Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.

Skip booklet index and go to page content

Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus circumcinctus)

REFERENCES CITED

Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Team. 2002. Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Plan, 2002–2004. Alberta Species at Risk Recovery Plan No. 2. Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Edmonton, Alberta. 21 pp.

Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Team. 2005. Draft Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Plan, 2005–2010. Alberta Species at Risk Recovery Plan. Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Edmonton, Alberta.

AOU. 1957. Checklist of North American birds. 5th edition. American Ornithologists’ Union, Baltimore, Maryland. 691 pp.

Asmundson, J.D. 1996. 1996 International Piping Plover Breeding Census, Manitoba assessment of census. Unpublished report. Manitoba Department of Natural Resources. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 12 pp.

Asmundson, J.D. and R.E. Jones. 2004. The 1996 Piping Plover census in Manitoba. Pages 71–80 in J.P. Goossen and D.L. Amirault (eds.). The 1996 International Piping Plover Census in Canada. Technical Report Series No. 416. Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton, Alberta, and Sackville, New Brunswick. 164 pp.

Atlantic and Prairie Piping Plover Recovery Teams. 1989. Canadian Piping Plover Recovery Plan. Unpublished draft for Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife committee, Ottawa, Ontario.16 pp.

Beckerman, S.J. 1988. Time-budget of Piping Plovers in central North Dakota. Unpublished Honors thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

Bell, F.H. 1978. The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus Ord) in Canada: a status report. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 35 pp.

Boyne, A.W. 2001. Updated COSEWIC status report -- Piping Plover Charadrius melodus. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Sackville, New Brunswick. 46 pp.

Cairns, W.E. 1982. Biology and behavior of breeding Piping Plovers. Wilson Bulletin 94: 531–545.

Canadian Wildlife Service, Nature Saskatchewan, Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, Saskatchewan Agriculture, Food and Rural Revitalization, Saskatchewan Environment, SaskPower, and Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. In prep. South Saskatchewan River Piping Plover Conservation Plan. 46 pp. plus appendices.

Casler, B.R. and R.K. Murphy. 2001. Badger removes egg from island in prairie alkali lake. Prairie Naturalist 33: 109–110.

Cuthbert, F.J. and L.C. Wemmer.1999. Recovery of the Great Lakes Piping Plover population: a progress report. Pages 8–17 in K.F. Higgins, M.R. Brashier, and C.D. Kruse (eds.). Proceedings, Piping Plovers and Least Terns of the Great Plains and Nearby. South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota.

Cuthbert, F.J., B. Scholtens, L.C. Wemmer, and R. McLain.1999. Gizzard contents of Piping Plover chicks in northern Michigan. Wilson Bulletin 111: 121–123.

Drake, K.R., J.E. Thompson, and K.L. Drake. 2001. Movements, habitat use, and survival of nonbreeding Piping Plovers. Condor 103: 259–267.

Dufour, A. 2003. Manitoba Piping Plover guardian program 2003 final report. Unpublished report. Canadian Wildlife Service, Prairie and Northern Region. 12 pp. plus appendices.

Dundas, H.A. 1995. Breeding habitat selection by Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) in southern Saskatchewan. M.Sc. thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. 90 pp. plus appendices.

Dunlop, L. 2001. The 2001 International Piping Plover Breeding Census -- Saskatchewan. Unpublished report prepared by Nature Saskatchewan for Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 27 pp. plus appendices.

Engley, L., D. Prescott, and R. Schmelzeisen. 2004. Alberta Piping Plover predator exclosure and population monitoring program. Unpublished report. Alberta Conservation Association. 14 pp. plus appendices.

Environment Canada. In prep. Recovery strategy for the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus) in Canada [Proposed]. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment Canada, Ottawa.

Environment Canada 2005.  Policy on feasibility of recovery (Draft).  Species at Risk Act Policy.  Environment Canada, April 2005.

Espie, R.H.M. 1994. Factors influencing habitat selection by Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus): a hierarchical and multivariate approach. M.Sc. thesis, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan. 52 pp. plus appendix.

Espie, R.H.M., R.M. Brigham, and P.C. James. 1992. Breeding ecology of the Piping Plover at Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan. Unpublished report prepared for Canadian Wildlife Service. 31 pp.

