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Species at Risk Act - Legal Listing Consultation Workbook, Striped bass, St-Lawrence Estuary Population
Your opinion is being sought by the Canadian Government in order to make an informed decision concerning the addition of the striped bass (St. Lawrence Estuary population) to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk, as presented in Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA).
To date, no Canadian striped bass population had been given any status according to federal legislation. Nonetheless, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assessed the situation of the striped bass in November 2004. Because the COSEWIC designated the striped bass of the St. Lawrence Estuary as an “extirpated” species, the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans must now determine whether it should recommend to the Governor in Council that it be added to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. The same is true for the southern Gulf and Bay of Fundy populations, which are both designated as “threatened” species. Before deciding how to proceed, the federal government wishes to consult Canadians, particularly those concerned and interested by this species, to obtain their opinion in order to properly determine the social and economic impacts, both positive and negative, of the addition of the striped bass to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. With this in mind, there will be a regional consultation for each striped bass population. This consultation workbook was therefore designed only for the St. Lawrence Estuary population.
We encourage you to answer the questions (any or all) at the end of this workbook. We also invite you to add any comment you consider relevant. You can be assured that your answers and comments will be taken into consideration in the decision-making process. To make sure your comments are considered, responses are required before:
March 31, 2006
You can download a copy of this consultation workbook and find additional information regarding SARA and the striped bass at the following Internet address:
The Species at Risk Act (SARA)
A large variety of wildlife species inhabit Canadian lands and waters. Unfortunately, several of them are in danger and some of them may even disappear. The Canadian government has therefore seriously committed to protecting them, particularly by adopting the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in June 2003, as part of its Endangered Wildlife Species Protection Strategy.
This Act provides a legal framework for adopting measures, throughout Canada, that will ensure the survival of wild animal and plant species and protect our natural heritage. This Act also establishes the criteria being used to determine which species must rapidly become the focus of recovery measures, and the methods to implement recovery in order to protect them. This Act also establishes guidelines for cooperation between governments, organizations and individuals, and provides sanctions for offenders.
Environment Canada is responsible for the overall implementation of SARA. However, Fisheries and Oceans Canada has the responsibility for aquatic species at risk, except for individuals located on territories managed by Parks Canada (national parks, national historical sites, national marine conservation areas, and other protected heritage sites).
Since no single organization or entity can, on its own, take on the responsibility of ensuring the survival of a species, the effectiveness of the new Act will depend on everyone’s goodwill to ensure the survival of all species at risk. With this in mind, SARA requires, at several steps throughout the process, that the federal government consult provincial and territorial governments, First Nations, landowners, resource users, and the general public.
The consultation objective of the current workbook is about adding the striped bass (St. Lawrence Estuary population) to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk presented in Appendix 1 of the SARA. This list contains all the species that have been assessed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), and benefit from SARA’s protection. COSEWIC designated this striped bass population as an “extirpated” species in November 2004. The reader will find more details in the following sections regarding the addition of wildlife species, in particular striped bass, to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk and its legal consequences.
1.1. The role of the COSEWIC
The mandate of the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) is to assess the status of wild animal and plant species present in Canada and assign them a designation. The Committee is comprised of specialists working in various relevant fields such as biology, ecology and traditional native knowledge. The members of COSEWIC come from different circles, such as governments, universities, aboriginal organizations, and non-governmental organizations. They are appointed according to their expertise, and must provide independent, impartial and scientific advice and recommendations in accordance with the mission of COSEWIC.
COSEWIC assesses the biological status of wildlife species by using the best scientific and traditional knowledge available. It reviews research and takes into account community and aboriginal traditional knowledge. In its species assessment, COSEWIC uses rigorous assessment criteria based on those developed by the World Conservation Union (IUCN).
The first step in assessing the status of a wildlife species is to request a status report, which will then be reviewed by peers and approved by a sub-committee of experts on the species. During the annual meeting of COSEWIC members, the status report is examined, and discussions are held in order to determine whether the species is at risk, and if necessary, to provide a status designation.
The statuses provided, which represent risk level categories, are as follows:
- “Extinct” species: any species that no longer exists;
- “Extirpated” species:any species that no longer exists in the wild in Canada, but exist elsewhere;
- “Endangered” species:any species facing imminent extirpation or extinction;
- “Threatened” species:any species likely to become endangered if limiting factors affecting it are not reversed;
- “Of special concern” species: any species raising concerns because of characteristics that make it particularly sensitive to human activity or to certain natural phenomena.
