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Recovery Strategy for White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in Canada [Proposed]

8.3 Upper Fraser River Population

Knowledge of habitat use for the Upper Fraser white sturgeon population is more limited than for other populations. A variety of studies have been completed showing habitat associations based on capture rates, but no spawning sites have been confirmed at this time. Recent, but limited, telemetry data exists for mature sturgeon (Cory Williamson, B.C. Ministry of Environment, personal communication). High use habitats have been identified for juvenile rearing and feeding, adult holding and feeding, and adult overwintering life stages. This information is summarized in Table 6.

Two of the locations identified (Red Rock and Cottonwood Canyon) are downstream of the Nechako-Fraser confluence: therefore are in an area of overlap between the Upper Fraser population and the mid-Fraser population. These areas are identified as critical habitat based solely on their influence on the Upper Fraser population.

Table 6.  Summary of information base for white sturgeon critical habitats in the Upper Fraser River. An empty cell means that the life stage does not consistently use the habitat. The table has two main columns from left to right: Location (see Figure 14 for basin overview), and Confirmed (Checkmark), Suspected (S), or Possible (question mark) Use by Life Stage and Degree of Use (H=High, M=Moderate, L=Low). The latter column has seven sub-columns from left to right: Spawn, Yolk sac larvae/feeding larvae, Early juvenile, Late Juvenile and Adult, Overwintering, Staging, and Overall assessment. Directly below column headings are 9 rows, read from left to right.

Row 1: Penny, question mark, question mark, blank cell, checkmark H, checkmark H, blank cell, Critical. Row 2: Longworth Grand Canyon, (S)M, question mark, blank cell, checkmark H, checkmark H, question mark, Critical. Row 3: Bowron River Confluence, (S) H, question mark, (checkmark) question mark, (checkmark) H, (S) H, question mark, Critical. Row 4: McGregor River to Limestone Creek, question mark, question mark, empty cell, (checkmark) H, (checkmark) H, question mark, Critical. Row 5: Giscome at Tay Creek, question mark, question mark, empty cell, (checkmark) H, (S) H, empty cell, Critical. Row 6: Willow River Confluence, (S) M, question mark, empty cell, (checkmark) H, (checkmark) H, empty cell, Critical. Row 7: Salmon River Confluence, question mark, question mark, empty cell, (checkmark) H, (checkmark) H, empty cell, Critical. Row 8: Nechako River Confluence, (S) M, question mark, empty cell, (checkmark) H, (S) H, empty cell, Critical. Row 9: Red Rock, (S) H, question mark, empty cell, (checkmark) H, (S) H, empty cell, Critical.  

Table 6. Summary of information base for white sturgeon critical habitats in the Upper Fraser River. A blank cell means that the life stage does not consistently use the habitat.
Location
(see Figure 14 for basin overview)
SpawnYolk sac larvae and feeding larvaeEarly juvenileLate Juvenile and AdultOverwinteringStagingOverall Assessment
Penny?? () H(√) H Critical
Longworth Grand Canyon(S)M? (√) H(√) H?Critical
Bowron River Confluence(S)H?(√) ?(√) H(S)H?Critical
McGregor River to Limestone Creek?? (√) H(√) H?Critical
Giscome at Tay Creek?? (√) H(S)H Critical
Willow River Confluence(S)M? (√) H(√) H Critical
Salmon River Confluence?? (√) H(√) H Critical
Nechako River Confluence(S)M? (√) H(S)H Critical
Red Rock(S)H? (√) H(S)H Critical

Confirmed (√), Suspected (S), or Possible (?) Use by Life Stage and Degree of Use (H=High, M=Moderate, L=Low)

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8.3.1 Biophysical Functions, Features and Attributes of Critical Habitat – Upper Fraser River Population

Table 7 summarizes the critical habitat function(s), features and attributes, to the extent possible, for the Upper Fraser population of white sturgeon.

Table 7. Table 7 provides a summary of the biophysical features, functions, attributes and locations of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. The first column describes the geographic locations of the critical habitat, which encompass areas within the Upper Fraser River where white sturgeon reside. The second column indicates the life stage that uses each respective critical habitat area. The third column indicates the function that the particular life stage undertakes in each area. The fourth column describes the critical habitat feature that provides the function, and the fifth column details the attributes that the critical habitat feature must have in order to provide the biological function needed to support Upper Fraser River white sturgeon survival or recovery. The final column contains notes.