Ferland, C.L. and S.M. Haig. 2002. 2001 International Piping Plover Census. Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Corvallis, Oregon. 293 pp.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2006. Manitoba operational statement: habitat management program. Beach creation. Version 2.0. Valid until March 31, 2007. Available at: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/regions/central/habitat/os-eo/prov-terr/mb/os-eo02_e.htm(accessed April 2006).

Flemming, S.P., R.D. Chiasson, P.C. Smith, P.J. Austin‑Smith, and R.P. Bancroft. 1988. Piping Plover status in Nova Scotia related to its reproductive and behavioral responses to human disturbance. Journal of Field Ornithology 59: 321–330.

Goossen, J.P., D.L. Amirault, J. Arndt, R. Bjorge, S. Boates, J. Brazil, S. Brechtel, R. Chiasson, G.N. Corbett, R. Curley, M. Elderkin, S.P. Flemming, W. Harris, L. Heyens, D. Hjertaas, M. Huot, B. Johnson, R. Jones, W. Koonz, P. Laporte, D. McAskill, R.I.G. Morrison, S. Richard, F. Shaffer, C. Stewart, L. Swanson, and E. Wiltse. 2002. National Recovery Plan for the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus). National Recovery Plan No. 22. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife, Ottawa, Ontario. 47 pp.

Gordon, K. and C.D. Kruse. 1999. Nest relocation: a management alternative for threatened nest sites. Pages 108–111 in K.F. Higgins, M.R. Brashier, and C.D. Kruse (eds.). Proceedings, Piping Plovers and Least Terns of the Great Plains and Nearby. South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. 132 pp.

Haig, S. 1985. The status of the Piping Plover in Canada. Prepared for the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 22 pp.

Haig, S.M. 1992. Piping Plover. In A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill (eds.). The Birds of North America, No. 2. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.

Haig, S.M. and E. Elliott-Smith. 2004. Piping Plover. In A. Poole (ed.). The Birds of North America Online. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Retrieved from The Birds of North American Online database: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/BNA/account/Piping_Plover/.

Haig, S.M. and L.W. Oring. 1987. Population studies of Piping Plovers at Lake of the Woods, Minnesota, 1982–87. Loon 59: 113–117.

Haig, S.M. and L.W. Oring. 1988a. Distribution and dispersal in the Piping Plover. Auk 105: 630–638.

Haig, S.M. and L.W. Oring. 1988b. Mate, site, and territory fidelity in Piping Plovers. Auk 105: 268–277.

Haig, S.M. and J.H. Plissner. 1992. 1991 International Piping Plover Census. Report to Division of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 3, Fort Snelling, Minnesota. 186 pp. plus appendices.

Haig, S.M. and J.H. Plissner. 1993. Distribution and abundance of Piping Plovers: results and implications of the 1991 International Census. Condor 95: 145–156.

Haig, S.M., C.L. Ferland, F.J. Cuthbert, J. Dingledine, J.P. Goossen, A. Hecht, and N. McPhillips. 2005. A complete species census and evidence for regional declines in Piping Plovers. Journal of Wildlife Management 69: 160–173.

Harris, W.C. 1994. Piping Plover population evaluation at Big Quill Lake habitat enhancement study area -- 1994. Unpublished report prepared for the Saskatchewan Wetland Conservation Corporation. 25 pp.

Harris, W.C., D.C. Duncan, R.J. Franken, D.T. McKinnon, and H.A. Dundas. 2005. Reproductive success of Piping Plovers at Big Quill Lake, Saskatchewan. Wilson Bulletin 117: 165–171.

Hesse, L.W. and G.E. Mestl. 1993. An alternative hydrograph for the Missouri River based on the precontrol condition. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13: 360–366.

Heyens, L.E. 2005a. The 2001 Piping Plover census in Ontario. Pages 61–68 in D.L. Amirault (ed.). The 2001 International Piping Plover Census in Canada. Technical Report Series No. 436. Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. 126 pp.

Heyens, L.E. 2005b. 2005 Ontario report. Prairie Piping Plover Recovery Team. Charadrius melodus circumcinctus. Unpublished Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources report. Kenora, Ontario. 5 pp.

Ivan, J.S. and R.K. Murphy. 2005. What preys on Piping Plover eggs and chicks? Wildlife Society Bulletin 33: 113–119.

Jacobson, K. 2003. Lake Diefenbaker Piping Plover guardian program 2003 report. Unpublished report prepared for Nature Saskatchewan, Regina, Saskatchewan. 14 pp. plus appendices.