COSEWIC submits its species assessment to the Minister of the Environment, who, in collaboration with the other competent ministers if necessary, initiates the process of adding the species to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk.
For more information, please visit the COSEWIC Web site at the following address:
1.2. Adding to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk
Once COSEWIC has determined that a wildlife species is at risk, the first step to ensure its protection is to add it to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk, otherwise, it will not benefit from SARA protection. When COSEWIC submits its assessment to the Minister of the Environment, the Minister must produce a recommendation and present it to the Governor in Council (GIC). Within nine months of receiving the COSEWIC assessment (from the Minster of the Environment), the GIC must react to the report and recommendation in one of the following ways:
- accept the assessment and add the species to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk;
- decide not to add the species to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk;
- return the assessment to COSEWIC for further information or consideration.
After nine months, if the Governor in Council has not make any decision, the Minister of the Environment will have to add the species to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk, as recommended by COSEWIC.
The Governor in Council’s decision will initially be based on the advice of COSEWIC, which is based on the biological status of the species. However, in order to make an informed decision, the Government of Canada must assess other factors such as the social and economic impacts that could occur from adding a species to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. This consultation is an opportunity for concerned Canadians to express their point of view and voice their concerns on this issue.
Once a species is listed as extirpated, endangered or threatened, two processes are triggered. Initially, a series of prohibitions are adopted to protect the species, and in order to begin its recovery, a recovery strategy and an action plan are developed. In the case of the species of special concern, no immediate prohibition applies, but a management plan must be developed.
Under the terms of SARA, Fisheries and Oceans Canada must ensure the protection of all aquatic species at risk. When a species is added to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk with an “extirpated”, “endangered” or “threatened” status, prohibitions are automatically applied. The Act prohibits the killing, harming, harassing, capturing or taking of any individual belonging to that species. It also prohibits people from possessing, collecting, buying, selling or trading individuals of a species at risk. Finally, the Act prohibits the damage or destruction of the residence or any part of the species’ critical habitat, as defined within a recovery strategy or an action plan. It should be noted that these restrictions do not apply to species of special concern.
For aquatic species, exceptions to these restrictions may be authorized by the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans (or Parks Canada for individuals located on territories managed by them), as long as the survival or recovery of the species is not jeopardized. The competent Minister for the Species at Risk Act may conclude agreements or issue licences only if he considers that the activity concerning a listed species: 1) represents scientific research related to the conservation of the species, 2) is beneficial to the species or increases its chances of survival, or 3) if it only affects this species in an incidental way. Furthermore, the competent minister must be of the opinion that a) all reasonable alternatives have been considered and the best approach adopted, b) all feasible measures will be taken to minimize impacts and c) the activity will not jeopardize the survival or recovery of the species.
1.4. Recovery planning and management plan
The goal of the recovery process for “extirpated”, “endangered” or “threatened” species is to limit the causes of decline for that species by putting emphasis on stewardship and public awareness, among other things. First, a recovery strategy is prepared containing recovery objectives and strategies that are developed according to the threats on the species. Thereafter, an action plan is developed, which details the actions flowing from the recovery strategy.
The recovery of a species requires planning and teamwork. The competent Minister must gather the people, organizations and government bodies that share an interest in the species (federal, provincial or territorial government ministers where the species is found, wildlife resource management boards, First Nations organizations, landowners, and other people or organizations likely to be interested in the recovery of the species), and consult with them during the development of the recovery strategy, which is a continuous process. The competent Minister must also prepare a report on the implementation of the recovery strategy and on the progress made towards meeting its objectives every 5 years.
The recovery strategy and action plan must also indicate as well as possible the critical habitat of the species as well as activities that might potentially destroy it. The strategy must include a schedule of the researches to be undertaken in case of a lack of knowledge. Once the critical habitat has been identified in a recovery strategy or an action plan, the competent Minister must make sure there are legal tools to protect this critical habitat.
In the case of a “special concern” species, a management plan is developed which must include measures for the conservation of the species and its habitat. Management plans are developed in collaboration with competent provincial or territorial ministers, federal ministers, wildlife resource management boards, and any other relevant person or organization.
Once the recovery strategies, action plans, or management plans are developed, they are published on the Public Registry (see section 1.5). Anyone can make comments to the competent Minister in writing concerning the recovery strategy, the action plan, or the management plan for a listed animal or plant species. The general public has 60 days, after publication of the strategy or the plans in the Registry, to inform the Minister of their position.
