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Species at Risk Act Annual Report for 2013

5 Recovery Planning for Listed Species

5.1 Legislative Requirements

A wide range of measures are required for the recovery of species at risk. Under SARA, the competent ministers must prepare recovery strategies and action plans for species listed as extirpated, endangered or threatened and management plans for those listed as special concern. Recovery strategies identify threats to the species and its habitat, identify critical habitat to the extent possible, and set population and distribution objectives for the species. Action plans outline the actions to be taken to meet the objectives in the recovery strategy. Management plans include measures for species listed as special concern.

Table 6 shows the required timelines for developing recovery strategies and management plans. The timelines for developing action plans are set within the recovery strategies. Posting of SARA recovery documents is the responsibility of the federal competent minister for the species; however, they must be developed, to the extent possible, in cooperation and consultation with all relevant jurisdictions and directly affected parties.

Table 6: Timeline for developing recovery documents (in years)

Note: Table 6 has been split into two separate components: Recovery strategy and Management plan

Recovery strategy
Species listing dateStatus:
Endangered
Status:
Threatened or extirpated
June 5, 2003
3
4
New listings after June 5, 2003
1
2
Reassessed Schedule 2 or 3 listings,
after June 5, 2003
3
4

 

Management plan
Species listing dateStatus:
Special concern
June 5, 2003
5
New listings after June 5, 2003
3
Reassessed Schedule 2 or 3 listings,
after June 5, 2003
5

Proposed recovery strategies, action plans and management plans are posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry for a 60-day public comment period. The competent ministers consider comments and make changes where appropriate. The final recovery strategy or action plan, as applicable, is to be published in the public registry within 30 days after the expiry of the public comment period. Five years after a recovery strategy, action plan or management plan comes into effect, the competent minister must report on progress made toward the stated objectives.

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5.2 Recovery Planning Activities in 2013

5.2.1 Recovery Strategies

A recovery strategy is a planning document that identifies what needs to be done to reverse the decline of a threatened or endangered species. It sets population and distribution objectives that will assist the recovery and survival of species, and identifies the threats to the species and its habitat and the main activities to address these threats. A single recovery strategy may address multiple species at risk. Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and the Parks Canada Agency use a multispecies/ecosystem-based approach for the recovery of species at risk where appropriate.

In 2013, the competent departments continued to work on recovery strategies at various stages of development. Environment Canada posted proposed or final recovery documents for 40 species in 2013, and a large number of recovery documents have been drafted and are expected to be posted in the near future. In 2013, Fisheries and Oceans Canada posted proposed recovery strategies for 9 aquatic species and final recovery strategies for 3 aquatic species. Parks Canada completed and posted 11 recovery strategies in 2013. New recovery strategies that were posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry are listed in Table 7. Revised recovery strategies were also published on the Registry for Greater Sage-Grouse (Environment Canada) and Carmine Shiner, Round Hickorynut and Kidneyshell (Fisheries and Oceans Canada).

Table 7: Number of new recovery strategies posted in 2013, and the listed species at risk covered by them, by competent department

Note: Table 7 has been split in two sections: Proposed recovery strategies and Final recovery strategies.

Proposed recovery strategies
Competent departmentNo.Species covered
Environment Canada12
  • American Badger jacksoni subspecies
  • Cobblestone Tiger Beetle
  • Dwarf Woolly-heads (Southern Mountain population)
  • Eastern Flowering Dogwood
  • False Hop Sedge
  • Fowler’s Toad
  • Gold-edged Gem
  • Ivory Gull
  • Lemmon’s Holly Fern
  • Short-rayed Alkali Aster
  • Slender Collomia
  • Stoloniferous Pussytoes
  • Western Spiderwort
  • Williamson’s Sapsucker

Total of 14 species covered

Fisheries and Oceans Canada6
  • Channel Darter
  • Eastern Sand Darter (Quebec population)
  • Humpback Whale (North Pacific population)
  • Spring Cisco
  • Westslope Cutthroat Trout (Alberta population)
  • White Sturgeon (Kootenay River population)
  • White Sturgeon (Nechako River population)
  • White Sturgeon (Upper Columbia River population)
  • White Sturgeon (Upper Fraser River population)

Total of 9 species covered

Parks Canada Agency6
  • California Buttercup
  • Gray’s Desert-parsley
  • Macoun’s Meadowfoam
  • Massasauga
  • Northern Saw-whet Owl brooksi subspecies
  • Oregon Lupine

 

Final recovery strategies
Competent departmentNo.Species covered
Environment Canada12
  • American Badger jacksoni subspecies
  • American Marten (Newfoundland population)
  • Cobblestone Tiger Beetle
  • Dwarf Woolly-heads (Southern Mountain population)
  • Flooded Jellyskin
  • Heart-leavened Plantain
  • Horned Grebe (Magdalen Islands population)
  • Lemmon's Holly Fern
  • Pink Milkwort
  • Short-rayed Alkali Aster
  • Slender Collomia
  • Southern Maidenhair Fern
  • Stoloniferous Pussytoes
  • Western Spiderwort

