Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.

Skip booklet index and go to page content

Recovery Strategy for Leatherback Turtles


Balazs, G.H.  1982.  Driftnets catch leatherback turtles. Oryx 16(5):428-430.

Balazs, G. H. and S. G. Pooley (Editors). 1994. Research plan to assess marine turtle hooking mortality: results of an expert workshop held in Honolulu, Hawaii, November 16-18, 1993. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-201. U. S. Dept. Commerce.

Balasingam, E. 1965. The Giant Leathery Turtle Conservation Programme – 1964. Malayan Nature Journal 19(2&3): 145-146.

Binckley, C.A, Spotila, J.R, Wilson, K.S, and Paladino FV.1998. Sex determination and sex ratios of Pacific leatherback turtles,Dermochelys coriacea .Copeia 1998:291-300

Bleakney, J. S. 1965. Reports of marine turtles from New England and eastern Canada.

Canadian Field Naturalist 79:120-128.

Brown, V. 1976. Sea Mammals and Reptiles of the Pacific Coast. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc, New York. P256-258.

Bustard, R. 1972. Sea Turtles Their Natural History and Conservation. Taplinger Publishing Company, New York. p 34-35, 89-93.

Cook, F.R. 1981. Status report on the Leatherback Turtle, Dermochelys coriacea. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. 17 pp

 Caldwell, D. K. and Caldwell, M. C.1969. Addition of the leatherback sea turtle to the known prey of the killer whale, Orcinus orca. Journal of Mammalogy 50, 636.

Chan E., and  H. Liew. 1996. Decline of the Leatherback Population in Terengganu, Malaysia, 1956-1995. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2): 196-203.

Chua, T. H. 1988. Nesting Population and Frequency of Visits in Dermochelys coriacea in Malaysia. Journal of Herpetology. Vol.22, no. 2, p.192-207.

 Davenport, J. 1998. Sustaining endothermy on a diet of cold jelly: energetics of the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea. British Herpetological Society Bulletin 62: 4-8.

Davenport, J. and Balazs, G. 1991. 'Fiery Bodies'- are pyrosomas an important component of the diet of leatherback sea turtles. British Herpetological Society Bulletin 37: 33-38.

 Davenport, J., Wrench, J., McEvoy, J. and Camacholbar, V.  1990.  Metal and PCB concentrations in the Harlech leatherback. Marine Turtle Newsletter. 48: 1 - 6.     

 Den Hartog, J. C. 1980. Notes on the food of sea turtles: Eretmochelys imbricata (L) and Dermochelys coriacea (L). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 30, 595-610.

 Dermawan, A.  2002.  Marine turtle management and conservation in Indonesia. In:  Kinan, I. (editor). 2002.  Proceedings of the Western Pacific Sea Turtle Cooperative Research and Management Workshop.  February 5-8, 2002, Honolulu, Hawaii.  Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.  pp 67-77.

Dutton, P.H., B.W. Bowen, D.W. Owens, A. Barragan, and S.K. Davis. 1999. Global phylogeography of the leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea: shallow phylogenetic history in an ancient organismal lineage. Journal of Zoology 248:397-409.

Eckert, K. L. 1987. Environmental unpredictability and leatherback sea turtle

Dermochelys coriacea nest loss. Herpetologica 43(3):31 5-323.

Eckert, K. L.  1993. The biology and population status of marine turtles in the North Pacific Ocean,, pp. 155. Honolulu, HI: U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-186.

Eckert, S. A.  1995. Telemetry and behavior of sea turtles. In The biology and conservation of turtles, (ed. K. A. Bjorndal), pp. 583-584. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

 Eckert, S. A. 1998. Perspectives on the use of satellite telemetry and other electronic technologies for the study of marine turtles, with reference to the first year long tracking of leatherback sea turtles. In Seventeenth Annual Sea Turtle Symposium,  eds. S. P. Epperly and J. Braun), pp. 294. Orlando, FL: U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum  NMFS-SEFSC-415.

