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Recovery Strategy for the Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) in Canada [Proposed] 2007

5.0                     Species Recovery

In addition to describing the species and threats to its survival or recovery, species recovery planning must consider:

  1. the feasibility of recovery;
  2. an appropriate long term goal for the species recovery;
  3. recovery objectives for the species;
  4. strategies to address identified threats and to guide appropriate research, and management activities needed to meet the identified recovery objectives;
  5. identification of critical habitat or studies to identify such;
  6. potential effects on non-target species;
  7. actions already completed or currently underway;
  8. evaluation and performance of the recovery strategy; and
  9. the development of action plans.

A recovery strategy for the carmine shiner described in these terms is provided below.

5.1  Recovery Feasibility

The following criteria and analyses were used to evaluate the biological and technical feasibility of recovery for the carmine shiner..

Reproductive Potential: Viable populations exist at a number of locations in Manitoba, most notably in the Whitemouth and Birch Rivers where the species has been documented for some time.    Despite its apparently limited distribution there is no evidence that the distribution and/or abundance of the carmine shiner is declining or has declined in recent years.

Habitat Availability: The occurrence of viable populations documented over a number of years from the Birch and Whitemouth Rivers suggests that there is adequate habitat to support all life stages for the species at least in these locations.  Elsewhere, the historical development of hydroelectric projects on the Winnipeg River system may have decreased spawning habitat for the carmine shiner by altering depth and flow; and degraded other habitats by increasing turbidity. But, there are no definitive data to support this inference. Indeed, recent studies have found carmine shiners to be more widely distributed and perhaps more abundant than was previously known.  While there is little or no information on the persistence of habitat from some of the more recently documented sites (i.e. Bird River and Peterson Creek), these sites do provide suitable habitat under at least some conditions. The existence of alternative habitats may help protect the species from catastrophic events.  Overall, habitat is currently not believed to be a limiting factor for Manitoba populations of carmine shiner.

Threat Mitigation: Specific threats to the carmine shiner (Section 3, Tables 6-8 Appendix 1) have been identified as moderately to highly mitigable, with the exception of species introductions, climate change, and hybridization where the potential for mitigation may be low.  At present, the latter are not believed to be influencing the species’ survival and the future impacts of climate change and hybridization remain speculative. While future species introductions may have the potential to disrupt populations of carmine shiner in Manitoba, these impacts may be avoided by applying appropriate regulatory controls and management actions to the affected water bodies.  The potential impact from most of the habitat related threats may also be reduced, or eliminated, if appropriate regulatory reviews and management actions are exercised, and best management practices are applied to existing or proposed projects.  Overall, the identified threats are not likely to impede the survival or recovery of the species. There are viable populations at a number of locations in Manitoba, and conservation and threat mitigation efforts targeted at these populations should be able to secure and maintain their continued viability.  However, any improvement in our knowledge base for the species would improve understanding of the potential impacts of threats to it and of the efficacy of mitigation measures.

Technical Capabilities: The techniques likely to be contemplated for the conservation of carmine shiner populations are well founded in current science and management practices.  Given the relative abundance of the species within its limited distribution, the focus of recovery efforts should be on the mitigation of habitat impacts and the exclusion of unwanted species.  The technical knowledge on how to deal with potential habitat impacts is well documented and applied globally. The avoidance of species introductions is best afforded through public education and management programs, both of which are entirely within the competency of the responsible jurisdictions. No impediments to the recovery of the carmine shiner have been identified by any of the responsible agencies.

Given the above, recovery of the carmine shiner is deemed to be biologically and technically feasible.

5.2  Recovery Goal

There is no evidence to date that populations of the carmine shiner in Manitoba have suffered any serious decline in abundance or distribution from historical times. However, the species’ abundance and distribution do appear to be very limited, which may make it sensitive to future anthropogenic disturbances. Consequently, the emphasis of the recovery goal should be to ensure the continued existence of healthy, self-sustaining populations within their current distribution. This goal would be achieved through mitigating existing or potential threats to the species and through increasing our knowledge of the species biology, ecology and life history to improve our ability to manage and protect the species and its habitat. As species recovery is not likely required, this strategy will focus on the maintenance or conservation of existing populations and their habitats. The conservation of this species is important as it contributes to Canada’s commitment to preserve its biodiversity. As such, the recovery goal for the carmine shiner shall be: 

“To maintain self-sustaining populations of the carmine shiner by reducing or eliminating potential threats to the species and its habitats” 

5.3  Recovery Objectives

To achieve the above goal, a number of recovery objectives are also proposed.  These include both population and distribution objectives, and threat mitigation objectives.

