Skip booklet index and go to page content

Recovery Strategy for the Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) in Canada

3. References

Allardyce, D., and M.A. Sovada. 2003. A review: ecology, historical distribution and status of Swift Foxes in North America. In M. Sovada and L. Carbyn, Editors. The Swift Fox: Ecology and Conservation in a Changing World. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.

Andersen, D.E., T.R. Laurion, J.R. Cary, R.S. Sikes, M.A. McLeod, and E.M. Gese. 2003. Aspects of Swift Fox ecology in southeastern Colorado. In M. Sovada and L. Carbyn, Editors. The Swift Fox: Ecology and Conservation in a Changing World. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.

Bailey, V. 1926. A biological survey of North Dakota. North American Fauna 49: 1-226.

Brechtel, S., L. Carbyn, G. Erickson, D. Hjertaas, C. Mamo, and P. McDougall. 1996. National recovery plan for the Swift Fox. Report No. 15. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife Committee, Ottawa. 29 pp.

Carbyn, L.N., H.J. Armbruster, and C. Mamo. 1994. The swift fox reintroduction program in Canada from 1983 to 1992. Pages 247-270 in M.L. Bowles and C.J. Whelan, Editors. Restoration of endangered species; conceptual issues, planning and implementation. Cambridge University Press.

Carbyn, L.N. 1996. The return of the swift fox to the Canadian Prairies. Pages 273-280 in W. Willms and J. Dormaar, Editors. Proceedings of the 4th prairie conservation and endangered species workshop. Provincial Museum of Alberta Natural History Occasional Paper No. 23. Edmonton.

Carbyn, L.N. 1998. Updated COSEWIC status report: Swift fox (Vulpes velox). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). Ottawa. 62 pp.

COSEWIC. 2000. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the swift fox (Vulpes velox) in Canada. Committee on the status of endangered wildlife in Canada. Environment Canada. Ottawa. 44 pp.

COSEWIC. 2004. COSEWIC's Assessment Process and Criteria.

Cotterill, S.E. 1997. Population census of swift fox (Vulpes velox) in Canada: Winter 1996-1997. Prepared for the Swift Fox National Recovery Team. Alberta Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Service, Wildlife Management Division. Edmonton. 50 pp.

Covell, D.F. 1992. Ecology of the swift fox (Vulpes velox) in southeastern Colorado. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin. 111 pp.

Crooks, K.R. 2002. Relative sensitivities of mammalian carnivores to habitat fragmentation. Conservation Biology 16(2): 488-502.

Debinski, D., and R.D. Holt. 2000. A survey and overview of habitat fragmentation experiments. Conservation Biology (14) 2: 342-355.

Egoscue, H.J. 1979. Vulpes velox. Mammalian Species 122: 1 5.

Environment Canada. 2005. Policy on the feasibility of recovery (draft). Species at Risk Act Policy. Government of Canada.

Erickson, P., P. Fargey, S. Forrest, M. Green, B. Martin, S. Michalsky, J. Nicholson, and L. Rodger. 2004. Initiative overview and digital atlas. In K. Smith Fargey, Editor. Shared Prairie-Shared Vision: The Northern Mixed Grass Transboundary Conservation Initiative. Conservation Site Planning Workshop Proceedings and Digital Atlas. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. Regina, Saskatchewan.

Forrest, S.C., H.Strand, W.H. Haskins, C. Freese, J. Proctor, and E. Dinerstein. 2003. Ocean of Grass: A Conservation Assessment for the Northern Great Plains. Northern Plains Conservation Network and Northern Great Plains Ecoregion, World Wildlife Fund-US Bozeman, MT.

Forrestall, K. 2006. A strategic environmental assessment for the swift fox (Vulpes velox). Unpublished report. Parks Canada Agency, Winnipeg, MB.

Gauthier, D.A. and L. Patino. 1993. Saskatchewan Grassland Ecological Region. Prepared for the Canadian Council of Ecological Areas and the World Wildlife Fund Canada. Canadian Plains Research Centre. 47 pp.

Golightly., R.T., Jr., and R.D. Ohmart. 1984. Water economy of the two desert canids: coyote and kit fox. Journal of Mammalogy 65(1): 51-58.

Hannah, L., G.F. Midgley, T. Lovejoy, W.J. Bond, M.L. Bush, D. Scott, and F.I. Woodward. 2002a. Conservation of biodiversity in a changing climate. Conservation Biology 16(1): 11-15.

Hannah, L., G.F. Midgley, and D. Millar. 2002b. Climate change-integrated conservation strategies. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11(6): 485-495.

Harrison, R.L. and J. Whitaker-Hoagland. 2003. A literature review of swift fox habitat and den-site selection. In M. Sovada and L. Carbyn, Editors. The Swift Fox: Ecology and Conservation in a Changing World. Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina. 250 pp.

Henderson, D. 2005. Restoring grazing induced heterogeneity: Large scale experiment and long-term monitoring plan. Western Canada Service Centre, Parks Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Unpublished report.

Henry, J.D. 1996. Foxes: Living on the edge. Smithsonian nature book. Wildlife Series. Minocqua, Wisconsin, USA.