 Eckert, S. A. 1999. Habitats and migratory pathways of the Pacific leatherback sea turtle. Final report to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources., pp. 15. San Diego, CA: Hubbs Sea World Research Institute Technical Report 99-290.

 Eckert, S. A.  2002a. Distribution of juvenile leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea sightings. Marine Ecology Progress Series 230, 289 - 293.

Eckert, S. A. 2002b. Swim speed and movement patterns of gravid leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) at St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 3689 - 3697.

 Eckert, S.A.2002c Safeguarding Pacific Sea Turtles in the Oceanic Commons.  Testimony before the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, 13 May 2002.

Eckert, K. L. and Eckert, S. A.1988. Pre-reproductive movements of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) nesting in the Caribbean. Copeia 2: 400-406.

 Eckert, S. A. and Sarti, L. M.1997. Distant fisheries implicated in the loss of the world's largest leatherback nesting population. Marine Turtle Newsletter 78: 2-7.

Eckert, S.A., H.C. Liew, K.L. Eckert, and E.H. Chan.  1996.  Shallow water diving by leatherback turtles in the South China Sea.  Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2):  237-243.

Ernst, C.H., and Roger W. Barbour. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. P117-118.

Ernst, C.H., J.E. Lovich, and R.W. Barbour. 1994. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. In press.

Frair, W., R. G. Ackman, and N. Mrosovsky. 1972. Body temperature of Dermochelys coriacea: Warm Turtle from Cold Water. Science 177: 791-793.

Fritts, T. 1982. Plastic bags in the intestinal tract of leatherback marine turtles. Herpetological Review 13(3): 72-73.

Froom, B. 1976. The Turtles of Canada. McClelland and Stewart Ltd, Toronto. P 98-100.

Godfrey, M. H. and Barreto, R.1998. Dermochelys coriacea (Leatherback Sea Turtle). Copulation. Herpetological Review 29: 40-41.

Godley, B., and A. Broderick. 2001. Recent Change in the Status Listing of Leatherback Sea Turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea) and Mediterranean Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas). Marine Turtle Newsletter 93: 34.

Goff, G. P., and J Lien. 1988. Atlantic Leatherback Turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, in Cold Water off Newfoundland and Labrador. Canadian Field Naturalist 102(1): 1-5.

 Goff, G. P., J. Lien, G. B. Stenson, and J. Fretey. 1994. The Migration of a Tagged Leatherback Turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, from French Guiana, South America, to Newfoundland, Canada, in 128 Days. Canadian Field Naturalist 108: 72-73.

Grant, G. S., H. Malpass, and J. Beasley. 1996. Correlation of Leatherback Turtle and Jellyfish Occurrence. Herpetological Review 27(3): 123-125.

Gregory, P. T., and R. W. Campbell.1984. The Reptiles of British Columbia. British Columbian Provincial Museum Handbook Series. No. 44: 37-39.

 Gulliksen, B. 1990. Observation of the Leatherback Turtle in Northern Norway (Nord-Troms) autumn 1989. Fauna 1990, vol.43, no.1, pp.43-45.

 Hitipeuw, C.  2002.  Jamursba-medi nesting beach, North coast of Bird’s head Peninsula, Papua. In:  Kinan, I. (editor). 2002.  Proceedings of the Western Pacific Sea Turtle Cooperative Research and Management Workshop.  February 5-8, 2002, Honolulu, Hawaii.  Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.  pp161-177.

Huerta, P., H. Pineda, A. A. Aguirre, T. Spraker, L. Sarti, and A. Barragán. 2002 in press.  First confirmed case of fibropapilloma in a leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea).  In Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, February 29-March 4, 2000, Orlando, Florida. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SEFSC. p 193

Hughes, G. R. 1996. Nesting of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) in Tongaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 1963-1995. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2):153-158.

James, M. C. 2001. Updated Status Report on the leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, in Canada. Reviewed by COSEWIC.