Jacobson, K. 2005. Lake Diefenbaker Piping Plover guardian program 2005 report. Unpublished report prepared for Nature Saskatchewan, Regina, Saskatchewan. 18 pp. plus appendices.

Jones, R. 1995. Piping Plover census -- Manitoba. Unpublished Manitoba Department of Natural Resources report.  Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Jones, R. 1997. The 1996 international Piping Plover census in Manitoba. Pages 177-179 in J.H. Plissner and S.M. Haig. 1996 international Piping Plover census. United States Geological Survey – Biological Resources Division, Corvallis, Oregon. 231 pp.

Knetter, J.M., R.K. Murphy, and R.S. Lutz.2001. Initial movements of juvenile Piping Plovers, Charadrius melodus, from natal sites on northwestern North Dakota. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115: 352–353.

Kruse, C.D. and G. Pavelka. 1999. Captive rearing of Least Tern and Piping Plover eggs salvaged from the Missouri River. Page 130 in K.F. Higgins, M.R. Brashier, and C.D. Kruse (eds.). Proceedings, Piping Plovers and Least Terns of the Great Plainsand Nearby. South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. 132 pp.

Kruse, C., B. Vanderlee, and K.F. Higgins. 1993. Success and failures of Piping Plover and interior Least Tern nests while using cages, chick shelters, and strobe lights. Page 188 in K.F. Higgins and M.R. Brashier (eds.). Proceedings, The Missouri River and its Tributaries: Piping Plover and Least Tern Symposium. South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. 205 pp.

Kruse, C.D., K.F. Higgins, and B.A. Vander Lee. 2001. Influence of predation on Piping Plover, Charadrius melodus, and Least Tern, Sterna antillarum, productivity along the Missouri River in South Dakota. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115: 480–486.

Lambert, A.B. 1987. Piping Plover Pluvier siffleur Charadrius melodus. Pages 162–163 in M.D. Cadman, P.F.J. Eagles, and F.M. Helleiner (compilers). Atlas of the breeding birds of Ontario. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario. 617 pp.

Larivière, S. 1999. Reasons why predators cannot be inferred from nest remains. Condor 101: 718–721.

Larson, M.A., M.R. Ryan, and B.G. Root. 2000. Piping Plover survival in the Great Plains: an updated analysis. Journal of Field Ornithology 71: 721–729.

Larson, M.A., M.R. Ryan, and R.K. Murphy. 2002. Population viability of Piping Plovers: effects of predator exclusion. Journal of Wildlife Management 66: 361–371.

Licht, D.S. and K.M. Johnson. 1992. Black-billed Magpie predation on Piping Plover eggs. Prairie Naturalist 24: 285.

Maconachie, T. 2003. Manitoba Piping Plover guardian program 2002 annual report. Unpublished report prepared for the Canadian Wildlife Service. 24 pp. plus appendices.

Martens, D.C. and D.W. Johns. 2004. Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) surveys in south and central Saskatchewan, 2003. Unpublished report. Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton., Alberta. 14 pp. plus appendices.

Maxson, S.J. and K.V. Haws. 1995. 1995 status and breeding summary of Piping Plovers and Common Terns at Lake of the Woods, Minnesota. Unpublished report. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 11 pp. plus figure and tables.

Maxson, S.J., S.A. Mortensen, D.L. Goodermote, and C.S. Lapp. 1996. Success and failure of Ring-billed Gull deterrents at Common Tern and Piping Plover colonies in Minnesota. Colonial Waterbirds 19: 242–247.

Mayer, P.M. and M.R. Ryan. 1991a. Survival rates of artificial Piping Plover nests in American Avocet colonies. Condor 93: 753–755.

Mayer, P.M. and M.R. Ryan. 1991b. Electric fences reduce mammalian predation on Piping Plover nests and chicks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 19: 59–63.

Mehl, K.R. 2003. Non-breeding Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) surveys along the Texas Gulf coast. Unpublished report. Canadian Wildlife Service.  Edmonton, Alberta. 19 pp.

Michaud, I. and D. Prescott. 1999. Use of predator exclosures to protect Piping Plover nests in Alberta and Saskatchewan -- 1999 field season report. Unpublished report. Alberta Conservation Association. 20 pp.