Herrero S., C. Schroeder and M. Scott-Brown. 1986. Are Canadian foxes swift enough? Biological Conservation 36(2): 159-167.

Herrero, S. 2003. Canada’s experimental reintroduction of swift foxes into an altered ecosystem. In M. Sovada and L. Carbyn, Editors. The Swift Fox: Ecology and Conservation in a Changing World. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina. 250 pp.

Hill, M.F., A. Hastings, and L. Botsford. 2002. The effects of small dispersal rates on extinction times in structured metapopulation models. American Naturalist 160(3): 389-403.

Hillman, C.N., and J.C. Sharps. 1978. Return of swift fox to northern Great Plains. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science 57: 154 162.

Hines. T.D. 1980. An ecological study of Vulpes velox in Nebraska. M.Sc. thesis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, 101 pp.

Hines, T.D., and R.M. Case. 1991. Diet, home range, movements, and activity periods of swift fox in Nebraska. Prairie Naturalist 23(3): 131 138.

Huntley, B. and T. Webb, III. 1989. Migration: Species' response to climatic variations caused by changes in the earth's orbit. Journal of Biogeography 16(1): 5-19.

Hughes, L. 2000. Biological consequences of global warming: Is the signal already apparent? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15(2): 56-61.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. (

James, E. 1823. Account of an expedition from Pittsburg to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819, 1820. By order of the Hon. J.C. Calhoun under the command of Major S.H. Long. Compiled from the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say and other gentlemen of the party. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown.

Kahn R., L. Fox, H. Horner, B. Giddings, and C. Roy. 1997. Conservation assessment and conservation strategy for the Swift Fox in the United States. Swift fox conservation team. 54 pp.

Karl, T R. and R.R. Heim Jr. 1991. The greenhouse effect in central North America: If not now, when? Science 251(4997): 1058-1062.

Kilgore, D.L. Jr. 1969. An ecological study of the swift fox (Vulpes velox) in the Oklahoma panhandle. The American Midland Naturalist 81(2): 512 533.

Kintigh K.M. and M.C. Anderson. 2005. A den-centered analysis of swift fox (Vulpes velox) habitat characteristics in northeastern New Mexico. American Midland Naturalist 154(1): 229-239.

Kitchen, A.M., E.M. Gese, and E.R. Schauster. 1999. Resource partitioning between coyotes and swift foxes: space, time, and diet. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 1645-1656.

Klausz, E. 1997. Small mammal winter abundance and distribution in the Canadian mixed grass prairies and implications for the swift fox. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. 108 pp.

Laubin, R. 1977. Indian dances of North America: their importance to Indian life. University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma, USA. 538 pp.

Laurenson, K., C. Sillero-Zubiri, H. Thompson, F. Shiferaw, S. Thirgood, and J. Malcolm. 1998. Disease as a threat to endangered species: Ethiopian wolves, domestic dogs and canine pathogens. Animal Conservation 1(4): 273-280

Lemmen, D.S., R.E. Vance, S.A. Wolfe, and W.M. Last. 1997. Impacts of future climate change on the southern Canadian Prairies: a paleoenvironmental perspective. Geoscience Canada 24(3): 121-133.

Linnell, J. D.C. and O. Strand. 2000. Interference interactions, co-existence and conservation of mammalian carnivores. Diversity & Distributions 6 (4): 169-176.

Merriam, C.H. 1902. Three new foxes of the kit and desert fox groups. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 15: 73-74.

Miller, D.S., D.F. Covell, R.G. McLEan, W.J. Adrian, M. Niezgoda, J.M. Gustafson, O.J. Rongstad, R.D. Schultz, L.J. Kirk, and T.J. Quan. 2000. Serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in swift and kit foxes from the western United States. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 36(4): 798-805.

Moehrenschlager, A. 2000. Effects of ecological and human factors on the behaviour and population dynamics of reintroduced Canadian swift foxes (Vulpes velox). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Moehrenschlager, A. and C. Moehrenschlager. 2001. Census of Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) in Canada and Northern Montana: 2000-2001. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species at Risk Report No. 24. Edmonton, Alberta. 21 pp.

Moehrenschlager, A. and C. Moehrenschlager. 2006. Draft report. Population census of reintroduced swift fox (Vulpes velox) in Canada and Northern Montana: 2005/2006. Report to Alberta Sustainable Resource Development and The Alberta Conservation Association. Edmonton, Alberta.

Moehrenschlager, A., B. Cypher, K. Ralls, M.A. Sovada, and R. List. 2004. Comparative ecology and conservation priorities of swift and kit foxes. In D.W. Macdonald and C. Sillero-Zubiri, Editors. Biology and Conservation of Wild Canids. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.

Moehrenschlager, A. and M.A. Sovada. 2004. Swift fox (Vulpes velox). In C. Sillero-Zubiri, M. Hoffmann, and D.W. Macdonald, Editors. Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals, and dogs. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Olson, T. L. 2000. Population characteristics, habitat selection patterns, and diet of swift foxes in southeast Wyoming. M. Sc. Thesis. University of Wyoming, Laramie. 139pp.

