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Recovery Strategy for the Spotted Gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) in Canada (proposed)
Alfaro, R.M., C.A. González, and A.M. Ferrara. 2008. Gar biology and culture: status and prospects. Aquaculture Research 39: 748-763.
Battin, J.G. and J.G. Nelson. 1978. Man’s impact on Point Pelee National Park. National and Provincial Parks Association of Canada. 175 pp.
Bouvier, L.D. and N.E. Mandrak. 2010. Information in support of a Recovery Potential Assessment of Spotted Gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) in Canada. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2010/079. vi + 22 pp.
Burleson, M., B. Shipman, and N. Smatresk. 1998. Ventilation and acid-base recovery following exhausting activity in an air-breathing fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 201(9): 1359-1368.
COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). 2005. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Spotted Gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada: Ottawa, Ontario. vi + 17 pp.
Coen L.D., K.L. Heck, Jr., and L.G. Abele. 1981. Experiments on competition and predation among shrimps of seagrass meadows. Ecology 62: 1484–1493.
Coker, G.A., C.B. Portt, and C.K. Minns. 2001. Morphological and ecological characteristics of Canadian freshwater fishes. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2554: iv + 89 pp.
Cudmore-Vokey, B. and C.K. Minns. 2002. Reproductive ecology and vegetation association databases of Lake Ontario fishes. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2607: ix + 42 pp.
Dextrase, A., S.K. Staton, and J.L. Metcalfe-Smith. 2003. National recovery strategy for species at risk in the Sydenham River: an ecosystem approach. National Recovery Plan No. 25. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife (RENEW): Ottawa, Ontario. 73 pp.
Dobbyn, S. and L. Pasma. (In prep). A life science inventory and evaluation of Rondeau Provincial Park. Draft March 2005. Ontario Parks, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
Doka, S., C. Bakelaar, and L. Bouvier. 2006. Chapter 6. Coastal wetland fish community assessment of climate change in the lower Great Lakes. In L. Mortsch, J. Ingram, A. Hebb and S. Doka (eds.), Great Lakes Wetland Communities: Vulnerability to Climate Change and Response to Adaptation Strategies, Environment Canada and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Toronto, Ontario. pp. 101-127.
EERT (Essex-Erie Recovery Team). 2008. Recovery strategy for the fishes at risk of the Essex-Erie region: an ecosystem approach. July 2008 Draft. 110 pp.
Ferrara, A.M. 2001. Life history strategy of Lepisosteidae: implications for the management and conservation of the alligator gar. PhD. Dissertation, Auburn University, Alabama. 145 pp.
Fuller, P., A. Benson, and E. Maynard. 2009. Apollonia (Neogobius) melanostomus. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL. Revision Date: 10/25/2007. (Accessed: Feb. 2009.)
Gilbert, J., G. Dunn, and B. Locke. 2007. Rondeau Bay ecological assessment report. Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. May 2007.
Glass, W.R., L.D. Corkum, N.E. Mandrak. 2011. Pectoral fin ray aging: an evaluation of a non-lethal method for aging gars and its application to a population of the threatened Spotted Gar. Environmental Biology of Fishes 90: 235-242.
Goodyear, C.S., T.A. Edsall, D.M. Ormsby Dempsey, G.D. Moss, and P.E. Polanski. 1982. Atlas of the spawning and nursery areas of Great Lakes fishes. Volume 13: Reproductive characteristics of Great Lakes fishes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-8252. 144 pp.
Lane, J.A., C.B. Portt, and C.K. Minns. 1996. Adult habitat characteristics of Great Lakes fishes. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2358: v + 43 pp.
Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. N.C. State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. 854 pp.
Lee, H.T., W.D. Bakowsky, J.L. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological Land Classification for southern Ontario: first approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.
Lee, H.T., D. Leadbeater, P. Uhlig, and K. Ursic. 2001. Ecological Land Classification for southern Ontario: training manual. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, SCSIS Training Manual TM-01.
