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Recovery Strategy for the Hickorynut and the Kidneyshell [Final Version]


Allan, J. D., and A. S. Flecker. 1993. Biodiversity conservation in running waters. BioScience 43: 32-43.

Ausable River Recovery Team. 2004. Recovery Strategy for species at risk in the Ausable River. An ecosystem approach 2004-2009. Draft 2 – March 17, 2004. xii + 125 pp.

Baker, K. 2005. Nine year study of the invasion of western Lake Erie by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus): changes in goby and darter abundance. Ohio Journal of Science 105: A-31.

Baker, S. M. and D. J. Hornbach. 1997. Acute physiological effects of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) infestation on two unionid mussels, Actinonaias ligamentina and Amblema plicata. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 512-519.

Bogan, A. E. 1993. Freshwater bivalve extinctions (Mollusca: Unionidae): a search for causes. American Zoologist 33: 599-609.

Clarke, A. H. 1977. The endangered mollusks of Canada. In: T. Mosquin and C. Suchal (eds.) Canada’a threatened species and habitats. Canadian Nature Federation Special Publication Number 6. p 148-150.

Clarke, A. H. 1981. The freshwater molluscs of Canada. National Museums of       Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 446 pages.

Clarke, A.H. 1992. Ontario’s Sydenham River, an important refugium for freshwater mussels against competition from the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Malacology Data Net 3: 43-55.

COSEWIC 2003a. COSEWIC assessment and update status on the Round Hickorynut Obovaria subrotunda in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 31 pp.

COSEWIC 2003b. COSEWIC assessment and update status on the Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus fasciolaris in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 32 pp.

Dextrase, A. J., S. K. Staton, J. L. Metcalfe-Smith. 2003. National Recovery Strategy for species at risk in the Sydenham River: An ecosystem approach. National Recovery Plan No. 25. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife (RENEW). Ottawa, Ontario. 73 pp.

French, J.R.P., and D.J. Jude. 2001. Diets and diet overlap of nonindigenous gobies and small native fishes co-habitating the St. Clair River, Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 27:300-311.

Gordon, M. E., and J. B. Layzer. 1989. Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoidea) of the Cumberland River: review of life histories and ecological relationships. Biological Report 89(15). U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C. vii + 99pp.

Haag, W. R., D. J. Berg, D. W. Garton, and J. L. Farris. 1993. Reduced survival and fitness in native bivalves in  response to fouling by the introduced zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 13-19.

Holm, E., and N. E. Mandrak. 1996. The status of the eastern sand darter, Ammocrypta pellucida in Canada. Canadian-Field Naturalist 110(3): 462-469.

Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd. 2001. Sydenham River Recovery Project: Synthesis and analysis of background data. Report to the Sydenham River Recovery Team. December 2001. 50p. + Appendix.

Janssen, J., and D.J., Jude. 2001. Recruitment failure of mottled sculpin Cottus bairdi in Calumet Harbour, southern Lake Michigan, induced by the newly introduced round goby Neogobius melanostomus. Journal of Great Lakes Research 27:319-328.

Johnson, P. M., A. E. Liner, S. W. Golladay, and W. K. Michener. 2001. Effects of drought on freshwater mussels and instream habitat in Coastal Plains tributaries of the Flint River, southwest Georgia (July-October, 2000). Final Report to the Nature Conservancy Apalachicola River and Bay Project, August 25, 2001. 30 pp. Available at:

Lydeard, C., R. H. Cowie, W. F. Ponder, A. E. Bogan, P. Bouchet, S. A. Clark, K. S. Cummings, Te. J. Frest, O. Gargominy, D. G. Herbert, R. Hershler, K. E. Perez, B. Roth, M. Seddon, E. E. Strong, and F. G. Thompson. 2004. The global decline of nonmarine mollusks. BioScience 54: 321-330.

McGoldrick, D.J., T.J. Morris, J.L. Metcalfe-Smith, V.S. Jackson. 2005. Developing critical habitat descriptions for Threatened and Endangered freshwater mussels – A case study using the Wavyrayed Lampmussel (Lampsilis fasciola). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2005/061.

McNichols, K., and G. Mackie. 2003. Fish host determination of endangered freshwater mussels in the Sydenham River Ontario, Canada. ESRF 2002-03 Final Report. 20 pp.

McNichols, K. and G. L. Mackie 2004. Fish host determination of endangered freshwater mussels in the Sydenham River Ontario. ESRF 2003/2004 Final Report.  Canada. 26 pp.

Metcalfe-Smith, J. L., G. L. Mackie, J. Di Maio, and S. Staton. 2000. Changes over time in the diversity and distribution of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Grand River, southwestern Ontario.  Journal of Great Lakes Research 26(4): 445-459.

Metcalfe-Smith, J. L., J. Di Maio, S. K. Staton, and S. R. De Solla. 2003. Status of the freshwater mussel communities of the Sydenham River, Ontario, Canada. American Midland Naturalist 150:37-50.

Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., D.J. McGoldrick, M. Williams, D.W. Schloesser, J. Biberhofer, G.L. Mackie, M.T. Arts, D.T. Zanatta, K. Johnson, P. Marangelo and T.D. Spencer. 2004. Status of a refuge for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) from the impacts of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the delta area of Lake St. Clair. Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario. Technical Note No. AEI-TN-04-001.

Mummert, A. K., R. J. Neves, T. J. Newcomb and D. S. Cherry. 2003. Sensitivity of juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis fasciola, Villosa iris) to total and un-ionized ammonia. Environmnetal Toxicology and Chemistry. 22: 2545-2553.

