Skip booklet index and go to page content

Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo Lineatus)

Information Sources

Armstrong, E. and D. Euler. 1983. Habitat usage of two woodland Buteo species in central Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 97: 200-207.

Austen, M.J.W., M.D. Cadman and R.D. James. 1994. Ontario Birds at Risk: status and conservation needs. Federation of Ontario Naturalists and Long Point Bird Observatory.

Badzinski, D.S. 2004. Red-shouldered Hawk and Spring Woodpecker Survey. 2004 final report. Unpublished report for Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources – Wildlife Assessment Program.

Bednarz, J.C. and J.A. Dinsmore. 1981. Status, habitat use and management of Red-shouldered Hawks in Iowa. Journal of Wildlife Management 45:236-241.

Bent, A.C. 1937. Life histories of North American birds of prey. United States National Museum Bulletin 167: 180-212.

Blancher, P.J. pers. comm. 2005. Email correspondence to D. Badzinski. May 2005. Partners in Flight Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON.

Bosakowski, T. and Smith, D.G. 1989. Survey of the woodland raptor community in the Pequannock watershed. Unpublished report. 19 pp.

Bryant, A.A. 1986. Influence of selective logging on Red-shouldered Hawks, Buteo lineatus, in Waterloo region, Ontario, 1953-1978. Canadian Field Naturalist 100: 520-525.

BirdLife International 2004. Buteo lineatus. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <>. Downloaded on 29 November 2004.

Campbell, C.A. 1975. Ecology and reproduction of red-shouldered hawks in Waterloo region, southern Ontario. Journal of Raptor Research 9: 12-17.

Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The birds of British Columbia. Volume 2. Royal British Columbia Museum.

Caster, W. and D.E. Perks. 1961. Nesting hawks and owls in the Toronto area. Bulletin of the Federation of Ontario Naturalists. No. 94: 12-15.

Chartier, A. and D. Stimac. 2002. Hawks of Holiday Beach, 2nd Edition.

Craighead, J.J. and F.C. Craighead, Jr. 1956. Hawks, Owls, and Wildlife. The Stackpole Company, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and the Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C.

Crocoll, S.T. 1994. Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus). In: The Birds of North America, No.107 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists’ Union.

Cyr, A. and J. Larivée. 1995. Atlas Saisonnier des Oiseaux du Québec. Presses de l’Université de Sherbrooke, Société de loisir ornithologique de l’Estrie, Sherbrooke, 711 p.

David, N. 1996. Liste commentée des oiseaux du Québec. Association québécoise des groupes d'ornithologues, Montréal. 169 pp.

Dickinson, E. 2003. The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 3d ed. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J.

Dunn, E.H., L. Larivée and A. Cyr. 1996. Can Checklist Programs be used to monitor populations of birds recorded during the migration season? Wilson Bull., 108: 540‑549.

Dykstra, C.R., J.L. Hays, J.B. Daniel and M.M. Simon. 2001. Home range and habitat use of suburban Red-shouldered Hawks in southwestern Ohio. Wilson Bull., 113: 308-316.

Erskine, A.J. 1992. Atlas of breeding birds of the Maritime Provinces. Nimbus Publishing Limited and the Nova Scotia Museum. 270 pp.

Francis, C.M. 1999. Red-shouldered Hawk and Spring Woodpecker Survey. 1998 Final Report. Unpublished report for Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources – Wildlife Assessment Program.

Hanna, E. 1973. The status and ecology of the red-shouldered hawk (Buteo l. lineatus) in southern Ontario. Unpublished report. 41 pp.

Hart, R. 2004. New Brunswick forest hawk and spring woodpecker survey. 2003 Report. Unpublished report by Bird Studies Canada. 15 pp.

Helferty. N.J., M.J. McMurty and E. Mosley. 2002. Management and recovery strategy for Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) in Aurora District. 27 pp.

Howell, D.L. and B.R. Chapman. 1997. Home range and habitat use of Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) in Georgia. Wilson Bull., 109: 131-144.

Hussell, D.J.T. and L. Brown. 1992. Population changes in diurnally-migrating raptors at Duluth, Minnesota (1974-1989) and Grimsby, Ontario (1975-1990). Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Maple, ON, Canada.

Jacobs, J.P. and E.A. Jacobs. 2002. Conservation assessment for Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) in national forests of North Central States. USDA Forest Service Eastern Region. 

James, R.D. 1984. Habitat management guidelines for Ontario’s forests: nesting Accipiters, Buteos, and eagles. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources #51607.