Lemmen, D.S. and F.J. Warren. 2004. Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. Natural Resources Canada: Ottawa, Ontario.
Mandrak, N.E. 1989. Potential invasion of the Great Lakes by fish species associated with climatic warming. Journal of Great Lakes Research 15: 306-316.
Mandrak, N.E., J. Barnucz, and D. Marson. 2006a. Fish community sampling in National Wildlife Areas in southwestern Ontario, 2002-2005 (Draft). Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. iii + 36 pp.
Mandrak, N.E., J. Barnucz, G.J. Velema, and D. Marson. 2006b. Survey of the status of Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei), and Spotted Gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), in Canada, 2002. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2776: v + 39 pp.
NatureServe. 2009. NatureServe Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed: Feb. 2009).
Ontario Federation of Anglers & Hunters. 2011. InvadingSpecies.com - Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) (Accessed: October 2011).
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2009. Species at risk in Ontario (SARO) list. (Accessed: February 2009.)
Ostrand, K.G., M.L. Thies, D.D. Hall, and M. Carpenter. 1996. Gar ichthyotoxin: its effect on natural predators and the toxin’s evolutionary function. Southwest Naturalist 41: 375-377.
Ostrand, K.G., B.J. Braeutigam, and D.H. Wahl. 2004. Consequences of vegetation density and prey species on Spotted Gar foraging.Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133: 794–800.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, Massachusetts.
Parker, B. and P. McKee. 1984. Status of the Spotted Gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 98(1): 80-86.
Parker, R.S., C.T. Hackney, and M.F. Vidrine. 1984. Ecology and reproductive strategy of a South Louisiana freshwater mussel, Glebula rotundata (Lamarck) (Unionidae: Lampsilini). Freshwater Invertebrate Biology 3(2): 53-58.
Razavi, R. 2006. Assessing historical and present day fish habitat in the marshes of Point Pelee National Park. Senior Honours Thesis. Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 65 pp.
Reid, S.M. and N.E. Mandrak. 2008. Historical changes in the distribution of threatened Channel Darter (Percina copelandi) in Lake Erie with general observations on the beach fish assemblage. Journal of Great Lakes Research 34: 324-333.
Ricciardi, A. 2006. Patterns of invasion in the Laurentian Great Lakes in relation to changes in vector activity. Diversity and Distributions 12: 425-433.
Scott, W.B. 1967. Freshwater fishes of eastern Canada. 2nd edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario. 137 pp.
Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1998. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bulletin 184, Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Reprinted by Galt House Publications, Burlington, ON. xvii + 966 pp.
Simon, T.P. and R. Wallus. 1989. Contributions to the early life histories of gar (Actinopterygii: Lepisosteidae) in the Ohio and Tennessee River Basins with emphasis on larval development. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 50: 59-74.
Snedden, G.A., W.E. Kelso, and D.A. Rutherford. 1999. Diel and seasonal patterns of Spotted Gar movement and habitat use in the lower Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128: 144-154.
Staton, S.K., K.L. Vlasman, and A.L. Edwards. 2010. Recovery strategy for the Lake Chubsucker (Erimyzon sucetta) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa. vi + 49 pp.
Surette, H.J. 2006. Processes influencing temporal variation in fish species composition in Point Pelee National Park. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Guelph, Guelph, ON. 105 pp.
Tyler, J.D. and M.N. Granger.1984. Notes on food habits, size, and spawning behavior of Spotted Gar in Lake Lawtonka, Oklahoma. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 64: 8-10.
Vélez-Espino, L.A., R.G. Randall, and M.A. Koops. 2008. Quantifying habitat requirements of four freshwater species at risk in Canada: Northern Madtom, Spotted Gar, Lake Chubsucker, and Pugnose Shiner. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2008/nnn. iv + 20 pp.
Young, J.A.M and M.A. Koops. 2010. Recovery potential modelling of Spotted Gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) in Canada. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2010/078. iv + 19 pp.
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