5.3.1                   Population and Distribution Objectives:

The population and distribution objectives for the carmine shiner must recognize the Manitoba population’s uncertain and largely undocumented status, its potentially unique relationship with other populations to the south, and difficulties with species identification. To achieve the recovery goal the recovery strategy must:

  1. maintain carmine shiner populations at their current abundance and within their present distribution;
  2. confirm the specific identity of carmine shiners in Canada; and
  3. increase knowledge of the carmine shiner’s biology, life history, habitat requirements distribution, and abundance in Canada.

5.3.2                   Threat Mitigation Objectives:

Species recovery requires the elimination or mitigation of threats that have contributed or may contribute to the species’ decline or limit its future recovery or conservation efforts. In this case, where a decline in the Manitoba population has not been demonstrated, the objective will be to reduce threats that might cause the species to decline, and to take proactive measures to avoid potential threats. To achieve threat reduction or mitigation objectives for the carmine shiner the recovery strategy must:

4. identify potential threats to the carmine shiner from human activities and ecological processes and develop plans to avoid, eliminate, or mitigate these threats. 

5.4  Recovery Approaches and Strategies

Strategies proposed to address the identified threats, and to guide appropriate research and management activities to meet the recovery goal and objectives, are discussed under the broader approaches of: 

  1. Research and monitoring,
  2. Management and regulatory actions, and
  3. Education and outreach.

Each strategy has been designed to assess, mitigate or eliminate specific threats to the species; to address information deficiencies that might otherwise inhibit species recovery; or to contribute to the species recovery in general.  These strategies are summarized by approach in Tables 2 to 4, which list them in order of priority and relate them to specific recovery objectives.

5.4.1                   Research and Monitoring

Sound scientific knowledge must form the basis of any recovery efforts for the carmine shiner. Before the Manitoba population can be properly assessed its current specific identification must be confirmed.  To address the need for scientific research and monitoring, the following strategies are recommended (Table 2):

R1               Confirm species’ identity: The results of genetic (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) and morphometric analyses of specimens from Manitoba, Ontario, Minnesota, and Wisconsin should be compared with the enzymatic studies by Wood et al. (2002), to clarify the relationship of the Manitoba populations to other N. percobromus populations to the south. This will contribute to understanding of biodiversity within and among populations of the species and lay the foundation for other research and monitoring activities that follow.

R2               Facilitate species identification: Field identification keys need to be developed based on current genetic and morphological studies (R1). Appropriate protocols and scientific authorities must also be established to confirm the identity of carmine shiner samples received from monitoring or survey programs and other sources. This work is required for reliable species identification.

Table 2. Prioritization of Research and Monitoring (R) strategies.
Priority*Objective NumberStrategySpecific StepsAnticipated Effect
Urgent2R1. Confirm species identityGenetic (DNA) and morphological studies of fish from Manitoba, Ontario, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.Lay the foundation for all other work.
Urgent2R2. Facilitate species identificationDevelop identification keys and/or assist with specimen identificationEasier and more reliable identification of the carmine shiner.
Urgent3, 4R3. Clarify life history requirementsDetermine specific habitat needs for all life stages.Enable identification of important or critical habitat. Better knowledge of life history parameters will help determine population targets.
Necessary3R4. Clarify species’ distributionSynoptic samplings to better define the species’ distribution.Improve knowledge of the species habitat requirements and possibly lead to de-listing.
Necessary4R5. Identify limiting factorsResearch the impacts of changes in water quality, temperature, and water velocity on carmine shiners.Enable the assessment and mitigation of threats to the species or its habitat from anthropogenic activities.
Necessary1,3R6. Monitor population trendsDevelop indices of abundance and use them to follow population trends, with concurrent monitoring of key habitat quality parameters at sample sites.Provide trend through time data. Improve knowledge of natural variability and population viability.  Improve ability to identify anthropogenic impacts.
Necessary3R7. Inventory habitatDetermine extent of suitable and critical habitat.Enable targeting of habitat protection and restoration efforts.
Beneficial4R8. Reduce harvestsResearch to determine the vulnerability of carmine shiners to various bait fishing gears.Reduce or eliminate incidental catches by bait fisheries.

