of Gooch Island)4839.7012317.72
11Excluding waters west of the line joining (western half of Prevost Channel and Moresby Passage)4839.8812317.68
12Excluding waters west of the line joining (western half of Prevost Channel and Moresby Passage)4842.9612319.63
13Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of Swanson Channel between Moresby Island and Prevost Island)4843.3412319.88
14Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of Swanson Channel between Moresby Island and Prevost Island)4848.8612322.70
15Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of Trincomali Channel between Prevost Island and Parker Island)4850.6612323.33
16Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of Trincomali Channel between Prevost Island and Parker Island)4852.6112323.92
17Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of Trincomali Channel between Parker Island and Galiano Island)4852.8512323.92
18Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of Trincomali Channel between Parker Island and Galiano Island)4853.0812323.76
19Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4854.2812320.67
20Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4855.3912321.98
21Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of southern Strait of Georgia)490.0012318.88
22Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4910.3912322.82
23Excluding waters west of the line joining (western portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4913.5812321.97
24Excluding waters north of the line joining (portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4913.5812321.97
25Excluding waters north of the line joining (portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4914.0012321.09
26Excluding waters north of the line joining (portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4914.1812319.22
27Excluding waters north of the line joining (portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4913.7912317.21
28Excluding waters north and east of the line joining (portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4913.7912317.21
29Excluding waters north and east of the line joining (portion of southern Strait of Georgia)4912.8712315.75
30Excluding waters north and east of the line joining (portion of southern Strait of Georgia)499.0112316.48
31Excluding waters north and east of the line joining (portion of southern Strait of Georgia)493.391239.24
32Excluding waters north and east of the line joining (portion of southern Strait of Georgia)493.471238.48

Described clockwise from the western boundary-all latitudes are decimal degrees north; all longitudes are decimal degrees west and bounded on the east and south by Point Roberts and the United States border.

 

Northern Resident Killer Whale Critical Habitat – Boundaries
 Point DescriptionLatitude DegLatitude MinLongitude DegLongitude Min
1Western boundary (Vancouver Island to Numas Island)5036.9812711.00
2Western boundary (Vancouver Island to Numas Island)5046.241276.76
3Northern boundary (Numas Island to Broughton Island)5046.271275.26
4Northern boundary (Numas Island to Broughton Island)5046.4112648.27
5Northern boundary (Broughton Island to Screen Island / Eden Island)5046.1312647.30
6Northern boundary (Broughton Island to Screen Island / Eden Island)5044.9512643.55
7boundary line running from Eden Island to Crib Island (including waters of Queen Charlotte Strait and excluding waters of Trainer Passage)5044.7912643.22
8boundary line running from Eden Island to Crib Island (including waters of Queen Charlotte Strait and excluding waters of Trainer Passage)5043.6712642.73
9boundary line running from Crib Island to House Ilet (including waters of Queen Charlotte Strait and excluding waters of Arrow and Spring Passages)5043.3312642.58
10boundary line running from Crib Island to House Ilet (including waters of Queen Charlotte Strait and excluding waters of Arrow and Spring Passages)5040.1612641.21
11boundary line running from House Ilet to Swanson Island (including waters of Queen Charlotte Strait and excluding waters of Knight Inlet)5040.1612641.21
12boundary line running from House Ilet to Swanson Island (including waters of Queen Charlotte Strait and excluding waters of Knight Inlet)5037.7512643.86
13boundary line running from Swanson Island to Compton Island (including waters of Blackfish Sound excluding waters of West Passage)5036.0612641.77
14boundary line running from Swanson Island to Compton Island (including waters of Blackfish Sound excluding waters of West Passage)5035.8412641.42
15boundary line running from Compton Island to Harbledown Island (including waters of Blackfish Sound excluding waters of Whitebeach Passage)5035.5012640.86
16boundary line running from Compton Island to Harbledown Island (including waters of Blackfish Sound excluding waters of Whitebeach Passage)5035.3812640.68
17boundary line running from Harbledown Island to Parson Island (including waters of Blackfish Sound excluding waters of Parson Bay)5035.1912640.93
18boundary line running from Harbledown Island to Parson Island (including waters of Blackfish Sound excluding waters of Parson Bay)5034.4312640.73
19boundary line running from Parson Island to West Cracroft Island (including waters of Blackfish Sound excluding waters of Baronet Passage)5033.6512639.95
20boundary line running from Parson Island to West Cracroft Island (including waters of Blackfish Sound excluding waters of Baronet Passage)5032.9812639.73