Table 7. Summary of the biophysical functions, features, attributes and locations of critical habitat for Upper Fraser white sturgeon.
Geographic LocationLife StageFunctionFeature(s)Attribute(s)Notes

Penny

McGregor River to Limestone Creek

Longworth Grand Canyon

Salmon River Confluence

Late Juvenile and AdultFeeding

Food availability often associated with:

Deep pools

Confluence with tributary that provides spawning habitat for salmon

  • Depth 2.3 – 16m (Penny 3.6 – 7m, McGregor 2.3 – 9m, Grand Canyon 2.5 – 16m)
  • Source of fish and invertebrates, preferably salmonids
  • Difference in temperature (gradient) at confluence between river and tributaries Correlation with increased prey to decreased turbidity

Juveniles (45-55cm) were disproportionately captured in some specific areas within the Longworth Canyon.

Feeding areas are used all year.

Overwintering potential from McGregor River to Limestone Creek is high: fish were captured in mid-October when it is likely that they would have moved to overwintering areas. In addition, telemetry records show fish in the area in mid-November/December. Spring (pre-freshet) sampling has confirmed concentration/use until freshet.

Capture records at Grand Canyon from October and telemetry records from November and May suggest overwintering.

Overwintering areas used from Oct – May.

Overwintering

Hydraulic conditions particular to this location ,see attributes

 

Includes creation of deep pools

  • Depth profiles vary between the sites. Substantial (canyon) to moderate (McGregor confluence) depths present (see ranges above).
  • Flow velocities are low at late-fall/winter, although higher velocity conditions are available in proximity to both locations
  • McGregor confluence has a unique morphology, widening of the channel, slow moving (winter flows), variable depth
  • Strong temperature gradient between McGregor and Fraser creates unique hydraulics that benefit sturgeon

Bowron River Confluence

Willow River Confluence

Early Juvenile (specific to Bowron)RearingFeature(s) not yet observed
  • Attribute(s) not yet observed

Feeding areas are used all year.

Overwintering use possible for juveniles though unknown. Adult overwintering use at these sites is unknown.

Overwintering areas used from Oct – May.

At Bowron, spawning potential is thought to be high due to many capture records from July which is the time when staging and spawning are likely to occur. Timing of the captures suggests the site could be a staging area prior to spawning. Use of the lower 1.5km of the Bowron River is extensive during higher Fraser discharges (backwatering effect).

At Willow River confluence spawning potential is considered moderate. Two adult sized fish were captured on July 1, 2001, which is the approximate time that spawning occurs.

Late Juvenile and AdultFeeding

Food availability often associated with:

Deep pools

Confluence with tributary that provides spawning habitat for salmon

  • Depth 2.1 – 10m (Bowron 2.1 – 5.5m, Willow 3 – 10m)
  • Source of fish and invertebrates, preferably salmonids
  • Difference in temperature (gradient) at confluence between river and tributaries Correlation with increased prey to decreased turbidity
Overwintering

Hydraulic conditions particular to this location ,see attributes

 

Includes creation of deep pools

  • Suspected deep pools, depth unknown
  • Low velocity areas
  • Difference in temperature (gradient) at confluence between river and tributaries
AdultPotential Spawning and incubation

Feature(s) not confirmed

 

  • Spawning hasn’t been observed in upper Fraser, so location not known for sure
  • Based on what is observed in Nechako system: Spawning begins mid-summer (June - July) when daily mean temperature is 10-16ºC
  • Suspected high velocity areas
  • Flow conditions - descending limb of freshet
  • Hydrograph / temperature differential

 

Based on other locations:

  • Coarse substrates, gravel to cobble providing interstitial spaces
  • Mean water column velocities at most spawning sites typically range from 0.5 to 2.5 m/sec-1
Giscome at Tay CreekLate Juvenile and AdultFeeding

Food availability often associated with:

Deep pools

Confluence with tributary that provides spawning habitat for salmon

  • Depth 4 – 7.4m
  • Source of fish and invertebrates, preferably salmonids
  • Difference in temperature (gradient) at confluence between river and tributaries Correlation with increased prey to decreased turbidity

Feeding areas are used all year.

Overwintering areas used from Oct – May.

Only late juveniles have been caught at this location. One fish that was not aged, but assumed to be an adult based on size, was also captured.

Overwintering potential is high, but the site has not been sampled later than September 11. The consistent presence of late juveniles in early fall suggests that this location provides overwintering habitat.