 James, M.C. and Eckert, S.A. 2002. First satellite tracking of a male leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) captured at sea off Nova Scotia, Canada. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, A. Mosier, A. Foley and B. Brost, compilers. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS- SEFSC-477, p. 32.

Liew, H.C.2002.  Status of marine turtle conservation and research in Malaysia.  In:  Kinan, I. (editor). 2002.  Proceedings of the Western Pacific Sea Turtle Cooperative Research and Management Workshop.  February 5-8, 2002, Honolulu, Hawaii.  Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.  Pp 51-56.

Lutcavage, M. E. 1996. Planning your next meal: leatherback travel routes and ocean fronts. In J. Keinath, D. Barnard, J. A. Musick, and B. A. Bell (compilers), Proceedings of the fifteenth annual symposium on sea turtle biology and conservation, p. 174–178. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SEFSC-387.

Lutcavage, M., P.L. Lutz. 1986. Metabolic Rate and Food Energy Requirements of the Leatherback Sea Turtle, Dermochelys coriacea. Copeia 1986 (3): 796-798.

Lutcavage, M. E., Bushnell, P. G. and Jones, D. R.  1992. Oxygen transport in the leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea. Physiological Zoology 63: 1012-1024.

McDonald. D.L. and P.H. Dutton.  1996.  Use of PIT tags and photoidentification to revise remigration estimates of leatherback turtles(Dermochelys coriacea) nesting in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 1979-1995. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2), 148-152.

McCracken, M.L.  2000.  Estimation of the sea turtle take and mortality in the Hawaiian longline fisheries.  Administrative Report H-00-06, Honolulu Laboratory, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Honolulu, Hawaii.  pp: 1-29.

MacAskie, I. B. and Forrester, C. R. (1962). Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) off the Coast of British Columbia. Copeia (3): 646.

 Meylan, P. A.,Meylan, A. B.,Yeomans, R.  1992. Interception of Tortuguero-bound green turtles at Bocas Del Toro Province, Panama IN: Salmon, M. ,Wyneken, J. (Compilers)., Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Workshop on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFC-302.; 1992, p. 74

 Morreale, S. J., E. A. Standora, J. R. Spotila, and F.V. Paladino.  1996. Migration Corridor for Sea Turtles. Nature 384: 319-320.

Morreale, S.J., E. A. Standora, F. V. Paladino, and J. R. Spotila.1994. Leatherback migrations along deepwater bathymetric contours. In B. A. Schroeder and B. E. Witherington (compilers), Proceedings of the thirteenth annual sympo-sium on sea turtle biology and conservation, 109–110. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SEFSC- 341. [NTIS Accession No. PB95239554/ll.]

Mrosovsky, N. 1981.  Plastic jellyfish. Marine Turtle Newsletter 17: 5-7.

Mrosovsky, N. 1994. Sex ratios of sea turtles. Journal of Experimental Zoology 270:16-27.

Mrosovsky, N., and P. C. H. Pritchard. 1971. Body temperatures of Dermochelys

coriacea and other sea turtles. Copeia 1971(4):624-631.

Mrosovsky, N., P. H. Dutton and C. P. Whitmore. 1984. Sex ratios of two species of sea turtle nesting in Suriname. Can. J. Zool. 62(11):2227-2239. N. Mrosovsky, Dept. Zoology, Univ. Toronto, Toronto M5S IAI, Canada.

 Murakawa, S. and G. Balazs. 2002. Bibliography of fibropapillomas in marine turtles. /www.turtles.org/nmfsbib.htm

National Marine Fisheries Service.2000. California/Oregon Drift Gillnet Fishery Biological Opinion. Conducted by Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS.

National Marine Fisheries Service.2001. Biological Opinion on Proposed Authorization of Pelagic Fisheries under the Fishery Management Plan for the Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region. Conducted by the Endangered Species Division.

National Marine Fisheries Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Recovery Plan for the U.S. Pacific Populations of the Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD.