 

Northern Resident Killer Whale Critical Habitat – Boundaries (Waters of western Johnstone Strait bounded on the north by West Cracroft Island, the mainland, Hardwicke Island and West Thurlow Island with no exclusions except:)
 Point DescriptionLatitude DegLatitude MinLongitude DegLongitude Min
24boundary line running from West Cracroft Island to the mainland (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Havannah Channel)5031.3212620.35
25boundary line running from West Cracroft Island to the mainland (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Havannah Channel)5031.0912617.05
26boundary line running from the mainland to Hardwicke Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Sunderland Channel)5028.461262.54
27boundary line running from the mainland to Hardwicke Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Sunderland Channel)5026.5712557.94
28boundary line running from Hardwicke Island to Eden Point on West Thurlow Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Chancellor Channel)5024.5812548.29
29boundary line running from Hardwicke Island to Eden Point on West Thurlow Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Chancellor Channel)5023.9112547.38
30boundary line running from Eden Point to Tyee Point on West Thurlow Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Vere Cove)5023.9112547.38
31boundary line running from Eden Point to Tyee Point on West Thurlow Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Vere Cove)5023.2612547.06
32Eastern boundary line running from West Thurlow Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of eastern Johnstone Strait and Mayne Passage)5023.4212534.39
33Eastern boundary line running from West Thurlow Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of eastern Johnstone Strait and Mayne Passage)5021.8812534.23

 

Northern Resident Killer Whale Critical Habitat – Boundaries (Waters of western Johnstone Strait bounded on the south by Vancouver Island - no exclusions except:)
 Point DescriptionLatitude DegLatitude MinLongitude DegLongitude Min
35boundary line running from Graveyard Point to Kelsey Bay Harbour on Vancouver Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Salmon Bay)5023.4512556.71
36boundary line running from Graveyard Point to Kelsey Bay Harbour on Vancouver Island (including waters of western Johnstone Strait excluding waters of Salmon Bay)5023.8012557.62

Described clockwise from the western boundary-all Latitudes are decimal degrees north; all longitudes are decimal degrees west.

Appendix C - Recovery team members

Marilyn Joyce
Co-Chair: Resident Killer Whale Recovery Team
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Fisheries Management Branch Pacific Region, 200-401 Burrard Street, Vancouver, B.C., V6C 3S4, phone: 604-666-9965, email: joycema@pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Lance Barrett-Lennard
Co-Chair: Resident Killer Whale Recovery Team
Vancouver Aquarium Marine Service Center Stanley Park, Vancouver, BC V6B 3X8, phone: 604-659-3428, email: Lance.Barrett-Lennard@vanaqua.org
David Bain
Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, WA
Ken Balcomb
Centre for Whale Research, WA
Jim Borrowman
North Island Whale Watching Community, BC
John Durban
National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Centre, National Marine Mammal Laboratory, WA
Graeme Ellis
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Science Branch, Conservation Biology Section, BC
John Ford
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Science Branch, Conservation Biology Section, BC
Christine Garrett
Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Branch, Commercial Chemicals Division, BC
Anna Hall
Whale Watch Operators Association North West, BC
Steve Jeffries
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Marine Mammal Investigations, WA
Linda Jones
National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Centre, National Marine Mammal Laboratory, WA
Brent Norberg
National Marine Fisheries Service, Protected Resources Division, WA
Peter Olesiuk
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Science Branch, Conservation Biology Section, BC
Rich Osborne
The Whale Museum, WA
Rob Paynter
Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, BC
Brian Reader
Western Canada Service Centre, Parks Canada Agency, BC
Peter Ross
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Marine Environmental Quality Section, BC
Paul Spong
Orcalab, Hanson Island, BC
Andrew Trites
Marine Mammal Research Unit, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, BC
Scott Wallace
(Alternate) Marine Conservation Caucus, Raincoast Conservation Society Sierra Club of Canada, B.C. Chapter, BC
Gary Wiles
(Alternate) Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Marine Mammal Investigations, WA
Rob Williams
Marine Conservation Caucus, Raincoast Conservation Society, BC
Brian Riddell
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Science Branch, Salmon and Freshwater Ecosystems, BC