*Priority:  Urgent, Necessary, Beneficial.

R3               Clarify life history requirements; Concurrent with scientific studies of the species’ life history and habitat requirements, data should be recorded on water temperature, turbidity, chemistry, flow, and bottom substrate to obtain a better sense of the species’ habitat use in Manitoba, and to subsequently identify critical habitat. Observations at the Whitemouth River could be used to clarify spawning requirements, particularly related to water temperature and bottom substrate, and trophic interactions. Knowledge of these requirements might then be used to direct the search for the species in other systems. In addition to field research, preserved N. percobromus specimens from Manitoba should be examined for information on their age at maturity, longevity, and fecundity to learn whether they have similar reproductive potential to the more southerly populations, and whether it is reasonable to apply knowledge from the latter to management of the former.

R4               Clarify species’ distribution: The seasonal geographical and bathymetric distribution and abundance of carmine shiner populations should be determined. The species’ known distribution has been expanded significantly by sampling conducted since 2001, and may increase further with more directed sampling efforts. Further discoveries could eventually contribute to species down-listing.

R5               Identify limiting factors: Research on factors that limit the survival of carmine shiners could examine the impacts of changes in physical parameters such as water quality, temperature and flow conditions, as well as ecosystem changes brought about by species introductions. The objective would be to improve understanding of threats from anthropogenic activities related to land use practices, water regulation, and species introductions.

R6               Monitor population trends: Population monitoring will be required to ensure that conservation or recovery objectives are being achieved. This requires development of indices of abundances that could be tracked over time to follow population trends. Key habitat quality parameters would be monitored in conjunction with these studies to provide trend through time data needed to understand natural variability and identify anthropogenic impacts. This work might also enable the development of population models and variability estimates that may be required to identify critical habitat and allowable catch estimates.

R7               Inventory habitat: Scientific studies are needed to describe, locate, and inventory the various habitat types required by the carmine shiner. This work would focus initially on areas of known use, but might also include proactive sampling of other apparently suitable habitats such as the upper reaches of the Pinawa Channel. This work would enable better targeting of efforts to protect and restore key habitats and ultimately to help identify critical habitat.

R8               Reduce harvests: Scientific studies should examine how existing bait fisheries might be modified to eliminate or reduce the incidental catch of carmine shiner, through changes in gear selection, location and depth of deployment, and timing considerations.

5.4.2                   Management and Regulatory Actions

Management and regulatory actions are required to respond to a variety of threats including habitat loss or degradation, species introductions, and harvesting. To address these requirements the following strategies are recommended (Table 3):

M1              Data conservation: To provide continuity and future reference all samples and information (current and future) must be appropriately preserved and/or archived within known repositories. This includes any information on the species’ life history and habitat such that any changes can be tracked over time, and the information can be re-visited in the event of changes to the taxonomic status of the carmine shiner in Manitoba. The development of a central data repository should be explored to improve access to information and the security of the data.

M2              Revise management plans: Where required, management plans and fisheries regulations should be revised to reflect the current status of the carmine shiner. The species should be excluded from allowable baitfish in the fishing regulations and brought to the attention of the affected resource users. In areas where it is known to occur, incidental harvests of the species must be minimized, either by prohibiting the deployment of fishing gear or controlling harvests in other ways so as not to impact the carmine shiner. Recovery efforts should be coordinated with other agencies responsible for, or involved with, the management of carmine shiner, including, but not restricted to, the province of Manitoba. Landuse plans associated with forestry, agriculture, highways, and other development activities should be revised to give proper consideration to the carmine shiner.

Table 3. Prioritization of Management and Regulatory (M) strategies
Priority*Objective NumberStrategiesSpecific StepsAnticipated Effect
Necessary2, 3M1. Data conservationPreserve and archive specimens, samples, and scientific data on the species and its habitat.Ensure samples can be re-visited if the taxonomy is revised.
Necessary1, 4M2. Revise management plansProhibit the harvest of baitfish from key carmine shiner habitats.  Consider carmine shiner in land use planning.Prevent harvesting of carmine shiner.  Pro-active protection of carmine shiner habitats.
Necessary1, 4M3. Protect key habitatsCoordinate recovery work with agencies involved in regulating activities that may affect carmine shiner recovery, including municipalities and provincial and federal government departments.Prevent habitat degradation and/or destruction.
Necessary2, 3, 4M4. Monitor bait harvestsDetermine the rate of incidental harvest of carmine shiners by anglers and bait harvesters.Reduce incidental capture of carmine shiners.
Beneficial4M5. Support best management practicesSupport and where possible provide technical advice on practices that benefit carmine shiners and the quality of their habitat (e.g., erosion and sediment control, proper disposal of contaminants).Prevent habitat degradation and/or destruction. Reduce existing threats to carmine shiners.
Beneficial4M6. SARA permittingLimit the number of carmine shiner that can be captured.Prevent unnecessary removal and release mortality of carmine shiner.
Beneficial4M7. Rationalize stocking programsThe impacts of game fish stocking in systems that support carmine shiners should be assessed.  New stocking programs should be avoided until their potential impacts on carmine shiners can be reviewed and/or studied.Reduce unnecessary mortality of carmine shiners.

