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Canadian Species at Risk

Cosewic Assessment Results

The tables that follow (Tables 6-9) are organized by status category and then by taxonomic group. For each species, the information provided includes the common name, scientific name, population name, and range of occurrence in Canada (by province, territory or ocean). The most recent date of assessment by COSEWIC is shown. The symbols on the left provide information on the type of status report used as the basis for reassessment for species evaluated against quantitative criteria (see below), and the symbols on the right provide information on the outcome of status reassessments (see explanation of symbols on page three).

The first COSEWIC "Endangered Species List" was issued in 1978. In 1990, it was decided that all species considered by COSEWIC should be included in this document even if the species were in the Not at Risk or Data Deficient categories. Therefore, this document is divided into four sections. The first section (Table 6) includes species assessed and designated as Extinct.  The second section (Table 7) includes species assessed and designated as Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Special Concern. The third section (Table 8) includes species assessed and found to be in the Not at Risk category. The fourth section (Table 9) includes species considered by COSEWIC and placed in the Data Deficient category because of insufficient scientific information.

Evaluation with COSEWIC's quantitative criteria

COSEWIC has been using quantitative criteria to assess species' risk of extinction since October 1999. These criteria were adapted from the criteria used by the World Conservation Union (IUCN).

Explanation of type of status report symbols for species evaluated using quantitative criteria:

∆ or ∆+Assessment based on a new status report or an update status report. A plus sign (+) indicates the report has an addendum or that the report has been modified.
[] or []+Species re-assessed using an existing status report. A plus sign (+) indicates the report has an addendum or that the report has been modified.

Range of Occurrence

The geographical distribution of each species is defined in terms of the provinces, territories and oceans in which the species occurs. This information should not be treated as a complete listing of the jurisdictions that may be legally responsible for the conservation and management of a species. Several guidelines are followed when determining the range of occurrence of a species: for birds, it includes the Canadian breeding and wintering distribution; for marine species, it includes the oceans in which the species occurs (Arctic, Pacific or Atlantic); for freshwater species, it includes the province or territory in which the waterbody occurs; and, for species that occur in brackish waters, move between marine and freshwater environments, or move between oceans and land (e.g., Atlantic Walrus), range of occurrence includes a list of both the oceans and provinces in which the species occurs.

Abbreviations for provinces and territories:
AB    AlbertaNS    Nova ScotiaQC    Québec
BCBritish ColumbiaNTNorthwest TerritoriesSKSaskatchewan
MBManitobaNUNunavutYTYukon Territory
NBNew BrunswickONOntario  
NLNewfoundlandand LabradorPEPrince Edward Island  

About the Legal Listing of Species Assessed by COSEWIC

COSEWIC meets at least once a year to consider status reports on candidate species. Since 2004, COSEWIC submits its annual report to the federal Minister of the Environment in late summer. The annual report includes all species that COSEWIC wishes to have considered for legal listing.

Species assessed by COSEWIC as Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Special Concern will be considered for legal protection and recovery (or management) under the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Based in part on COSEWIC's status assessment, the government may decide to add a species to SARA's List of Wildlife Species at Risk (Legal List), to not add a species to the Legal List, or to refer the matter back to COSEWIC for further information or consideration.

More information on the SARA listing process may be found on the COSEWIC web site (www.COSEWIC.gc.ca; FAQ section and About Us section) or on the SARA Public Registry (www.sararegistry.gc.ca).

The following symbols are used in Table 7 (SARA field) to denote the stage of species assessed by COSEWIC within the SARA listing process at the time that this publication was produced (1 September 2005).

*COSEWIC status assessment not yet forwarded to the Minister.
**COSEWIC status assessment has been forwarded to the Minister of the Environment; a decision is pending.
1Species on Legal List.
2aSpecies not added to Legal List.
2bSpecies not added to Legal List (pending further consultation by government).
3Referred back to COSEWIC for further information or consideration.