Overwintering

Deep pools

 

  • Depth 4 – 7.4m

Nechako River Confluence

Red Rock

Late Juvenile and AdultFeeding

Food availability often associated with:

Deep pools

Confluence with tributary that provides spawning habitat for salmon

  • Salmon migration area lower 2km of Nechako River (within critical habitat area)
  • Holding, low velocity, areas for salmon
  • Depth 2 – 18m (Nechako 2.6 – 5m, Red Rock 2 – 18m)
  • Source of fish and invertebrates, preferably salmonids
  • Difference in temperature (gradient) at confluence between river and tributaries (Nechako R.)
  • Correlation with increased prey to decreased turbidity

Adult holding well documented annually at Hwy 16 bridge (Yellowhead) – primarily June-Sep.

Feeding areas are used all year.

Overwintering areas used from Oct – May.

Nechako River at the confluence is broad and shallow and unlikely to provide overwintering habitat.  Spawning potential is moderate. The Nechako population likely spawns in the Nechako earlier in the summer (mid-May – early June) due to warmer water temperatures in that system. Use of the lower 1km of the Nechako River is extensive.

Spawning potential at Red Rock is high: telemetry records show potentially ripe female fish in the area during May and July, which is the period when fish could be staging and/or spawning.

Overwintering
(Red Rock only)

Deep pools

Eddies

  • Depositional areas1 for food
  • Depth 2 – 18m (Nechako 2.6 – 5m, Red Rock 2 – 18m)
  • Hwy 16 habitat area consists of a deep pool downstream of the Nechako R. confluence (holding area for migrating salmon)
AdultSpawning and incubationFeature(s) not yet confirmed
  • Nechako spawning begins mid-May – early July when daily mean temperature is 10-16ºC
  • Red Rock spawning begins (July) when daily mean temperature is 10-16ºC
  • Suspected high velocity areas
  • Flow conditions - descending limb of freshet

Based on other locations:

  • Coarse substrates, gravel to cobble providing interstitial spaces
  • Mean water column velocities at most spawning sites typically range from 0.5 to 2.5 m/sec-1

1 Depositional Area - typically lower velocity areas where fish can rest and prey species may congregate; often in close proximity to confluences with other water bodies providing further access to food sources

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8.3.2 Geographic Identification of Critical Habitat – Upper Fraser River Population

The following locations of the critical habitat’s functions, features and attributes have been identified using the critical habitat parcel approach.

Figure 4. Reference map for locations of Upper Fraser River white sturgeon critical habitats.

Figure 4.  This is a map of the Upper Fraser River system showing an overview of critical habitat locations. Critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions.  Nine locations within the vicinity of Prince George are labelled on a map of British Columbia as follows: Red Rock, Nechako River Confluence, Salmon River Confluence, Willow River Confluence, Giscome Tay Creek, McGregor River to Limestone Creek, Bowron River Confluence, Grand Canyon Longworth and Penny. A scale and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Figure 5. Map of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon: Penny.

Figure 5. Figure 5 is a map of a section of the Upper Fraser River, British Columbia, showing the critical habitat location of Penny. The map depicts a polygon that has been identified as critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. In the identified polygon, critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions. The coordinates denoting various points of the polygon’s boundary are listed in Table 8. The critical habitat polygon in the Penny map is also labeled with codes that correspond to codes used to identify the polygon in Table 8. A scale of 1:15,000 and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Figure 6.  Map of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon: Longworth Grand Canyon.

Figure 6. Figure 6 is a map of a section of the Upper Fraser River, British Columbia, showing the critical habitat location of Longworth Grand Canyon. The map depicts a polygon that has been identified as critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. In the identified polygon, critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions. The coordinates denoting various points of the polygon’s boundary are listed in Table 8. The critical habitat polygon in the Longworth Grand Canyon map is also labeled with codes that correspond to codes used to identify the polygon in Table 8. A scale of 1:36,000 and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Figure 7.  Map of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon: Bowron River confluence with the Fraser River.

Figure 7. Figure 7 is a map of a section of the Upper Fraser River, British Columbia, showing the critical habitat location Bowron River confluence with the Fraser River. The map depicts a polygon that has been identified as critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. In the identified polygon, critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions. The coordinates denoting various points of the polygon’s boundary are listed in Table 8. The critical habitat polygon in the Bowron River confluence with the Fraser River map is also labeled with codes that correspond to codes used to identify the polygon in Table 8. A scale of 1:18,000 and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Figure 8. Map of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon: McGregor River confluence with the Fraser River to Limestone Creek confluence.