1.5. Public Registry
The SARA Public Registry, available on the Internet, is a complete source of information on topics covered by the Act and which offers access to public records concerning the administration of SARA. It is a key instrument in allowing the government to respect its commitment to support public contribution in the environmental decision making process.
The Registry includes various documents, such as regulations, orders, agreements, guidelines, standards and codes of practice. Furthermore, it contains status reports, recovery strategies, action plans, as well as management plans. The Public Registry can be found at the following address:
Background information on striped bass: St. Lawrence Estuary population.
Status : extirpated
Last COSEWIC assessment : November 2004
2.1. Description of the species
Part of the Moronidae family, the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, is a species typical of eastern North American estuaries and coastal waters. It has an elongated body, a triangular head and a mouth with a protruding lower jaw. It has two separated dorsal fins, the first of which is spiny. It has a dark olive-green to black back, paling on the sides to silvery, and a white belly. It has seven or eight easily distinguishable contrasting horizontal stripes.
2.2. Species distribution
The natural range of the striped bass extends along the Atlantic coast of North America, from the St. Lawrence River to the St. Johns River in northeast Florida. The striped bass populations that are recognized in Canada are found in the northern portion of this species distribution range. Historical data confirms that striped bass used to spawn in five eastern Canadian rivers: the St. Lawrence River (Quebec), the Miramichi River (New Brunswick), and in the St. John, Annapolis and Shubenacadie rivers (Nova Scotia). The only two rivers where they still spawn are the Miramichi and Shubenacadie rivers, and their respective populations seem to be isolated and distinct from one another. All available data (from sport and commercial fishery studies between 1944 and 1965) appear to indicate that the St. Lawrence Estuary population, which is addressed in this document, was isolated from other Atlantic groups. The Estuary’s striped bass population extended along a 300 km stretch of the River, from Lake Saint-Pierre (Sorel) to Kamouraska. There have been no reports of recaptures downstream from Kamouraska of bass tagged in the St. Lawrence. This does not rule out the possibility of contacts, but they appear to be the exception.
2.3. Biology of the striped bass
Like salmon, the striped bass is an anadromous species that moves between freshwater or slightly brackish spawning habitats (spawning, incubation, initial rearing) and brackish or salt water feeding sites to complete its life cycle, and sexual maturity is reached after a few years. Females reach sexual maturity at about 5 years of age and 40 cm in length. Males on the other hand reach maturity at about 3 years and 30 cm. Adult bass usually spawn towards the end of May or beginning of June. Males reach the spawning areas first, followed by the females who are usually fewer in numbers. Spawning can last 3 to 4 weeks when the number of spawners is high and begins when water temperatures rise above 10 °C. The fecundity of females between the ages of 4 and 11 ranges from 53,000 to 1,464,000 eggs, making it a prolific fish species. Spawning occurs near the surface, at twilight. Striped bass can spawn several times during their lives, with sometimes a year of rest between successive contributions. In some rivers, active spawners of 14 years of age have been observed. The striped bass spawning ground in the St. Lawrence Estuary has never been located, but various sources suggest that it is in Lake Saint-Pierre or downstream from it, in the adjacent section of the upper estuary.
2.3.2. Incubation and rearing
The fertilized eggs remain suspended in water during the entire incubation period (2-3 days). A week after hatching, and after exhausting their own reserves (egg yolk), larvae move up the water column to find their food. After 35 to 50 days, young-of-the-year (of around 20 mm) take their typical bass adult form. The growth of one-year-olds depends on the quantity of food ingested (invertebrates first then fish gradually). Contrary to the rather static larvae, juveniles can travel several tens of kilometres to satisfy their feeding needs. Younger bass then move towards brackish and saltwater to feed and grow.
2.3.3. Movements and migration
The migration of striped bass is related to their development, feeding, spawning and overwintering. Spawning of St. Lawrence striped bass occur in or around LakeSaint-Pierrefrom mid-May to mid-June. Afterwards, downstream migration of young-of-the-year occur over several weeks, from mid-July (near Neuville, around the Orléans Island and in the Montmagny archipelago) to early September (Rivière-Ouelle and Saint-Jean-Port-Joli). They are found along the banks of the St. Lawrence River and around several estuarine islands between the Madame and Aux Oies islands.