Miller, A. 2003. Manitoba’s 2003 Piping Plover survey and productivity summary. Unpublished Manitoba Conservation report. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 11 pp.

Murphy, R.K., B.G. Root, P.M. Mayer, J.P. Goossen, and K.A. Smith. 1999. A draft protocol for assessing Piping Plover reproductive success on Great Plains alkali lakes. Pages 90–107 in K.F. Higgins, M.R. Brashier, and C.D. Kruse (eds.). Proceedings, Piping Plovers and Least Terns of the Great Plains and Nearby. South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota.  132 pp.

Murphy, R.K., I.M.G. Michaud, D.R.C. Prescott, J.S. Ivan, B.J. Anderson, and M.L. French-Pombier. 2003a. Predation on adult Piping Plovers at predator exclosure cages. Waterbirds 26: 150–155.

Murphy, R.K., R.J. Greenwood, J.S. Ivan, and K.A. Smith. 2003b. Predator exclusion methods for managing endangered shorebirds: are two barriers better than one? Waterbirds 26: 156–159.

Pike, E. 1985. The Piping Plover at Waugoshance Point. Jack-Pine Warbler 63: 36–41.

Plissner, J.H. and S.M. Haig. 2000. Status of a broadly distributed endangered species: results and implications of the second International Piping Plover Census. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 128–139.

Powell, A.N. and F.J. Cuthbert. 1992. Habitat and reproductive success of Piping Plovers nesting on Great Lakes islands. Wilson Bulletin 104: 155–161.

Prellwitz, D.M., K.M. Erickson, and L.M. Osborne. 1995. Translocation of Piping Plover nests to prevent nest flooding. Wildlife Society Bulletin 23: 103–106.

Prescott, D.R.C. 1997. Status of the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) in Alberta. Wildlife Status Report No. 1. Wildlife Management Division, Alberta Environmental Protection, Edmonton, Alberta. 19 pp.

Prindiville Gaines, E.M. and M.R. Ryan. 1988. Piping Plover habitat use and reproductive success in North Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management 52: 266–273.

Richardson, I.M. 1997. Guidelines for the use of predator exclosures to protect Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) nests. Wildlife Management Division, Alberta Environmental Protection, Edmonton, Alberta. 21 pp.

Richardson, I.M. 1999. Predator exclosures: a management technique to increase Piping Plover reproductive success in the Canadian Prairies. M.Sc. thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. 65 pp.

Root, B.G. and M.R. Ryan. 2004. Changes in Piping Plover nesting habitat availability at Great Plains alkaline wetlands, 1938–1997. Wetlands 24: 766–776.

Russell, R.P. 1983. The Piping Plover in the Great Lakes region. American Birds 37: 951–955.

SaskatchewanWatershed Authority. 2004. Piping Plover basin site plans for southern Saskatchewan. Unpublished report. Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. 114 pp.

Sauer, J.R., J.E. Hines, and J. Fallon. 2003. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966–2002. Version 2003.1. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Laurel, Maryland.

Schmelzeisen, R. and L. Engley. 2003. Alberta Piping Plover predator exclosure and population monitoring program. Unpublished report. Alberta Conservation Association. Edmonton, Alberta. 12 pp. plus appendices.

Schmelzeisen, R., D.R.C. Prescott, and L. Engley. 2004. Methods for controlling depredation on Piping Plovers in Alberta: a literature review and synthesis. Alberta Species at Risk Report No. 84. Edmonton, Alberta. 18 pp. plus appendix.

Sidle, J. 1985. Determination of endangered and threatened status for the Piping Plover. Federal Register 50(238): 50720–50734.

Skeel, M.A., D.C. Duncan, and E.R. Wiltse. 1996. The 1996 International Piping Plover Breeding Census -- Saskatchewan. Unpublished report prepared for the Saskatchewan Wetland Conservation Corporation and Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 43 pp. plus appendices and maps.

Smith, K.A. and E.M. Heilhecker. 1995. Management and reproductive success of Piping Plovers on Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota, 1995. Pages 3–12 in Conservation of Piping Plovers in northwestern North Dakota. 1995 annual report. United StatesFish and Wildlife Service, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota. 19 pp. plus an appendix.

Staine, K.J. and J. Burger. 1994. Nocturnal foraging behavior of breeding Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) in New Jersey. Auk 111: 579–587.