Figure 8. Figure 8 is a map of a section of the Upper Fraser River, British Columbia, showing the critical habitat location McGregor River confluence with the Fraser River to Limestone Creek confluence. The map depicts a polygon that has been identified as critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. In the identified polygon, critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions. The coordinates denoting various points of the polygon’s boundary are listed in Table 8. The critical habitat polygon in the McGregor River confluence with the Fraser River to Limestone Creek confluence map is also labeled with codes that correspond to codes used to identify the polygon in Table 8. A scale of 1:107,000 and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Figure 9.  Map of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon: Giscome at Tay Creek.

Figure 9. Figure 9 is a map of a section of the Upper Fraser River, British Columbia, showing the critical habitat location Giscome at Tay Creek. The map depicts a polygon that has been identified as critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. In the identified polygon, critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions. The coordinates denoting various points of the polygon’s boundary are listed in Table 8. The critical habitat polygon in the Giscome at Tay Creek map is also labeled with codes that correspond to codes used to identify the polygon in Table 8. A scale of 1:16,000 and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Figure 10.  Map of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon: Willow River confluence with the Fraser River.

Figure 10. Figure 10 is a map of a section of the Upper Fraser River, British Columbia, showing the critical habitat location Willow River confluence with the Fraser River. The map depicts a polygon that has been identified as critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. In the identified polygon, critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions. The coordinates denoting various points of the polygon’s boundary are listed in Table 8. The critical habitat polygon in the Willow River confluence with the Fraser River map is also labeled with codes that correspond to codes used to identify the polygon in Table 8. A scale of 1:30,000 and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Figure 11. Map of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon: Salmon River confluence with the Fraser River.

Figure 11. Figure 11 is a map of a section of the Upper Fraser River, British Columbia, showing the critical habitat location Salmon River confluence with the Fraser River. The map depicts a polygon that has been identified as critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. In the identified polygon, critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions. The coordinates denoting various points of the polygon’s boundary are listed in Table 8. The critical habitat polygon in the Salmon River confluence with the Fraser River map is also labeled with codes that correspond to codes used to identify the polygon in Table 8. A scale of 1:15,000 and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Figure 12. Map of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon: Nechako River confluence with the Fraser River.

Figure 12. Figure 12 is a map of a section of the Upper Fraser River, British Columbia, showing the critical habitat location Nechako River confluence with the Fraser River. The map depicts a polygon that has been identified as critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. In the identified polygon, critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions. The coordinates denoting various points of the polygon’s boundary are listed in Table 8. The critical habitat polygon in the Nechako River confluence with the Fraser River map is also labeled with codes that correspond to codes used to identify the polygon in Table 8. A scale of 1:24,000 and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Figure 13. Map of critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon: Red Rock.

Figure 13. Figure 13 is a map of a section of the Upper Fraser River, British Columbia, showing the critical habitat location Red Rock. The map depicts a polygon that has been identified as critical habitat for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. In the identified polygon, critical habitat includes aquatic habitat features and attributes that Upper Fraser River white sturgeon use to carry out life functions. The coordinates denoting various points of the polygon’s boundary are listed in Table 8. The critical habitat polygon in the Red Rock map is also labeled with codes that correspond to codes used to identify the polygon in Table 8. A scale of 1:70,000 and legend are provided along with an inset map showing locations are primarily in the Omineca zone of British Columbia. The map is oriented in a “north is up” direction.

map

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Table 8. Geographic Coordinates of Critical Habitat Areas for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon. A footnote on the word “coordinates” in the previous sentence states the following: Coordinate points were digitized using various orthophotos provided by Fisheries and Oceans Canada. The resolution of the various orthophotos varied significantly - ranging from 0.2 m cell size to 24 m cell size. This should be taken into consideration when evaluating the accuracy of the coordinates associated with these points. For geographic coordinate points situated at the wetted boundary, this boundary is meant to represent the annual high water mark (Hatfield et al., 2012). Note: For the Fraser River, relative locations are measured as “river kilometers”, which increase from the river mouth (Rkm 0) upstream to the farthest extent possible.