In the fall, spawners that lived in saltwater return to the river to winter, as far as Lake Saint-Pierre. The young (3 years and younger) winter in the estuary, downstream from Quebec City, in the river’s freshwater plumes. After the spring spawning period, spawners travel to the estuary where they feed and gather strength throughout the summer. Striped bass travel in schools made up of individuals from the same age class (cohort).
The larvae diet changes as it grows: beginning with the yolk, they then feed on immature micro-crustaceans, followed gradually by adult micro-crustaceans. Young-of-the-year feed mostly on small invertebrates. When they reach two years of age, young bass begin eating fish. St. Lawrence bass of two years and older appear to feed on Atlantic tomcod, rainbow smelt, American shad, alewife, herring and flounder.
2.3.5. Population size
Population distribution and seasonal movements in the St. Lawrence Estuary was described in detail towards the end of the 19th century. However, biological data on this species was systematically collected by scientists between 1944 and 1962 only.
The St. Lawrence bass population appears to have declined significantly since the mid-1950s. Even though the St. Lawrence striped bass were being heavily exploited, there was no population size assessment. Only indirect abundance indices exist, such as recording the number of commercial and sport fishery catches. Beginning in 1957, landings, which had always fluctuated between 5 and 50 tons annually since 1920, dropped under 3 tons and remained there until 1965, the last year commercial catches were recorded for this species. Similarly, the sport fishery, heavy around the Orléans Island and in the Montmagny archipelago, particularly in July and August, appears to have followed the same trend: a few occasional catches were made between 1963 and 1968, but no other evidence of spawning has been observed since then.
It was briefly believed that the local population had recovered around the early 1980s, when some 100 bass were caught around the Gaspé Peninsula and in the lower estuary. However, it appears they were actually bass from the Miramichi River.
Of the various habitatsused by striped bass, the most important to the maintenance of a population seems to be its spawning, incubation and rearing habitat. The incubation period depends on water temperature as eggs only survive well between 17 and 23 °C. A sufficient level of oxygen and a moderate current creating light turbulence help with survival. If the current stops, eggs drop to the bottom under their own weight, into an inhospitable environment in which they could die due to the lack of oxygen. Larvae are also dependent on water temperature and dissolved oxygen, but they also require a steady micro-crustacean supply. Immature and adult striped bass frequent sheltered bays, estuaries and coastal habitats where they feed during summer, and their movements are primarily associated withthose of their preferred prey.
Because the species requires high quality spawning and rearing habitats and abundant aquatic fauna for food, maintaining an abundance of bass indicates to a certain extent the good quality of a river and its estuary. The striped bass represents a significant component of the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems.
2.4. Why has COSEWIC given the striped bass an extirpated species status?
Here is the reason for the striped bass status designation by COSEWIC:
COSEWIC revealed that the St. Lawrence Estuary population disappeared because of illegal fishing; the last observation took place in 1968. The report also mentioned that the alteration of spawning and rearing habitats also contributed towards this situation.
2.5. What are the threats to the species?
Canadian studies on striped bass have shown that overfishing by commercial and recreational fishermen may have decimated some populations such as the one in the St. Lawrence River. The alteration of spawning, incubation or rearing habitats may have also compromised reproduction of the Laurentian striped bass. The fact that the Estuary population was located at the northern edge of the American distribution range may have exposed it to additional limiting factors. The concentration of fish in small areas in rivers during wintering could for example make them vulnerable to poaching and various other mortality factors. Changes in flow conditions and pollution are contributing factors in the decline of abundance.
2.5.1. Geographic and biological characteristics
Susceptibility of age groups
An abundant production of new individuals, for a given number of spawners, depends closely on favourable weather and environmental conditions that do not occur every year. However, high fecundity of bass along with their capacity to reproduce several times during their lives diminishes the effects of variable recruitment.
Because eggs and larvae have specific needs, their survival varies according to the annual conditions in their immediate environment. Once their yolk reserves are exhausted (about the eighth day) larvae begin a critical period: their survival during this stage is a guarantee of adult abundance a few years later. Juvenile and adult bass are more tolerant and handle changes better (salinity, temperature, pH, turbidity); they have the capacity to move to coastal or estuarine habitats to meet their needs.
Canadian populations migrate in fresh or brackish water, avoiding lower sea temperatures during winter. However, for young-of-the-year, fish of less than 10 cm are less likely to survive their first winter of prolonged fasting than larger fish. Their growth over the first summer is therefore another significant condition.