Kirk, D.A., D. Hussell and E. Dunn. 1995. Raptor population status and trends in Canada. Bird Trends 4: 2-9.

McLaren, M., N. Dawson, G. Holborn, D. Phoenix and M. Twiss. 1998. Monitoring Ontario’s Wildlife: What will the Wildlife Assessment Program measure? Wildlife Assessment Program WAP 98-02.

Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 1980. Michigan’s endangered and threatened species. Lansing, Michigan. 30 pp.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 1975. The uncommon ones.Publication number 10-75-10M. 32 pp.

Morneau, F. and A. Dionne. 1997. Rapport sur la situation de la Buse à épaulettes (Buteo lineatus) au Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune, Direction de la faune et des habitats, G.R.E.B.E. inc. 73 p.

National Audubon Society 2002. The Christmas Bird Count Historical Results [Online]. Available [October 2004].

Nature-Action Quebec. 1999. Sélection de l’habitat de chasse de la Buse à épaulettes en Montérégie.Rapport final. Nature-Action Quebec.

NatureServe. 2005. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 4.5. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia.

Naylor, B.J. and K.J. Szuba. 1992. Locating Red-shouldered Hawk nests. Pages 1-19 in Selected wildlife and habitat features: inventory manual for use in timber management planning (W.B. Ranta ed.). Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.

Naylor, B.J., J.A. Baker and K.J. Szuba. 2004. Effects of forest management practices on Red-shouldered Hawks in Ontario. The Forestry Chronicle 80: 54-60.

Naylor, B. pers. comm. 2006. Email correspondence to M. Leonard. January 2006. Forest Habitat Biologist North Bay, OntarioMinistry of Natural Resources. North Bay, ON.

Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. 1957. Forest resource inventory. Report No. 20 of the Lake Simcoe District, Division of Timber Management.

Postupalsky, S. 1980. The red-shouldered hawk breeding in Michigan’s upper peninsula. Jack-Pine Warbler 58: 73-76.

Posupalsky, S. 1989. Past and current nesting status of the red-shouldered hawk in Michigan. Unpublished report to Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Risley, C.J. 1982. Status report on the Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

Sabine, D. pers. comm. 2004. Email correspondence to D. Badzinski. November 2004. Biologist, Species at Risk Program, Fish and Wildlife Branch. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. Fredricton, NB.

Shaffer, F. and M. Dionne. 2004. Evaluation of Red-shouldered Hawk trends for the province of Quebec. Unpublished report by Canadian Wildlife Service, Sainte-Foy office.

Shaffer, F. 2004. pers. comm. 2004. Email correspondence to D. Badzinski. November 2004. Wildlife Biologist, Species at Risk. Canadian Wildlife Service. Sainte-Foy, QC.

Sauer, J.R., J.E. Hines and J. Fallon. 2004. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966 - 2003. Version 2004.1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD.

Szuba, K.J. and A.J. Norman. 1989. Preliminary survey of nesting Red-shouldered Hawks in Maple district. Queen’s Printer, Ontario. 49 pp.

Szuba, K.J. and A.J. Norman. 1990. Survey of Red-shouldered Hawks nesting in Maple district, 1989. OMNR, Maple District and Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority. 51 pp.

Szuba, K., B. Naylor and J.A. Baker. 1991. Nesting habitat of Red-shouldered Hawks in the Great-Lakes St. Lawrence forest region of central and southeastern Ontario. OMNR, Central Ontario Forest Technology Development Unit. Technical Report 14. 24 pp.

Biographical Summary of the Report Writer

Debra Badzinski is presently employed as Bird Population Biologist with Bird Studies Canada (BSC) – a non-profit institution dedicated to the research, monitoring, and conservation of Canada’s birds. She graduated from the University of Western Ontario with an Honours Bachelor of Science in Ecology and Evolution in 1996 and obtained her M.Sc. from Trent University in 2000. Her M.Sc. research focused on the population dynamics of Semipalmated Plovers (Charadrius semipalmatus) breeding at Churchill, Manitoba. Debra has been with Bird Studies Canada since 1999 where she coordinates a variety of volunteer-based surveys including National Nocturnal Owl Survey, and the Red-shouldered Hawk and Spring Woodpecker Survey. She also works on a variety of programs which focus on birds at risk, including Hooded Warblers, Barn Owls, Short-eared Owls, and the provincially Endangered Bald Eagle.

Page 15