Total of 14 species covered

Fisheries and Oceans Canada3
  • Channel Darter
  • Humpback Whale (North Pacific population)
  • Pugnose Shiner
Parks Canada Agency11
  • Brook Spike-primrose
  • California Buttercup
  • Coast Microseris
  • Dense Spike-primrose
  • Foothill Sedge
  • Fragrant Popcornflower
  • Lindley’s False Silverpuffs
  • Macoun’s Meadowfoam
  • Muhlenberg’s Centaury
  • Oregon Lupine
  • White Meconella

5.2.2 Identification of Critical Habitat

SARA defines “critical habitat” as the habitat that is necessary for the survival or recovery of a listed wildlife species and that is identified as the species’ critical habitat in the recovery strategy or in an action plan for the species. Competent ministers must identify critical habitat to the extent possible, based on the best available information, in recovery strategies and action plans.

In 2013, Environment Canada identified critical habitat for 14 species in final recovery documents during the 2012 calendar year. Critical habitat was also identified for an additional 6 species in proposed documents that were posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada posted final recovery strategies with critical habitat identified for six aquatic species: Pugnose Shiner, Humpback Whale (North Pacific population), Channel Darter, Round Hickorynut, Kidneyshell and Carmine Shiner, which had its critical habitat identified in a revised recovery strategy. An additional seven aquatic species had their critical habitat identified in proposed recovery strategies posted on the registry.

The Parks Canada Agency identified critical habitat for all 11 species for which final recovery strategies were posted in 2013. The Agency also identified critical habitat for three species in proposed recovery strategies posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry: Massasauga, Gray’s Desert Parsley and Northern Saw-whet Owl.

5.2.3 Action Plans

An action plan identifies the conservation measures required to meet the population and distribution objectives outlined in the recovery strategy. An action plan may also identify critical habitat or complete the identification of critical habitat if it is not fully identified in the recovery strategy. An action plan also includes information on measures proposed to protect that critical habitat, methods proposed to monitor the recovery of the species, and an evaluation of the socio-economic costs of the action plan and benefits to be derived from its implementation.

In 2013, Environment Canada posted a final action plan for one species (Piping Plover circumcinctus subspecies in Ontario) on the Species at Risk Public Registry.

In 2013, Parks Canada completed detailed guidance for action planning and, when possible, will favour a site-based, multispecies approach for action plans that will prioritize conservation actions for the suite of species at risk found in Parks Canada heritage places. In 2013, Parks Canada completed drafts for two site-based action plans and continued the development of 12 multispecies action plans.

5.2.4 Management Plans

Species of special concern are those that may become threatened or endangered because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats. SARA requires management plans for species of special concern. A management plan differs from a recovery strategy and an action plan in that it identifies conservation measures needed to prevent a species of special concern from becoming threatened or endangered. Where appropriate, these management plans will be prepared for multiple species on an ecosystem or landscape level.

The management plans that were posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry in 2013 are listed in Table 8.

Table 8: Number of management plans posted in 2013, and the listed species at risk covered by them, by competent department

Note: Table 8 has been split into two parts: Proposed management plans and Final management plans.

Proposed management plans
Competent departmentNo.Species covered
Environment Canada5
  • Athabasca Thrift
  • Beach Pinweed
  • Climbing Prairie Rose
  • Felt-leaf Willow
  • Five-lined Skink (Great Lakes/St. Lawrence population)
  • Floccose Tansy
  • Large-headed Woolly Yarrow
  • Mackenzie Hairgrass
  • Sand-dune Short-capsuled Willow
  • Spring Salamander
  • Turnor’s Willow

Total of 11 species covered

Fisheries and Oceans Canada2
  • Bowhead Whale (Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort population)
  • Sea Otter
Final management plans
Competent departmentNo.Species covered
Environment Canada12
  • Athabasca Thrift
  • Barrow’s Goldeneye (Eastern population)
  • Beach Pinweed
  • Felt-leaf Willow
  • Five-lined Skink (Great Lakes/St. Lawrence population)
  • Flammulated Owl
  • Floccose Tansy
  • Great Plains Toad
  • Hart’s-tongue Fern
  • Large-headed Woolly Yarrow
  • Long-billed Curlew
  • Mackenzie Hairgrass
  • Northern Leopard Frog (Western Boreal/Prairie populations)
  • Pygmy Snaketail
  • Sand-dune Short-capsuled Willow
  • Swamp Rose-mallow
  • Turnor’s Willow
  • Yellow Rail

Total of 18 species covered

Fisheries and Oceans Canada0 

Note: The number of management plans completed may be different than the number of species covered. A plan can cover more than one species.

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