2.5.2. Traditional, commercial and sport fishing
The striped bass was fished by First Nations, and later by the first European settlers. Archaeological digs on First Nations sites and colonial settlements uncovered striped bass bones near Lanoraie (Quebec) (14th century) and colonial sites in Quebec City (17th century, French regime). Until 2000, in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, some catches were allowed to First Nations for ceremonial and social purposes. These allocations were then suspended.
Striped bass was sought out by commercial and sport fishermen because of its delicate white flesh and its combatitiveness.
Commercial fishery, accidental catches and poaching
Some biologists believe that heavy fishing can either cause or amplify variations in the abundance of bass populations. Fisheries, according to their intensity, can limit the number of individuals that reach maturity, or for those that do, reduce the probabilities of reproducing several times. The impact the fisheries have on bass populations has long been underestimated.
In the St. Lawrence Estuary, commercial striped bass catches mostly occurred in fall. Bass catches were lucrative enough so that fishermen from certain areas invested particular time and effort on this species. Bass commercial catches in the Estuary reached a high of 53 tons in 1943. Lake Saint-Pierre appears to have long been a winter bass fishing area. When the ice melted, an increase in fishing for this species could be observed in the Lake. Landings reached a high at the end of April and in early May. Bass that were displaced by dredged material dumping activities (see section 2.5.3) became an easy catch for fishermen.
Mortality due to accidental catches was observed on the St. Lawrence, particularly around the Orléans Island: large numbers of bass fry died in fixed gear.
Finally, illegal catches could also be a significant cause of mortality that is impossible to measure. Bass confinement in wintering areas would have increased the risks of mortality due to environmental accidents or poaching. When a significant drop in abundance occurred in the mid-1950s, regulations were strengthened (1951) in order to limit the number of bass caught during summer (protection just before spawning and minimum size allowed (30 cm) increased to 40 cm in 1960) and winter (ice fishing prohibited between December 31st and May 1st). Many were those who openly defied the regulations by continuing their activities. At the Quebec City market, bass of sizes smaller than the legal limit could regularly be found on the stands. In Quebec, between 1975 and 1984, there were no regulations prohibiting striped bass commercial fishery. It was only banned in 1984.
Striped bass is a highly prized species by sport fishermen. In the St. Lawrence Estuary, the best angling sites are between the Batture au Loup-Marin, in front of L’Islet, and the Cap Tourmente. In the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, the striped bass was subject to an intense seasonal sport fishery in several communities along the estuary (Montmagny, Rivière-Ouelle, Château-Richer, Orléans Island). This fishery was only banned starting in 1993.
2.5.3. Habitat changes and alterations
Certain characteristics help increase the number of fish in favourable areas: the tolerance of adults to variations in salinity, temperature, pH, or turbidity; species prolificacy (number of eggs per laying); feeding opportunism; and rapid growth. However, several human-induced modifications in the aquatic environment could cause an increase in mortality, particularly during the first life stages (eggs, fry). But the study of scientific data indicates that the eradication of the St. Lawrence River population is the consequence of the reduction of its distribution range, because of habitat encroachment. The areas where bass have converged rapidly became areas of heavy fishing. For twelve years, the population has remained in low abundance, until all catches were stopped in 1968.
Dredged material dumping activities
The disappearance of the St. Lawrence bass population appears to be associated to a change in habitat; the immature bass summer rearing areas, located around several islands in the St. Lawrence, would have been modified by the dumping of dredged material. As a result of these habitat changes, striped bass became concentrated at several locations along the south shore that quickly became exploited and then exhausted (see section “T raditional, commercial and sport fishing”).
Flow conditions and pollution
The effects of flow condition changes in reproductive areas can lead to a displacement of eggs from a site that is favourable to their development to another place where conditions could be fatal. However, a collection of specimens gathered by biologists until 1962 shows that young-of-the-year were produced in the St. Lawrence as long as there were spawners. This leads to consider that flow conditions may have not caused bass reproduction to cease in the St. Lawrence River.
Based on laboratory studies, contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, heavy metals and several other chemicals would reduce egg and larval survival. However, their effect on recruitment has not been clearly demonstrated in the field.
Other factors such as changes in the quality of water, dumping of waste from pulp and paper mills, from communities (wastewater), pesticides from agricultural activities, as well as changes to spawning grounds brought on by the construction of dams are all potential disruptive factors.