The table has eight columns read left to right: Critical Habitat Name, Coordinate Marker, Waterbody, River Kilometer, Latitude (DD), Longitude (DD), Latitude (DMS), Longitude (DMS). DD refers to Decimal Degrees and DMS refers to Degrees, Minutes, Seconds. Directly below the column headings there are 46 rows. Six rows correspond to the Fraser – Bowron River Confluence area, four to the Fraser – Giscombe at Tay Creek area, four to Fraser-Longworth Grand Canyon area, four to the Fraser McGregor River Confluence to Limestone Creek area, six to the Fraser - Nechako River Confluence area, four to the Fraser – Penny area, four to the Fraser – Red Rock area, four to the Fraser – Salmon River Confluence area, and six to the Fraser – Willow River Confluence area. 

Table 8. Geographic Coordinates11 of Critical Habitat Areas for Upper Fraser River white sturgeon.
Critical Habitat NameCoordinate MarkerWaterbodyRiver KilometerLatitude (DD)Longitude (DD)Latitude (DMS)Longitude (DMS)
Fraser - Bowron River ConfluenceFr-BRC1Fraser River922.754.070-121.81654° 4' 11" N121° 48' 57" W
Fraser - Bowron River ConfluenceFr-BRC2Fraser River922.754.069-121.81354° 4' 10" N121° 48' 48" W
Fraser - Bowron River ConfluenceFr-BRC3Bowron River0.154.058-121.82354° 3' 28" N121° 49' 24" W
Fraser - Bowron River ConfluenceFr- BRC4Bowron River3.854.051-121.85554° 3' 3" N121° 51' 17" W
Fraser - Bowron River ConfluenceFr- BRC5Bowron River3.854.051-121.85454° 3' 5" N121° 51' 15" W
Fraser - Bowron River ConfluenceFr-BRC6Bowron River0.154.059-121.82854° 3' 31" N121° 49' 42" W
Fraser - Bowron River ConfluenceFr- BRC7Fraser River919.154.070-121.84854° 4' 12" N121° 50' 52" W
Fraser - Bowron River ConfluenceFr- BRC8Fraser River919.154.072-121.84454° 4' 18" N121° 50' 38" W
Fraser - Giscome at Tay CreekFr-GTC1Fraser River868.754.248-122.41254° 14' 53" N122° 24' 42" W
Fraser - Giscome at Tay CreekFr-GTC2Fraser River868.754.246-122.41054° 14' 45" N122° 24' 36" W
Fraser - Giscome at Tay CreekFr-GTC3Fraser River866.754.238-122.43654° 14' 15" N122° 26' 10" W
Fraser - Giscome at Tay CreekFr-GTC4Fraser River866.754.240-122.43854° 14' 24" N122° 26' 17" W
Fraser - Longworth Grand CanyonFr-LGC1Fraser River963.753.918-121.60053° 55' 5" N121° 35' 58" W
Fraser - Longworth Grand CanyonFr-LGC2Fraser River963.753.916-121.60053° 54' 59" N121° 36' 2" W
Fraser - Longworth Grand CanyonFr-LGC3Fraser River952.353.958-121.67353° 57' 29" N121° 40' 23" W
Fraser - Longworth Grand CanyonFr-LGC4Fraser River952.353.958-121.67153° 57' 30" N121° 40' 15" W
Fraser - McGregor River Confluence to Limestone CreekFr-MRLC1Fraser River902.254.173-122.00054° 10' 22" N122° 0' 1" W
Fraser - McGregor River Confluence to Limestone CreekFr-MRLC2Fraser River902.254.169-122.00254° 10' 9" N122° 0' 7" W
Fraser - McGregor River Confluence to Limestone CreekFr-MRLC3Fraser River883.754.202-122.22954° 12' 7" N122° 13' 45" W
Fraser - McGregor River Confluence to Limestone CreekFr-MRLC4Fraser River883.754.206-122.22954° 12' 23" N122° 13' 43" W
Fraser - McGregor River Confluence to Limestone CreekFr-MRLC5McGregor River0.354.180-122.03554° 10' 47" N122° 2' 7" W
Fraser - McGregor River Confluence to Limestone CreekFr-MRLC6McGregor River0.354.179-122.03354° 10' 45" N122° 1' 59" W
Fraser - Nechako River ConfluenceFr-NRC1Fraser River799.053.918-122.69853° 55' 3" N122° 41' 53" W