*Priority:  Urgent, Necessary, Beneficial.

M3              Protect key habitats: Known or suspected key habitat areas including spawning, feeding and wintering areas must be protected to ensure the continued viability of existing populations. Protection might be afforded through amendment of provincial regulations such as the Ecological Reserves Act--as in the case of the Whitemouth River Ecological Reserve that currently protects a small area of river-bottom forest on the Whitemouth River. Increased surveillance and enforcement of the fish habitat protection provisions of the federal Fisheries Act and the Species at Risk Act should be initiated and continued on an ongoing basis.

M4              Monitor bait harvests: Periodic monitoring of baitfish catches should be undertaken to ensure that carmine shiners are not being harvested. These studies might also contribute useful data on fish community composition, species distribution, life history, and habitat use. This opportunity could also be used to improve awareness of the species among bait-fish harvesters (see also E1).

M5              Support best management practices: Where possible, technical advice and incentives might be provided to support practices that benefit carmine shiners and the quality of their habitat (e.g., erosion and sediment control, proper disposal of contaminants). This could include support for, or incentives to, the farming sector for improved livestock watering practices and management of riparian areas.

M6              SARA permitting: The issuance of permits for scientific collection or incidental harm under Section 73 of SARA shall be considered on a case-by-case basis, provided that the overall recovery objectives for the species are not compromised. Permit applications directed at carmine shiners must be supported by credible evidence that the activity will benefit or at least not harm species’ recovery.

M7              Rationalize stocking programs: Any proposed stocking of waters that support carmine shiner should be rationalized in terms of the potential impact of the introduced species on the carmine shiner. Long-standing stocking programs should be re-examined to ensure that recovery objectives for the carmine shiner are not being compromised. New stocking programs should be avoided until their potential impacts are better understood.

5.4.3                   Public Education and Outreach

Public education and outreach is a necessary strategy to ensure acceptance and compliance with the overall recovery strategy. To address these needs the following strategies are recommended (Table 4):

E1               Improve awareness of the species: Information and educational materials on the carmine shiner, its habitat and the implications of its listing under SARA should be developed and distributed to stakeholders, local communities, and agencies responsible for licensing or authorizing activities that may impact the species. To reduce the likelihood of directed or incidental harm, public awareness of the species, of threats to its survival, and of best management practices for avoiding harm to it should be promoted through the distribution of materials such as fact sheets and identification keys.  Such information should accompany any permits or licences for bait fishing in areas where carmine shiner are likely to be encountered in Manitoba and should be considered in the development of any future baitfish guidelines.

E2               Encourage stakeholder participation: Stakeholder involvement in recovery efforts including research and monitoring activities should be actively encouraged.   Improved awareness and involvement in recovery activities should help foster a stewardship attitude amongst stakeholders and generate support for species recovery initiatives. Habitat stewardship efforts should be explored, particularly those that target the management of riparian habitats. The University of Manitoba’s Zoology Department, which has a long history of scientific sampling in the Whitemouth River, is a good example of how stakeholder participation could contribute to the species recovery program. Where feasible and practical, such programs should be supported and integrated into the overall recovery program.