Resource personnel:

Paul Cottrell
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, A/SARA First Nations Coordinator, Treaty & Aboriginal Policy Branch, BC
Carole Eros
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Species at Risk Recovery Planning Coordinator, Resource Management Pacific Region, BC
Annely Greene
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Marine Mammal Program Manager, Resource Management Pacific Region, BC
Kathy Heise
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, BC
Lara Sloan
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Communications Officer, Fisheries Management Pacific Region, BC

Appendix D - Record of cooperation and consultation

Northern and southern resident killer whales are listed on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA) and as an aquatic species are under federal jurisdiction and managed by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO): 200 - 401 Burrard Street, Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). Southern resident killer whales are a transboundary population and the United States is concurrently developing a recovery plan as mandated under their Endangered Species Act.

To assist in the development of an initial draft of this recovery strategy, DFO brought together a diverse team of experts from various government, environmental, eco-tourism and non-governmental groups from both Canada and the United States. On the advice of the Species at Risk Coordinator at the BC Aboriginal Fisheries Commission, a letter of invitation followed up by phone calls was sent to all coastal First Nations seeking their interest in participating on the Recovery Team and/or Technical Workshop. No response was received from First Nations for inclusion on either initiative. Subsequent to the consultation process the Namgis First Nation has indicated an interest to be involved in future action planning and local implementation.

A Technical Workshop was hosted in March 2004 to provide a forum for the sharing of knowledge and expertise on killer whales with an invited group of scientific and technical stakeholders which was invaluable in assisting the Resident Killer Whale Recovery Team to formulate an effective recovery strategy.

Public news releases announcing the Recovery Team and development of the recovery strategy and a notice of Public Consultations were sent to a distribution list of whale-related contacts provided to DFO in recent years from environmental groups, the eco-tourism sector, non-governmental organizations, government agencies and private citizens. An announcement was also placed in the Vancouver Aquarium Aquanews newsletter.

Additional input was sought through the internet (March 2005) on the draft recovery strategy and a discussion guide and feedback form were available. Responses were received from eco-tourism and non-government organizations and the Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nations. Input from the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the State of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife was received through team participation. Feedback on the recovery strategy was also received from other government agencies including: the Department of National Defence, Province of BC, SARA Secretariat, Environment Canada and Natural Resources Canada. An external peer review was conducted by Volker Deecke, Ph.D., University of BC, and Christope Guinet, Centre d'Etudes Bilogiques de Chize, France. All feedback from both government agencies and peer reviewers has been incorporated into the final recovery strategy.

A proposed version of the recovery strategy was posted on the SARA Public Registry for a 60-day public comment period, from June 21st to August 20th, 2007. During this time, numerous comments were received from a wide variety of sources including government agencies, commercial and recreational fishing groups, ecotourism operators, non-governmental organizations, and private citizens. All feedback from this comment period was considered and incorporated into the final recovery strategy as appropriate.

Recovery team:

Marilyn Joyce, Chair: Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Lance Barrett-Lennard, Vancouver aquarium John Ford, Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Graeme Ellis, Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Peter Ross, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Peter Olesiuk, Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Brian Reader, Parks Canada Agency, Christine Garrett, Environment Canada, Ken Balcomb, Centre for Whale Research, Brent Norberg, National Marine Fisheries Service, Steve Jeffries, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, John Durban, National Marine Fisheries Service, Linda Jones, National Marine Fisheries Service, Rich Osborne, The Whale Museum, David Bain, Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, Paul Spong, Orcalab, Andrew Trites, University of British Columbia, Anna Hall, Whale Watch Operators Association NW, Jim Borrowman, North Island Whale Watching Community, Rob Williams, Marine Conservation Caucus, Scott Wallace, Sierra Club of Canada, B.C. Chapter (Alternate), Gary Wiles, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (Alternate), Brian Riddell, Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council, Rob Paynter, Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Kathy Heise, University of British Columbia

External review:

Dr. Volker Deecke of the University of British Columbia and Dr. Christope Guinet, Centre d'Etudes Bilogiques de Chize, France.

Introduction