Pest Management Regulatory Agency. 2006. Re-evaluation Decision Document (RRD2006-23). Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario

Peters, R., and J. Darling. 1985. The greenhouse effect and nature reserves. Bioscience 35(11): 707-717.

Pied Piper. 1950. The third column: Passing of the kit fox. Page 4 In The Edmonton Journal. April 26, 1950.

Pruss S.D. 1994. An observational natal den study of wild swift fox (Vulpes velox) on the Canadian Prairie. M. Env. Design. University of Calgary. Alberta.

Pruss S.D. 1999. Selection of natal dens by the swift fox (Vulpes velox) on the Canadian prairies. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 646-652.

Pruss, S. D. 2002. Ecology of coyotes (Canis latrans) in Elk Island National Park, Alberta, Canada. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Alberta.

Pybus, M. J., and E. S. Williams. 2003. Parasites and diseases of wild swift fox--a review. In M. Sovada and L. Carbyn, Editors. The Swift Fox: Ecology and Conservation in a Changing World. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.

Rand, A.L. 1948. Mammals of the eastern Rockies and western plains of Canada. National Museum of Canada. Bulletin No. 108, Biological Series No. 35. Ottawa.

Riley, S.J., G.M. Nesslage, and B.A. Maurer. 2004. Dynamics of early wolf and cougar eradication efforts in Montana: Implication for conservation. Biological Conservation 119(4): 575-579.

Rizzo, B. and E. Wiken. 1992. Assessing the sensitivity of Canada’s ecosystems to climatic change. Climatic Change 21(1): 37-55.

Roy, L.D., and M.J. Dorrance. 1985. Coyote movements, habitat use, and vulnerability in central Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management 49(2): 307-313.

Russell, R.H. 1983. Swift Fox. Hinterland Who's Who. Canadian Wildlife Service. Environment Canada. 4 pp.

Samson, F. B., F. Knopf, and W.R. Ostlie. 2004. Great Plains ecosystems: past, present and future. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(1): 6-15

Schauster, E.R., E.M. Gese, and A.M. Kitchen. 2002. Population ecology of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in southeastern Colorado. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80: 307-319.

Scott Brown, J.M., S. Herrero, and C. Mamo. 1986. Monitoring of released swift fox in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Final report. Unpublished report. Prepared for the Canadian Wildlife Service, Contract No. 0SG83 00213.

Scott Brown, J.M., S. Herrero, and J. Reynolds. 1987. Swift fox. Pages 433-440 in Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Species Management. Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario.

Seton, E.T. 1909. Life histories of northern animals: an account of the mammals of Manitoba. Volume II Flesheaters. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York City.

Smeeton, C. and K. Weagle. 2000. The reintroduction of the swift fox Vulpes velox to South Central Saskatchewan, Canada. Oryx 34(3): 171-179.

Smeeton, C., K. Weagle, and S.S. Waters. 2003. Captive breeding of the swift fox at the Cochrane Ecological Institute, Alberta. In M. Sovada and L. Carbyn, Editors. The Swift Fox: Ecology and Conservation in a Changing World. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.

Soper, J.D. 1964. The mammals of Alberta. The Hamly Press Limited, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Sovada, M.A., C.C. Roy, J.B. Bright, and J.R. Gillis. 1998. Causes and rates of mortality of swift foxes in western Kansas. Journal of Wildlife Management 62(4): 1300-1306.

Sovada, M.A., and B.K. Scheick. 1999. Preliminary report to the Swift Fox Conservation Team: Historic and recent distribution of swift foxes in North America. Pages 80-147 + appendix In C.G. Schmitt, Editor. 1999 Annual report of the Swift Fox Conservation Team. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Swihart, R.T., T.M. Gehring, M.B. Kolozsvary, and T.E. Nupp. 2003. Responses of “resistant” vertebrates to habitat loss and fragmentation: The importance of niche breadth and range boundaries. Diversity and Distributions 9(1): 1-18.

Tannerfeldt, M., A. Moehrenschlager, and A. Angerbjörn. 2003. Den ecology of swift, kit and arctic foxes: a review. In M.A. Sovada and L.N. Carbyn, Editors. The Swift Fox: Ecology and Conservation in a Changing World. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Thorne, E.T., and E.S. Williams. 1988. Disease and endangered species: The black-footed ferret as a recent example. Conservation Biology 2(1): 66-74.

Voigt, D.R., and W.E. Berg. 1987. Coyote. In Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. M. Novak, J.A. Baker, M.E. Obbard, and B. Malloch, Eds. Ontario Trappers Association, North Bay, Ontario.

White, P.J., K. Ralls, and R.A. Garrott. 1994. Coyote-kit fox interactions as revealed by telemetry. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72(10): 1831-1836.

Wissler, C. 1995. Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians. A.B. Kehoe, Editor. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A.

Woodroffe, R., and J.R. Ginsberg. 1999. Conserving the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. I. Diagnosing and treating causes of decline. Oryx 33(2): 132-142.

Page 3