Table 4. Prioritization of Public Education and Outreach (E) strategies.
Priority*Objective NumberStrategySpecific StepsAnticipated Effect
Necessary1, 3, 4E1. Improve public awareness of the speciesDevelop and deliver educational materials on carmine shiner to stakeholders and communities, and to agencies involved in development and licensing. Include information on species identification and on the legal implications under the Species at Risk Act of harvesting carmine shiners or destroying their habitat. Improve awareness of the carmine shiner and its habitat.  Encourage understanding and communication with respect to the species.. Reduce inadvertent harvesting and habitat destruction.
Necessary3, 4E2. Encourage stakeholder participationInvite stakeholder involvement in research and monitoring studies and other species recovery initiatives.Improve awareness of this species and its habitat and local support for species recovery initiatives.
Necessary2, 3, 4E3. Facilitate information exchangeShare research and monitoring data through access to a central repository.Improve accessibility and security of data.
Beneficial1, 4E4. Discourage species introductionsIncrease public and government awareness of impacts of introduced species.Reduce potential for damage to carmine shiner populations by introduced predators and competitors.

*Priority:  Urgent, Necessary, Beneficial.

E3               Facilitate information exchange: The exchange of information among researchers, stakeholders and fisheries agencies from Canada and the United States, with regard to research, recovery and management activities related to the carmine shiner should be facilitated. A significant portion of the distribution of the carmine shiner is located in the United States. This presents an opportunity for collaboration and cooperation on many research, recovery and management initiatives. Any additional information gathered on the species through these initiatives will increase our capacity to effectively manage its conservation or recovery.

E4               Discourage species introductions: The introduction of a species into an ecosystem can severely disrupt the native species dynamics. This can lead to the extirpation of species that cannot compete effectively for limited resources. The effects of species introductions are often irreversible, so prevention is often the only available option. To prevent species introductions, intentional or otherwise, education programs that heighten awareness on this issue should be supported. 

5.5  Critical Habitat

Critical habitat, as defined by SARA, is the habitat that is necessary for the survival or recovery of a listed wildlife species. Its identification requires a fundamental understanding of the relationship between the species and its physical environment (habitat) and of how changes in those habitat conditions may affect the species’ survival.  To date, few studies have examined the biology, life history or habitat requirements of the carmine shiner.  As such, little is known of when or where spawning occurs; the location of nursery, rearing, feeding or food supply areas; and the timing or extent of migrations, should they occur. Adults do frequent shallow riffles with clear water and clean gravel or stone bottom in the Whitemouth River, but it is not known whether, or which of, these habitats are critical to the species. They have also been collected in a wider range of habitats elsewhere in the Winnipeg River system. Future efforts to identify critical habitat need to address these information deficiencies for all life stages and seasons.

Critical habitat for the carmine shiner cannot be identified from our present knowledge of the species..  Nonetheless, it must eventually be described and protected to ensure the conservation of the species.  To meet this requirement a schedule of studies to identify critical habitat is presented in Table 5. Many of the prerequisite studies have already been highlighted in the preceding section. These include addressing the uncertainties of the taxonomy of the species, describing the life history characteristics of the species and the biophysical attributes of its habitat, as well as describing, locating and inventorying existing habitat types.

The prescribed schedule of studies is, of necessity, a long-term planning document.  It is constructed on a hierarchal basis with the actual collection of information on species habitat dependent upon prerequisite studies that include the resolution of taxonomic uncertainties and the collection of life history information. However, in reality such habitat information can, and should, be collected coincidentally along with any other information collected from population surveys or monitoring programs, some of which are ongoing. Details of the prescribed studies shall be included within a series of recovery action plans, the first of which would specifically address the first four items covering an approximate 3-year timeframe. Refinements or adjustments to the schedule of studies shall be made on an ongoing basis and with each successive action plan issued. 

Required StudiesTime FrameComments
1. Resolution of taxonomic uncertainties with regard to the species and other closely related shiners 

2007 - 2010

These studies have been initiated and are ongoing

Initial effort should be directed at the Whitemouth River population where fish are reliably available, and proceed to examining other populations for comparative purposes. Cooperate with colleagues in Ontario, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The results of these studies will determine the type and extent of biological and habitat research required.
2. Description of the species’ life history characteristicsNecessary to characterize the relationship between essential life history stages, key activities and habitat features.
3. Description of biophysical attributes of required habitatStudies necessary to describe various habitat types and relationship to the physical and biological environment.
4. Identification, location and inventory of species habitatMay be initiated immediately in connection with survey and monitoring studies.
5. Rationalization of Potential Critical Habitat2010 - 2012Final step in process to determine what part of habitat should be deemed to be “critical”. This work is contingent on the results of the earlier studies and could include population viability analysis modeling. Catch per unit effort should be examined as a surrogate abundance estimate.