National Research Council. 1990. Decline of the Sea Turtles: causes and prevention. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. p. 39-40, 61-117.

Pritchard, Peter, C.H. 1971. The Leatherback or Leathery Turtle Dermochelys coriacea. IUCN Monograph 1:1-39.

Pritchard, P.C.H.  1979. Encyclopedia of Turtles. T. F. H. Publications, Inc. Neptune, New Jersey. 895 pages.

Pritchard, P. C. H.  1982. Nesting of the Leatherback Turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, in Pacific Mexico, with a New Estimate of the World Population Status. Copeia 1982(4): 741-747.

Pritchard, P. C. H., and P. Trebbau. 1984. The turtles of Venezuela. Society for the

Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Putawidjaja, M. 2000. Marine Turtles in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Marine Turtle Newsletter 90: 8-10.

Rhodin, A. G. J. 1985. Comparative chondro-osseous development and growth in

marine turtles. Copeia 1985:752-771.

Sarti, L.M.  2002 Current population status of Dermochelys coriacea in the Mexican Pacific Coast.  In:  Kinan, I. (editor). 2002.  Proceedings of the Western Pacific Sea Turtle Cooperative Research and Management Workshop.  February 5-8, 2002, Honolulu, Hawaii.  Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.  pp 87-90.

Sarti, L., Flores, L. and Aguayo, A.  1994. Evidence of predation of killer whale (Orcinus orca) on a leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) in Michoacan, Mexico. Mexico Rev. Inv. Cient: 23-26.

Sharma, D.S.  2000.  Impacts from development, nesting population trends and the future of marine turtles at Paku-Kertih, Terengganu.  In:  Kalb, H. and Wibbels, T. (compilers).  Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation.  NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-443: 88-92.

Shoop, C. R., and R. D. Kenney.1992. Seasonal distributions and abundances of loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles in waters of the northeastern United States. Herpetological Monographs 6:43–67.

Spotila, J. R., R. D. Reina, A. C. Steyermark, P. T. Plotkin, and F. V. Paladino.  2000. Pacific Leatherback Turtles Face Extinction. Nature 405: 529-530.

Spotila, J. R., A. E. Dunham, A. J. Leslie, A. C. Steyermark, P. T Ploykin, and F. V Paladino.  1996. Worldwide Population Decline of Dermochelys coriacea: are leatherback turtles going extinct? Chelonian Conservation Biology 2(2): 209-222.

Starbird, C. 2000. Dermochelys coriacea (Leatherback Sea Turtle) Fishing Net Ingestion. Herpetological Review 31(1): 43.

 Starbird, C. H., Baldridge, A. and Harvey, J. T. (1993). Seasonal occurence of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the Monterey Bay region, with notes on other sea turtles, 1986-1991. California Fish and Game 79:54-62.

 Stinson, M. L. (1984). Biology of sea turtles in San Diego Bay, California and in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Master of Science Thesis, Department of Biology.  San Diego State University.

Suarez, A., and C. H. Starbird.1996. Subsistence Hunting of Leatherback Turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, in the Kei Islands, Indonesia. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2): 190-195.

 US Environmental Protection Agency1999.www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-SPECIES/1999/May/Day-12/e11985.htm1990.

 Wetherall, J. A., Balazs, G. H., Tokunaga, R. A. and Yong, M. Y. Y.(1993). Bycatch of marine turtles in North Pacific high-seas driftnet fisheries and impacts on the stocks. Bulletin of the North Pacific Commission 53: 519-538.

Witherington, B. E.  1992. Beharioral Responses of Nesting Sea Turtles to Artificial Lighting. Herpetologica 48(1): 31-39.

Witzell, W. N. 1984. The incidental capture of sea turtles in the Atlantic U.S. Fishery Conservation Zone by the Japanese tuna longline fleet, 1978–1981. Marine Fishieries Review 46:56–58.

Zug, G.R. and J.F. Parham.  1996.  Age and growth in leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea: A skeletochronological analysis. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2):  244-249.