Overview of potential consequences for different stakeholders
This consultation workbook was designed so that stakeholders can better understand the implications of adding the striped bass to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk on their activities. If the species is listed, automatic prohibitions under SARA will apply. Under the terms of SARA, some prohibitions protect the individuals of a species designated as “extirpated”, “endangered” or “threatened”. The Act prohibits the killing, harming, harassing, capturing or taking of any individual belonging to an “endangered” or “threatened” species, or damaging or destroying the residence of one or several individuals of such species. It also prohibits people from possessing, collecting, buying, selling or trading individuals – any part or derivative of such an individual – from an “extirpated”, “endangered” or “threatened” species.
A recovery process will be implemented and will likely result in the adoption of management measures that may have consequences on the activities of the stakeholders concerned. In order to better illustrate this fact, a few examples of possible consequences are presented below. These examples are obviously not an extensive list of measures and are not necessarily a representation of what will actually become the adopted measures. It should be noted that the SARA was designed to implement a cooperation approach for species recovery, and in the event this species is added to the official list, all future management measures will be subjected to more consultations with regulating bodies and stakeholders.
3.1. Shoreline residents and landowners
Shoreline residents and landowners of sites on the banks of areas historically used by striped bass in the Estuary might be denied access, at certain periods of the year, to stocking and fry feeding areas.
3.2. Municipal, agricultural and industrial activities
Regulations could force concerned stakeholders to adopt management measures protecting the environment of striped bass in order to maximize their chances of recovery in their spawning and rearing areas.
3.3. Recreational activities
Stocking, feeding and spawning sites (based on the success of the recovery strategy’s action plan) would be protected by access restrictions and measures designed to limit recreational activities that might affect the species survival and recovery.
3.4. Fishery activities
Before the St. Lawrence striped bass population reaches an exploitable level, commercial and sport fishing should be prohibited. Until then, several recovery measures will need to succeed. Poaching cannot be tolerated.
3.5. Aboriginal activities
If these restrictions are to be taken into consideration they should also be treated respectfully by Aboriginal communities.
Let us know what you think
By answering the following questions you will help the federal government understand the benefits and impacts of adding the Stripped bass to the SARA List.
Please fill out the questionnaire that follows and send us your answers either by mail
Central and Arctic Region
Fisheries & Oceans Canada
501 University Avenue
by fax: (204) 983-5192
or by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The deadline for receiving comments is Dec 31, 2005.
For questions or comments concerning the Species at Risk Act or concerning this consultation process, please write to us at the address given above or call us at (204) 984-0599.
Affiliation (if applicable):
Briefly describe your business line or your interest concerning the striped bass (use of shoreline, agriculture, urbanization, etc.)
Based on what you know about the Species at Risk Act, do you think the addition of the striped bass will have a positive or negative impact on your activities? (revenues, turnover, opportunities, number of jobs, hours worked, etc. ) Explain.
On the other hand, do you think that not adding the striped bass would have a positive or negative impact on your activities? ( revenues, turnover, opportunities, number of jobs, hours worked, etc. ) Explain.
Based on what you know about the Species at Risk Act, do you think the addition of the striped bass will have a positive or negative impact on other activities (commercial fishing, sport fishing, other industries, communities, etc.)? Explain.
On the other hand, do you think that not adding the striped bass would have a positive or negative impact on other activities? (commercial fishing, sport fishing, other industries, communities etc.)? Explain.
According to you, can these positive or negative impacts progress with time? Explain.
If you indicated negative impacts, do you have suggestions in order to minimize them?
In order for SARA to be really effective, the recovery of species at risk must be a joint effort, carried out in collaboration with all interested parties. According to you, how can the interested parties best be involved?
How could you contribute to the recovery of the striped bass as an individual, company or institution? Can you give a few examples of activities?
a) Are you in favour of the Canadian government adding the striped bass to the Species at Risk Act list?
Yes No Don’t know Yes, but
b)Check an answer for each statement below:
|AGREE COMPLETELY||SOMEWHAT AGREE||INDIFFERENT||DON’T REALLY AGREE||PAS DU TOUT D’ACCORD|
|I believe this species is precious because it plays a significant role in maintaining a healthy ecosystem.|
|I believe this species is precious for future generations.|
|I value this species even though I may never see one.|
|I believe this species needs protection or particular attention against interaction with humans and/or their activities.|
|I believe that protecting this species will have a positive impact on my leisure, employment or personal activities.|
|I believe that adding this species to the official list might limit my leisure, employment or personal activities.|
Do you have any other comments or concerns?
Thank you for contributing
- Date Modified: