Skip booklet index and go to page content

Recovery Strategy for the Dakota Skipper (Hesperia dacotae) in Canada


3. References

Britten, H.B. and J.W. Glasford. 2002. Genetic population structure of the Dakota skipper (Lepidoptera: Hesperia dacotae): A North American native prairie obligate. Conservation Genetics 3: 363–374.

Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII). 2006. Threatened, Endangered and Extirpated Species Regulation, Man. Reg. 25/98 (Last update on CanLII: 2006-11-07). Enabling Statute: Endangered Species Act, C.C.S.M. c. E111. Online. (Accessed: 12 December 2006).

Cochrane, J.F. and P. Delphey. 2002. Status assessment and conservation guidelines. Dakota skipper, Hesperia dacotae(Skinner) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 77 pp.

COSEWIC. 2003. COSEWICassessment and status report on the Dakota skipper Hesperia dacotae in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. vii + 35 pp.

Crone, E.E. and C.B. Schultz. 2003. Movement behavior and minimum patch size for butterfly population persistence. Pages 561–576 in C.L. Boggs, W.B. Watt, and P.R. Ehrlich (eds.). Butterflies -- Ecology and evolution taking flight. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Dana, R. 1983. The Dakota skipper: a now rare prairie butterfly. Natural Areas Journal 3(3): 31–34.

Dana, R.P. 1991. Conservation management of the prairie skippers Hesperia dacotae and Hesperia ottoe: Basic biology and threat of mortality during prescribed burning in spring. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 594-1991 (AD-SB-5511-S), University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. 63 pp.

Dana, R.P. 1997. Characterization of three Dakota skipper sites in Minnesota. Unpublished report, Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 17+ pp.

Ehrlich, P.R. 2003. Introduction: Butterflies, test systems, and biodiversity. Pages 1–6 in C.L. Boggs, W.B. Watt, and P.R. Ehrlich (eds.). Butterflies -- Ecology and evolution taking flight. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Environment Canada. 2005. Policy on the feasibility of recovery (Draft). Species at Risk Act policy. Government of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Gilpin, M. and M.E. Soulé. 1986. Minimum viable populations: Processes of species extinctions. Pages 19–34 in M.E. Soulé (ed.). Conservation biology: The science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Hanski, I. 2003. Biology of extinctions in butterfly metapopulations. Pages 577–602 in C.L. Boggs, W.B. Watt, and P.R. Ehrlich (eds.). Butterflies -- Ecology and evolution taking flight. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Harding, P.T., F. Asher, and T.F. Yates. 1995. Butterfly monitoring -- recording the changes. Pages 3–22 in A.S. Pullin (ed.). Ecology and conservation of butterflies. Chapman and Hall, London.

Hooper, R.R. 1973. The butterflies of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources, Regina, Saskatchewan.

Hooper, R.R. 2003. Dakota skipper (Hesperia dacotae) in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 61: 124–125.

Klassen, P., A.R. Westwood, W.B. Preston, and W.B. McKillop. 1989. The Butterflies of Manitoba. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature. pp. 1-290.

Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. Lafontaine. 1998. The butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario. 280 pp.

Lederhouse, R.C., S.G. Codella, and P.J. Cowell. 1987. Diurnal predation on roosting butterflies during inclement weather: a substantial source of mortality in the black swallowtail, Papillo polyxenes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 95: 310–319.

MacNeill, C.D. 1964. The skippers of the genus Hesperiain western North America, with special reference to California (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 35: 1–230.

McCabe, T.L. 1979. Report on the status of the Dakota skipper (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperia dacotae (Skinner)) within the Garrison Diversion Unit, North Dakota. Unpublished manuscript. 46 pp.

McCabe, T.L. 1981. The Dakota skipper, Hesperia dacotae(Skinner): Range and biology, with special reference to North Dakota. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 35: 179–193.

Moffat, M. and N. McPhillips. 1993. Management for butterflies in the northern Great Plains: A literature review and guidebook for land managers. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pierre, South Dakota. 19 pp.

Morden, C.-J. 2006. Potential reintroduction of the Dakota skipper (Hesperia dacotae) into south-eastern Manitoba. Honours Thesis, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 5.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (accessed December 13, 2006).

Ries, L., D.M. Debinski, and M.L. Wieland. 2001. Conservation value of roadside prairie restoration to butterfly communities. Conservation Biology 15(2): 401–411.

Royer, R.A. and G.M. Marrone. 1992. Conservation status of the Dakota skipper (Hesperia dacotae) in North and South Dakota. Unpublished report, U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado. 44 pp.

Royer, R.A. and M.R. Royer. 1998. Report on an inventory of habitat and occurrence of Dakota skipper [Hesperia dacotae(Skinner 1911)] in the Towner-Karlsruhe Habitat Complex (McHenry County, North Dakota) during 1998. Unpublished report, Division of Science, Minot State University, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, St. Paul, Minnesota. 25+ pp.

Samson, F. and F. Knopf. 1994. Prairie conservation in North America. Bioscience 44(6): 418–421.

Schlicht, D.W. and T.T. Orwig. 1998. The status of Iowa's Lepidoptera. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 105: 82–88.

Shreeve, T.G. 1995. Butterfly mobility. Pages 37–45 in A.S. Pullin (ed.). Ecology and conservation of butterflies. Chapman and Hall, London.

Swengel, A.B. 1998a. Effects of management on butterfly abundance in tallgrass prairie and pine barrens. Biological Conservation 83: 77–89.

Swengel, A. 1998b. Managing for butterflies in prairie: what do I do now that I want to manage for butterflies. North American Butterfly Association, Morristown, New Jersey. 7 pp.

Swengel, A.B. and S.R. Swengel. 1999. Observations of prairie skippers (Oarisma poweshiek, Hesperia dacotae, H. ottoe, H. leonardus pawnee, and Atrytone arogos iowa) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during 1988–1997. Great Lakes Entomologist 32(4): 267–292.

Thomas, C.D. 1995. Ecology and conservation of butterfly metapopulations in the fragmented British landscape. Pages 46–63 in A.S. Pullin (ed.). Ecology and conservation of butterflies. Chapman and Hall, London.

USFWS. 2005. Dakota skipper conservation guidelines. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Twin Cities Field Office, Twin Cities, Minnesota.

USFWS. 2006. Candidate notice of review. Federal Register, Vol. 71, No. 176, September 12, 2006. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. (PDF Format, 477 KB)

Webster, R. 2003. 2002 Survey of the Dakota Skipper, Hesperia dacotae (Skinner) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. Unpublished report. 14 pp.

Webster, R.P. 2007. Dakota skipper, Hesperia dacotae(Skinner), survey in southeast Saskatche

Page 4