5.6  Effects on Non-Target Species

The proposed recovery strategy may have positive impacts on other species and their habitats, including hornyhead chub, chestnut lamprey (Ichthyomyzon castaneus), and northern brook lamprey (I. fossor) in the Whitemouth River, and the silver lamprey (I. unicuspis) and bluntnose minnow (Pimephales notatus) elsewhere in the Winnipeg River system, all of which are uncommon in Manitoba (Stewart and Watkinson 2004). The northern brook lamprey and chestnut lamprey have been designated species of “Special Concern” by COSEWIC, and their status is under review (http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct2/sct2_4_e.cfm). The strategy may also impact on bait fisheries where shiner species are included in the allowable catch. If carmine shiners were to become more abundant, or perhaps, increase their distribution as a result of protective measures, it would at least add to the diversity and stability of the affected aquatic communities (K.W. Stewart, pers. comm. 2004). A more diverse and abundant forage fish population might also increase the productivity of some economically important species.

The proposed recovery strategy also recommends that the potential effects of existing and proposed stocking programs on the carmine shiner be examined.  Most stocking programs include non-indigenous species (See 3.2.2), so the environmental effect of their removal would likely be positive or neutral. Impacts on targeted stock species would be considered within the rationalization process.  

5.7  Actions Completed or Underway

DNA and morphometric studies to confirm the identification of carmine shiners in Manitoba were initiated by DFO in 2002 (W. Franzin, DFO Winnipeg, pers. comm. 2005).   These ongoing studies have been conducted in conjunction with field surveys to delineate the distribution and abundance of the carmine shiner in southeastern Manitoba and neighbouring areas of Ontario, and with morphometric studies to develop field keys. Studies directed at identifying carmine shiner habitat in the Whitemouth River are ongoing.  All of these studies address aspects of Research and Monitoring strategies R1 through R4, and are laying the groundwork for further habitat evaluations. 

Ongoing studies by Dr. Chris Wilson of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (pers. com. 2005) have confirmed that the carmine and rosyface shiners are separate taxa, as is emerald shiner, based on both mitochondrial (ATPase 6 and 8 genes) and nuclear (rRNA ITS-1) DNA sequences.  Research is continuing to identify sequence differences between species that can be easily detected with restriction enzymes to enable quick (and inexpensive) screening for species identification.   

Dr. K.W. Stewart of the University of Manitoba has collected a set of comprehensive morphometric data from representative specimens from Wisconsin, Minnesota, Ontario and Manitoba; and from Lake Winnipeg emerald shiners as a closely-related, but easily distinguishable, outgroup. The data will be analyzed using various multivariate techniques to determine which characters, or combinations of characters, are useful for separating the different species in the collections. Blind samples of the same individually identified fish have been submitted for genetic analyses to provide two unbiased data sets for the final comparison of the genetic and morphometric data.  Preliminary results suggest that it may be possible to reliably distinguish carmine and rosyface shiners using morphological characters, and that it may not be possible to reliably distinguish carmine shiners from emerald shiners without killing and preserving specimens for laboratory examination.

To improve awareness of the species, a fact sheet entitled “The Carmine Shiner…. A Species at Risk in the Prairie Provinces” has been prepared and is available from DFO.  This publication is intended for general distribution. It describes the species’ distribution, life history and habitat requirements, and identifies potential threats to its survival. 

5.8  Evaluation and Performance

The Carmine Shiner Recovery Team will monitor implementation of the recovery strategy and its associated action plans on an ongoing basis. The Team will be responsible for reviewing and evaluating the implementation of any action plans, and the performance of the recovery strategy in achieving its stated goal and objectives. The team will meet annually over a period of five years to evaluate the success of the strategy and to recommend any changes in direction. During the fifth year, the overall recovery strategy will be re-visited to determine whether:

  • the goals and objectives are still being met;
  • the goals and objectives need to be amended; or
  • a fundamental change in approach to addressing the goals and objectives may be warranted.

Appropriate action, including amending or rewriting the strategy, will be considered at that time. Evaluations shall be based on the comparison of specific performance measures to the stated recovery objectives. Whenever possible, scientific studies will also be peer reviewed. 

5.9  Action Plan Development

Implementation of the Carmine Shiner Recovery Strategy shall be effected by subsequent development of an Action Plan, which shall be completed by 2009. The current recovery team will develop the Action Plan to ensure continuity and efficiency. The Action Plan will be reviewed on a five-year basis or as needed to respond to new information.