Nalepa, T. F. 1994. Decline of native unionid bivalves in Lake St. Clair after infestation by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 832-838.

Nalepa, T. F., and J. M. Gauvin. 1988. Distribution, abundance, and biomass of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in lake St. Clair. Journal of Great Lakes Research 14(4): 411-419.

Nalepa, T. F., D. J. Hartson, G. W. Gostenik, D. L. Fanslow, and G. A Lang. 1996. Changes in the freshwater mussel community of Lake St. Clair: from Unionidae to Dreissena polymorpha in eight years. Journal of Great Lakes Research 22: 354-369.

Nelson, M., M. Veliz, S. Staton, and E. Dolmage. 2003. Towards a recovery strategy for species at risk in the Ausable River: Synthesis of background information. Final Report prepared for the Ausable River Recovery Team. September 2003. 92 pp.

Neves, R.J. and M.C. Odom. 1989. Muskrat predation on endangered freshwater mussels in Virginia. Journal of Wildlife Management 53(4):934-941.

Newton, T. J. 2003. The effects of ammonia on freshwater unionid mussels. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22: 2543-2544.

Newton, T. J., and J. W. A., J. A. O’Donnell, M. R. Bartsch, and W. B. Richardson. 2003. Effects of ammonia on juvenile unionid mussels (Lampsilis cardium) in laboratory toxicity tests. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22: 2554-2560.  

Ortmann, A. E. 1919. A monograph of the naiads of Pennsylvania, Part III. Systematic account of the genera and species. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 8(1), Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 384 pp.

Parmalee, P.l W., and A. E. Bogan. 1998. The freshwater mussels of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 328 pp.

Portt, C., G. Coker, and K. Barrett. 2003. Recovery strategy for fish species at risk in the Grand River, Ontario. Draft report prepared for the Grand River Recovery Team, March 31, 2003.

Ricciardi, A., F. G. Whoriskey and J. B. Rasmussen. 1995. Predicting the intensity and impact of Dreissena infestation on native unionid bivalves from Dreissena field density. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and aquatic Sciences 52: 1449-1461.

Schloesser, D. W., and T. F. Nalepa. 1994. Dramatic decline of unionid bivalves in offshore waters of western Lake Erie after infestation by the zebra       mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51: 2234-2242.

Schloesser, D. W., T. F. Nalepa, and G. L. Mackie. 1996. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America. American Zoologist 36: 300-310.

Stanfield, L. and R. Kuyvenhoven. 2005. Protocol for applications used in the Aquatic Landscape Inventory Software application for delineating, characterizing and classifying valley segments within the Great Lakes basin. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Report, July 27, 2005.

Staton, S. K., A. Dextrase, J. L. Metcalfe-Smith, J. Di Maio, M. Nelson, Paris Geomorphic Ltd., B. Kilgour, and E. Holm. 2003. Status and trends of Ontario’s Sydenham River ecosystem in relation to aquatic species at risk. Ecological Monitoring and Assessment 88: 283-310.

Strayer, D. L. 1983. The effects of surface geology and stream size on freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) distribution in southwestern Michigan, USA. Freshwater Biology 13: 253-264.

Strayer, D. L., and A. R. Fetterman. 1999. Changes in the distribution of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, 1955-1965 to 1996-1997. American Midland Naturalist 142: 328-339.

Strayer, D. L., and K. J. Jirka. 1997. The pearly mussels of New York State.           Memoirs of the New York State Museum 26: 113 pages + 27 plates.

Thomas, M.V., and R.C. Haas. 2004. Status of Lake St. Clair fish community and sport fish,1996-2004. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Fisheries Division. Fisheries Research Report 2067. 26p.

Tetzloff, J. 2001. Survival rates of unionid species following a low oxygen event in Big Darby Creek, Ohio. Ellipsaria 3: 18-19.

Thames RiverRecovery Team. 2003. Thames River Recovery Plan – Terms of Reference. Upper Thames Region Conservation Authority web site -      Accessed May 21, 2003.

Van der Schalie. 1938. The naiad fauna of the Huron River, in southeastern Michigan. Miscellaneous Publication No. 40, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 83 pp + Plates I-XII.

Vaughn, C.C. and C.C. Hakenkamp. 2001. The functional role of burrowing bivalves in freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 46: 1431-1446.

Villella, R. F., D. R. Smith and D. P. Lemarie. 2004. Estimating survival and recruitment in a freshwater mussel population using mark-recapture techniques. American Midland Naturalist 151: 114-133.

Walpole IslandHeritage Centre. 2002. Walpole Island First Nation Heritage Centre Newsletter. Special Edition. Summer/Fall 2002. Published by the Walpole Island Heritage Centre, R.R. 3 (Walpole Island), Wallaceburg, Ontario, Canada, N8A 4K9. 16pp.

Watters, G. T. 1994. Form and function of unionoidean shell sculpture and shape (Bivalvia). American Malacological Bulletin 11: 1-20.

Welker, M. and N. Walz. 1998. Can mussels control the plankton in rivers? A Plantological approach applying Lagrangian sampling strategy. Limnology and Oceanogarphy 43: 753-762.

Williams, J. D., M. L. Cummins  Jr., K. S. Harris, and R. J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of the freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18: 6-22.

Woolnough, D.A. 2002. Life-history of Endangered freshwater mussels of the Sydenham River, southwestern Ontario. MSc. Thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 128 pp.

Zanatta, D. T., G. L. Mackie, J. L. Metcalfe-Smith, and D. A. Woolnough. 2002. A   refuge for native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from impacts of          the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Lake St. Clair. Journal   of Great Lakes Research 28(3): 479-489.