Fraser - Nechako River ConfluenceFr-NRC2Fraser River799.053.915-122.70153° 54' 56" N122° 42' 3" W
Fraser - Nechako River ConfluenceFr-NRC3Fraser River797.053.909-122.72353° 54' 32" N122° 43' 23" W
Fraser - Nechako River ConfluenceFr-NRC4Fraser River797.053.911-122.72653° 54' 40" N122° 43' 35" W
Fraser - Nechako River ConfluenceFr-NRC5Nechako River0.353.916-122.72053° 54' 59" N122° 43' 12" W
Fraser - Nechako River ConfluenceFr- NRC6Nechako River2.953.927-122.74853° 55' 36" N122° 44' 54" W
Fraser - Nechako River ConfluenceFr- NRC7Nechako River2.953.928-122.74953° 55' 41" N122° 44' 55" W
Fraser - Nechako River ConfluenceFr-NRC8Nechako River0.353.919-122.71053° 55' 8" N122° 42' 35" W
Fraser - PennyFr-PNY1Fraser River998.653.827-121.29053° 49' 37" N121° 17' 25" W
Fraser - PennyFr-PNY2Fraser River998.653.827-121.29453° 49' 36" N121° 17' 37" W
Fraser - PennyFr-PNY3Fraser River995.553.839-121.32053° 50' 20" N121° 19' 12" W
Fraser - PennyFr-PNY4Fraser River995.553.840-121.31753° 50' 23" N121° 19' 1" W
Fraser - Red RockFr-RR1Fraser River759.153.622-122.67953° 37' 19" N122° 40' 43" W
Fraser - Red RockFr-RR2Fraser River759.153.622-122.68253° 37' 20" N122° 40' 55" W
Fraser - Red RockFr-RR3Fraser River774.253.726-122.71053° 43' 34" N122° 42' 36" W
Fraser - Red RockFr-RR4Fraser River774.253.726-122.70853° 43' 34" N122° 42' 27" W
Fraser - Salmon River ConfluenceFr-SRC1Fraser River832.254.068-122.55854° 4' 5" N122° 33' 30" W
Fraser - Salmon River ConfluenceFr-SRC2Fraser River832.254.066-122.55554° 3' 57" N122° 33' 18" W
Fraser - Salmon River ConfluenceFr-SRC3Fraser River830.854.055-122.56454° 3' 17" N122° 33' 52" W
Fraser - Salmon River ConfluenceFr-SRC4Fraser River830.854.057-122.56754° 3' 25" N122° 34' 3" W
Fraser - Salmon River ConfluenceFr-SRC5Salmon River 54.066-122.56154° 3' 56" N122° 33' 38" W
Fraser - Salmon River ConfluenceFr-SRC6Salmon River 54.067-122.56054° 4' 3" N122° 33' 38" W
Fraser - Willow River ConfluenceFr-WRC1Fraser River837.554.097-122.51954° 5' 48" N122° 31' 7" W
Fraser - Willow River ConfluenceFr-WRC2Fraser River837.554.099-122.51454° 5' 57" N122° 30' 52" W
Fraser - Willow River ConfluenceFr-WRC3Willow River0.254.087-122.50854° 5' 13" N122° 30' 28" W
Fraser - Willow River ConfluenceFr- WRC4Willow River2.354.080-122.49254° 4' 47" N122° 29' 32" W
Fraser - Willow River ConfluenceFr- WRC5Willow River2.354.080-122.49354° 4' 47" N122° 29' 34" W
Fraser - Willow River ConfluenceFr-WRC6Willow River0.254.086-122.50854° 5' 10" N122° 30' 30" W
Fraser - Willow River ConfluenceFr- WRC7Fraser River832.254.066-122.55554° 3' 57" N122° 33' 18" W
Fraser - Willow River ConfluenceFr- WRC8Fraser River832.254.068-122.55854° 4' 5" N122° 33' 30" W

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11 Coordinate points were digitized using various orthophotos provided by Fisheries and Oceans Canada. The resolution of the various orthophotos varied significantly - ranging from 0.2 m cell size to 24 m cell size. This should be taken into consideration when evaluating the accuracy of the coordinates associated with these points. For geographic coordinate points situated at the wetted boundary, this boundary is meant to represent the annual high water mark (Hatfield et al., 2012).
fix(original) Note: For the Fraser River, relative locations are measured as “river kilometers”, which increase from the river mouth (Rkm 0) upstream to the farthest extent possible.