Stucker, J.H., S.P. Stucker, and D. Martens. 2003. Wintering Piping Plover surveys 2003 Galveston, TX to Carrabelle, FL 22 February – 3 March. Unpublished report. Canadian Wildlife Service. Edmonton, Alberta. 24 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Draft revised recovery plan for Piping Plovers, Charadrius melodus, breeding on the Great Lakes and Northern Great Plains of the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Twin Cities, Minnesota. 85 pp. plus appendices.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus), Atlantic Coast population, revised recovery plan. Hadley, Massachusetts. 258 pp

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Recovery plan for the Great Lakes Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus). Fort Snelling, Minnesota. 106 pp. plus appendices.

Wemmer, L.C., U. Ozesmi, and F.J. Cuthbert.2001. A habitat-based population model for the Great Lakes population of the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus). Biological Conservation 99: 169–181.

Wershler, C. 1992. An analysis of Piping Plover management concerns in Alberta. Unpublished report prepared for Alberta Fish and Wildlife. 21 pp. plus appendices.

Wershler, C.R. and C. Wallis. 1987. Status of the Piping Plover in Alberta, 1986. Unpublished report prepared for World Wildlife Fund (Canada), Canadian Wildlife Service, and Alberta Fish and Wildlife.

Westworth, S.M. and J.P. Goossen. 2004. Lake Diefenbaker Piping Plover conservation 2004. Unpublished report prepared by Canadian Wildlife Service for SaskPower, Enbridge Pipelines Inc., and Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. Edmonton, Alberta. 15 pp.

Westworth, S.M. and H. Schinke. 2004. Piping Plover surveys in west-central Saskatchewan, 2003. Unpublished report. Canadian Wildlife Service. Edmonton. 22 pp.

Westworth, S.M., D. Martens, C.L. Gratto-Trevor, J.P. Goossen, and S. Davis. 2004. Northern Great Plains Piping Plover Science Workshop: 20–23 November 2003, Regina, Saskatchewan. Unpublished report. Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton, Alberta. 58 pp.

White, C.L. 2004. Piping Plover and Sanderling monitoring at Chaplin Lake Saskatchewan 2004. Unpublished report prepared for Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Saskatchewan Minerals, and Saskatchewan Environment. Regina, Saskatchewan. 22 pp.

White, C.L. 2005. Reproductive ecology and nest attentiveness of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) breeding at Chaplin Lake, Saskatchewan. M.Sc. thesis, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan. 99 pp. plus appendix.

Whyte, A.J. 1985. Breeding ecology of the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) in central Saskatchewan. M.Sc. thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

Wilcox, L. 1959. A twenty year banding study of the Piping Plover. Auk 76: 129–152.

Wilcox, L. 1962. Oldest known shorebird in North America. Eastern Bird Banding Association News 25: 45–46.

Appendix A. Management techniques used to augment Piping Plover reproductive success in the Northern Great Plains and Great Lakes regions 

Management tool Objectives Source
Predator exclosure Reduce egg predation Richardson 1997; Murphy et al. 2003b; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003; Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Team 2005
   
Predator removal Reduce local predator numbers Maxson and Haws 1995
   
Predator nest removal Reduce raptor nesting, thereby reducing adult plover mortality Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Team 2002, 2005; Schmelzeisen et al. 2004
   
Predator deterrent – nylon string Reduce or eliminate presence of breeding gulls Maxson et al. 1996
   
Clutch/nest translocation Protect clutches from flooding Prellwitz et al. 1995; Gordon and Kruse 1999
   
Electric predator fence Reduce egg and chick predation Mayer and Ryan 1991b; Murphy et al. 2003b
   
Strobe lights Reduce egg predation Kruse et al. 1993
   
Symbolic fencing Reduce human disturbance U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003
   
Guardian program Reduce human disturbance, provide education, conservation Jacobson 2003; Maconachie 2003; Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Team 2005
   
Signage Reduce human disturbance Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Team 2005; Heyens 2005a
   
Landowner cooperation Reduce human disturbance, encourage habitat management, provide education Prescott 1997; Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Team 2005
   
Habitat creation Augment nesting habitat Asmundson and Jones 2004; Alberta Piping Plover Recovery Team 2005
   
Captive chick release Mitigate productivity losses from water management projects Kruse and Pavelka 1999; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003
   
Water management Control spring inflows on managed rivers to reduce egg, chick, and habitat losses Canadian Wildlife Service et al. in prep.
Page 4